FOREST : A forest (also called a wood, woodland, wold, weald,
wellard or holt) is an area with a high density of trees.
There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria.
These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's
surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much
more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and
function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and
soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of
the Earth's biosphere.
Although a forest is classified primarily by trees a forest ecosystem
is defined intrinsically with additional species such as fungi.
Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of
specificity. One such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist,
combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are
evergreen or deciduous). Another distinction is whether the forests
composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved)
trees, or mixed.
Boreal forests occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen
Temperate zones support both broadleaf deciduous forests (e.g.,
temperate deciduous forest) and evergreen coniferous forests (e.g.,
Temperate coniferous forests and Temperate rainforests). Warm
temperate zones support broadleaf evergreen forests, including laurel
Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist
forests, tropical and subtropical dry forests, and tropical and subtropical
Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure
or developmental stage (e.g. old growth vs. second growth).
Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and
the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest
types (e.g., ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest).
When I think of how forests are useful to us I am reminded of the famous
"The best friend of earth of man is the tree.
When we use the tree respectfully and economically,
we have one of the greatest resources on the earth."
Frank Lloyd Wright
Yes trees are the biggest resource we have on this earth ! Without trees
we can't think of a life here on earth. Forests of the world are the
treasure troves of useful things for man and animals.
Forests affect the environment in a big way. Here
are the various ways they affect the environment:1. Forests are the lungs of the earth. It is the trees which absorb
the carbon dioxide released by the burning of fuel by man and
keeps the air fresh.
2. The leaves use this carbon dioxide to produce food during
photosynthesis, which is needed by animals.
3. The leaves after photosynthesis release oxygen which is a byproduct of photosynthesis into the atmosphere.
4. This oxygen in the atmosphere is needed by all living organism
for respiration. Without oxygen no animal or plant can survive
on this earth!
5. The roots of trees help in absorbing the water from the ground
and bring it up to the leaves. The excess water is sent out
through the stomata and so the water vapour is released into
6. This excess water vapor in the air cools down the environment
surrounding the forests and its neighborhood. So forests have a
7. The forests help in increasing the rainfall as this transpiration
from leaves increases the cloud formation and thus brings plenty of
8. Forests help in improving the fertility of the soil by the rotting of
the dead leaves and animals,
9 Forests cover prevent soil erosion.
10. So no floods will happen as there won’t be any erosion.
11. Better rainfall results in better crop yield and so no drought or
Forests are intimately linked with our
culture and civilization. Forests are useful
to us in many ways:
Forests provides timber for the furniture and building .
Forests provides raw material for paper, board and plywood
Forests provides fodder for cattle, sheep, goat and other animals .
Forests provides bamboo which is called poor man's timber.
Forests gives protection to wild life .
•Forests helps in balancing the carbon dioxide and oxygen in the
atmosphere. During photosynthesis, plants release O 2 and use CO2 thus,
they put check on the green house effect.
•Forests regulate the earth's temperature and weather cycle. They enhance
local rainfall .
•Forests check soil erosion, landslides and also prevent floods .
•Forests also provide fruits, nuts, gums, rubber, dyes, fibre, medicines,
camphor, essential oils etc.
•Forests are major sources of various animal products such as honey, wax,
tussore, lac etc.
Forests have immense wealth to provide us. They are many products which
are very useful to us. They are :1. Timber: The forest trees provide good timber for building houses,
furniture and other wooden articles we use in daily life.
2. Wood: The wood of trees are used as firewood by many to cook their food.
3. Forests are habitats for many animals.
4. Forests give us medicines and various drugs. Ayurvedic treatment is a
special type of treatment of diseases and uses so many herbs and shrubs of
the forest to produce medicines.
5. It provides us with bamboo for making paper and cardboard.
6. Provides us with bees wax and honey.
7 Forests are full of wild animals of great diversity and beauty.
8. The trees provide us with gums and resins from the bark of trees.
9 Some trees provide us with dyes.
10 Some incest’s of the forest gives us lac.
11. Forests are home for so many species of flora and fauna.
So how forests are useful to us is definitely in so many innumerable
ways. So nurture nature ....our forests !!
Prevention and control of soil erosion: Forests play a significant role in the
prevention and control of soil erosion by water and wind. The destruction
of forest cover leads to increased runoff of rain water and its diminished
seepage and storage in soil. The structure of the soil suffers, runoff
increases and loosens the soil, which is carried away to other regions. The
fertility of the soil is thus lost, and it becomes barren and unproductive.
Flood control: Roots of the trees absorb much of the rain water and use it
slowly during the dry season. Thus they regulate the flow of water and
help in controlling the floods. Trees also check the flow of water. With the
increased rate of deforestation, the frequency and the intensity of floods in
the area also increases.
Checks on spread of deserts: Sand particles are blown away by strong
winds in the deserts and are carried over long distances, thus resulting
in the spread of deserts. The roots of trees and plants bind the sand
particles and do not permit their easy transportation by winds. In long
run, the forests add humidity to the atmosphere and further help in
checking the spread of deserts.
Increase in soil fertility: The fallen leaves of trees add humus to soil
after their decomposition. Thus, forests help in increasing the fertility of
Effect on temperature: Forests have a far reaching effect on climate.
They ameliorate the extremes of climate by reducing the heat in summers
and cold in winter. They also influence the amount of rainfall by
lowering the temperature of moisture laden winds and increase the
relative humidity of the air through the process of transpiration. They
reduce the surface velocity of winds and retard the process of