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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology


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It's a technology to generating the electricity by using fuel cell. It is being used now in automobiles, transport vehicles and others various fields. So it is a very effective technology for generating electricity. it has so many advantages and benefits.

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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

  2. 2. WHAT IS A FUEL CELL?  A Fuel Cell is an Electrochemical Device  It combines Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen(O2) to produce Electricity, with Water and Heat as its by-product.  It is like a Battery 22/09/2016 02
  3. 3. HISTORY  First demonstrated in the early 1801 by Humphary Davy  Invention credited to William Grove who invented it in 1839 22/09/2016 03
  4. 4. WHY IS FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY ?  It is a clean process free from pollution  Highly Efficient process two to three times more efficient than fuel burning.  Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process, not combustion.  Reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower harmful emissions that contribute to climate change 22/09/2016 04
  5. 5. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM 22/09/2016 05
  6. 6. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM BASIC COMPONENTS :  Fuel Cell Stack  Fuel Processor  Current Converter  Heat Recovery System 22/09/2016 06
  7. 7. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM  Generates DC From Chemical Reactions  Fuel Cells combined in series into Fuel cell stack  Amount of Power depends upon cell size, cell type & Temperature FUEL CELL STACK (Heart of Fuel Cell) 22/09/2016 07 MEA : Member Electrode Assembly
  8. 8. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM  Converts fuel into a form useable by fuel cell  A Reformer is used for converting hydrocarbons into a gas mixture of Hydorgen and Carbon (Reformate)  A Reactor is used for removing impurities FUEL PROCESSOR 22/09/2016 08
  9. 9. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM FUEL PROCESSOR REFORMING PROCESS CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2 CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 CH4 + + 2H2O = CO2 + 4H2 Water Gas Shift Reaction Methane Reforming Reaction  An Endothermic Process  Requires External Heat Input 22/09/2016 09
  10. 10. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM (Produced by Fuel cell) CURRENT CONVERTER • Used for adapting the electrical current from the Fuel cell to suit the electrical needs of application DC AC INVERTER RECTIFIER (Used by mostly home appliances) 22/09/2016 10
  11. 11. DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM  Excess energy generated by fuel cell is used for producing Hot water & Steam.  Execess energy is converted into Electricity via a Gas Turbine. 22/09/2016 11
  12. 12. TYPES OF FUEL CELL  Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM)  Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)  Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC)  Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC)  Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)  Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  Regenerative Fuel Cells LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS 22/09/2016 12
  13. 13. WORKING OF FUEL CELL 22/09/2016 13
  14. 14. WORKING OF FUEL CELL  It is a chemical reaction that is caused by movement of Electrical Current  A type of Oxidation – Reduction Reaction  The atoms or molecules in the reaction are far apart from each other  Forcing electrons being transferred to travel a greater distance and produce an electrical current 22/09/2016 14 ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS
  15. 15. WORKING OF FUEL CELL  An Anode – A Cathode – An Electrolyte  Anode and Cathode contain catalyst that cause the fuel to undergo oxidation reactions that generate +ve Hydrogen ion and electrons  An Electrolyte used for allowing +ve charged H2 ions to move b/w two sides of fuel cell  A typical Battery has a fixed supply of energy which generates electrons moving from anode to cathode 22/09/2016 15 • Anode catalyst is usually made up of Platinum Powder • Cathode catalyst is usually made up of Nickel
  16. 16. WORKING OF FUEL CELL  An hydrogen- rich fuel enters the fuel cell stack  This Fuel is converted into Hydrogen and Carbon oxide molecules  At the Anode, Hydrogen molecule is converted into Hydrogen Ions and Electron  Through battery these electron flow from Anode to Cathode  This Current is Direct Current (D.C.)  At the Cathode, Hydrogen ions, electrons and Oxygen react to form water alongwith Excessive amount of Heat 22/09/2016 16
  17. 17. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN  Fossil Fuels Such as Natural Gas & Coal  Nuclear Energy  Renewable resources such as Solar, Water, Wind and Biomass  Thermochemical cycle  From Water and Electrolysis 22/09/2016 17
  18. 18. APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY  Transportation  Stationary Power Stations  Telecommunications  Micro Power 22/09/2016 18
  19. 19. APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELL  All major automakers are working to commercialize a fuel cell car  12 fuel cell buses are being deployed in the Oakland and San Francisco  In 2004 Honda developed a fuel-cell motorcycle that utilized the Honda FC stack  Trains, Buses, Planes, Boats, Scooters, Forklifts and even bicycles are utilizing Fuel Cell Technology 22/09/2016 19 TRANSPORTATION Latest Invention : NISAAN has claimed to make a fuel cell car in which Ethanol is used as a fuel and it claimed to commercialize this technique by 2020
  20. 20. BASIC FUEL CAR STRUCTURE 22/09/2016 20
  21. 21. APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELL  Over 2500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Hotels, Office Buildings, Schools etc.  Most of these systems are connected to the electric Grid to provide supplemental power and backup assuarance.  Used as a Grid- Independent Generator for locations that are inaccessible by power lines 22/09/2016 21 STATIONARY POWER STATIONS
  22. 22. APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELL  Due to Computers, the Internet and Sophisticated Communication networks, there is a need for an incredibly Reliable power source  Fuel Cells have been proven to be 99.99% reliable 22/09/2016 22 TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  23. 23. APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELL  Consumer electronics could gain drastically longer battery power with fuel cell technology  Cell Phones can be powered for 30 days without recharging  Laptops can be powered for 20 hours without recharging 22/09/2016 23 MICRO-POWER
  24. 24. BENEFITS OF FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY  Physical Security  Reliability  Efficiency  Environmental Benefits (Non- Polluted) = Less Green House Gases Emissions  Battery Replacements / Alternatives  Refuled in 5 minutes  40% higher fuel economy than diesel vehicles 22/09/2016 24
  25. 25. CHALLENGES  Vehicle Cost  Durability  Getting Hydrogen to consumers  Not familiar with public so much 22/09/2016 25
  26. 26. THANK YOU 22/09/2016 26
  27. 27. QUERIES 22/09/2016 27