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- 1. A) Tabulation : Frequency distribution Table : - Quantitative - Qualitative B) Drawing: (Graphs / Charts/ Diagrams) Quantitative Data : i) Histogram ii) Frequency Polygon iii) Frequency Curve iv) Line chart /graph v) Cumulative Frequency Diagram / Ogive vi) Scatter or Dot diagram vii) Stem & Leaf plot Qualitative Data : i) Bar diagram (Simple / Multiple / Proportional) ii) Pie or Sector chart iii) Pictogram
- 2. <ul><li>General principles in designing table : </li></ul><ul><li>The tables should be numbered e.g., Table-1, Table-2 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be a brief and self-explanatory title, mentioning time, place & persons. </li></ul><ul><li>The headings of columns and rows should be clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>The data must be presented according to size or importance; chronologically, alphabetically or geographically </li></ul><ul><li>Data must be presented meaningfully </li></ul><ul><li>No table should be too large </li></ul><ul><li>Foot notes may be given, if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of observations (n) i.e the denominator should be written </li></ul><ul><li>The information obtained in the table should be summarized beneath the table </li></ul>
- 3. TABLE-1 Population by sex in Kolkata urban area in 2001 Source: Health on the March 2004-05, Govt. of West Bengal Characteristics Population (in million) % Male Female 7.07 6.14 53.52 46.48 Total 13.21 100.00
- 4. Frequency distribution table for qualitative data Characteristics Population (in million) % Male 7.07 53.52 Female 6.14 46.48 Total 13.21 100.00
- 5. Frequency distribution table for quantitative data Pulse rate/minute No of medical students Percentage 51-60 2 1.33 61-70 22 14.67 71-80 56 37.33 81-90 55 36.67 91-100 14 9.33 101-110 1 0.67 Total 150 100.00
- 6. <ul><li>Frequency Table </li></ul><ul><li>lists classes (or categories) of values, along with frequencies (or counts) of the number of values that fall into each class </li></ul>2-2 Summarizing Data With Frequency Tables
- 7. Rating of length measurement Table 2 2 5 1 2 6 3 3 4 2 4 0 5 7 7 5 6 6 8 10 7 2 2 10 5 8 2 5 4 2 6 2 6 1 7 2 7 2 3 8 1 5 2 5 2 14 2 2 6 3 1 7
- 8. Frequency Table of rating of length Table 2-3 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 rating Frequency
- 9. Frequency Table Definitions
- 10. Lower Class Limits <ul><li>are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes </li></ul>
- 11. Lower Class Limits <ul><li>are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes </li></ul>0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 rating Frequency
- 12. Lower Class Limits <ul><li>are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes </li></ul>Lower Class Limits 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 rating Frequency
- 13. Upper Class Limits <ul><li>are the largest numbers that can actually belong to different classes </li></ul>
- 14. Upper Class Limits <ul><li>are the largest numbers that can actually belong to different classes </li></ul>Upper Class Limits 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 rating Frequency
- 15. <ul><li>are the numbers used to separate classes, but without the gaps created by class limits </li></ul>Class Boundaries
- 16. <ul><li>number separating classes </li></ul>Class Boundaries - 0.5 2.5 5.5 8.5 11.5 14.5 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency
- 17. <ul><li>number separating classes </li></ul>Class Boundaries Class Boundaries <ul><li>0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 </li></ul><ul><li>11.5 </li></ul><ul><li>14.5 </li></ul>0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency
- 18. <ul><li>midpoints of the classes </li></ul>Class Midpoints
- 19. <ul><li>midpoints of the classes </li></ul>Class Midpoints Class Midpoints 0 - 1 2 20 3 - 4 5 14 6 - 7 8 15 9 - 10 11 2 12 - 13 14 1 Rating Frequency
- 20. <ul><li>is the difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive class boundaries </li></ul>Class Width
- 21. <ul><li>is the difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive class boundaries </li></ul>Class Width Class Width 3 0 - 2 20 3 3 - 5 14 3 6 - 8 15 3 9 - 11 2 3 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency
- 22. Relative Frequency Table relative frequency = class frequency sum of all frequencies
- 23. Relative Frequency Table 20/52 = 38.5% 14/52 = 26.9% etc. Table 2-5 Total frequency = 52 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency 0 - 2 38.5% 3 - 5 26.9% 6 - 8 28.8% 9 - 11 3.8% 12 - 14 1.9% Rating Relative Frequency
- 24. Cumulative Frequency Table Cumulative Frequencies Table 2-6 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency Less than 3 20 Less than 6 34 Less than 9 49 Less than 12 51 Less than 15 52 Rating Cumulative Frequency
- 25. Frequency Tables 0 - 2 20 3 - 5 14 6 - 8 15 9 - 11 2 12 - 14 1 Rating Frequency 0 - 2 38.5% 3 - 5 26.9% 6 - 8 28.8% 9 - 11 3.8% 12 - 14 1.9% Rating Relative Frequency Less than 3 20 Less than 6 34 Less than 9 49 Less than 12 51 Less than 15 52 Rating Cumulative Frequency Table 2-6 Table 2-5 Table 2-3
- 26. Bar Graph <ul><li>The widths of the bar should be equal </li></ul><ul><li>The bars are usually separated by appropriate spaces with an eye to neatness and clear presentation. The spaces between two bars are usually kept equal to the width of the bars. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the bar is proportional to the frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>A suitable scale must be chosen to present the length of the bars. </li></ul><ul><li>The Y-axis corresponds to the frequency in vertical bar diagram, whereas the X-axis corresponds to the frequency in a horizontal bar diagram </li></ul>
- 28. Simple Bar Diagram <ul><li>HIV+ve cases in six districts of West Bengal in 2004 </li></ul>Simple ar Diagram each bar represents frequency of a single category with a distinct gap from another bar . .
- 29. Multiple / Compound Bar diagram show the comparison of two or more sets of related statistical data .
- 30. Component /Segmented Bar diagram <ul><li>to compare sizes of the different component parts among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>also show the relation between each part and the whole. </li></ul>
- 31. PIE Diagram <ul><li>Causes of Maternal deaths of West </li></ul><ul><li>Bengal in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>For for qualitative or discrete data </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of sectors are proportional to frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Angle (degree) of a sector= </li></ul><ul><li>Class % X3.6, </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing proportional components of the attributes </li></ul><ul><li>compared with that of other segments as well as the whole circle. </li></ul>
- 32. Histogram <ul><li>A histogram is a bar graph that shows the frequency of each item. Histograms combine data into equal-sized intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no spaces between the bars on the histogram. </li></ul>
- 34. Line Graph <ul><li>A line graph uses a series of line segments to show changes in data over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Plot a point for each data item, and then connect the dots with straight line segments. </li></ul>
- 35. Refer to page 336 for the line graph.
- 36. Frequency Polygon <ul><li>- Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution graph </li></ul><ul><li>Joining mid-points </li></ul><ul><li>of histogram blocks </li></ul><ul><li>(class intervals) </li></ul><ul><li>When no. of </li></ul><ul><li>observations are </li></ul><ul><li>very large: Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Polygon loses it’s </li></ul><ul><li>angulations & giving </li></ul><ul><li>a smooth curve: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Curve </li></ul>Frequency Distribution Haemoglobin Level
- 37. Frequency Polygon <ul><li>-Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>polygon presenting </li></ul><ul><li>variations by time </li></ul><ul><li>Trend of an event occurring over a time </li></ul>Year 1901 1911 1921 1951 1961 1971 1941 1931
- 38. Line Chart or Graph <ul><li>Growth rate in India from 1921-1931 to 1991-2001 </li></ul>the trend of an event occurring over a period of time
- 39. Ogive (Cumulative frequency polygon <ul><li>to find the median, quartiles, percentiles </li></ul>
- 40. Stem-and Leaf Plot Raw Data (Test Grades) 67 72 85 75 89 89 88 90 99 100 Stem Leaves 6 7 8 9 10 7 2 5 5 8 9 9 0 9 0
- 41. <ul><li>Scatter Diagram </li></ul>• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 10 20 • NICOTINE TAR A plot of paired (x,y) data with the horizontal x-axis and the vertical y-axis. will discuss scatter plots again with the topic of correlation. Point out the relationship that exists between the nicotine and tar – as the nicotine value increases, so does the value of tar. • • • • • •

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