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Pineapple

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pineapple cultivation

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Pineapple

  1. 1. 10/25/2016 1
  2. 2. PINEAPPLE CULTIVATION RAWE(0+4) INSTRUCTOR SPEAKER PROF. S.P. SINGH ARTI GUPTA B.SC (AG) 4th YEAR I.D.NO : R-13013 10/25/2016 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION •The pineapple is a tropical and subtropical fruit . •Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the commercially important fruit crops of India. •Total annual world production is estimated at 14.6 MT of fruits. •India is the fifth largest producer of pineapple with an annual output of about 1.2 MT. •Other leading producers are Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, China, Nigeria, Mexico, Indonesia, Colombia and USA. Origin •Cultivation of pineapple originated in Brazil. 10/25/2016 3
  4. 4. BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION Domain : Eukarya Kingdom : Plantae Phylum : Anthophyta Class : Lilopsida Order : Bromeliales Family : Bromeliaceae Subfamily : Bromelioideae Genus : Ananas Species : Ananas comosus 10/25/2016 4
  5. 5. Indian Scenario •The major pineapple producing states in India are Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Bihar. •India produces more than 8% of total world production of pineapple. 10/25/2016 5
  6. 6. States Area(‘000ha) Production(‘000t) Productivity (‘000t/ha) Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Kerala Manipur Meghalaya Nagaland West Bengal Others TOTAL 7.30 14.00 4.00 9.50 10.00 9.20 2.90 10.40 10.90 78.20 32.00 216.10 100.50 68.30 69.90 81.70 82.90 279.50 290.20 1221.10 4.40 15.40 25.10 7.20 7.00 8.90 28.60 26.90 123.50 STATE-WISE AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE 10/25/2016 6
  7. 7. Soil •Slightly acidic soil with pH range of 5.5 to 6.0 is considered optimum for pineapple cultivation. Climate •The optimum temperature required for successful cultivation is 220-320 C. Varieties •The most popular commercial pineapple variety in India is Giant Kew. •Other important verities are Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte, Jaldhup, Desi, etc. 10/25/2016 7
  8. 8. Economic Importance •The fruit is a good source of vitamin A,B,C and also calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. •It is also a good source of bromelin, a digestive enzyme. •It is consumed fresh or in the form of juice, jam, squash and syrup. •Among all forms, canned slices and juice are in much demand in India, constituting about 70% of the production. 10/25/2016 8
  9. 9. 10/25/2016 9 Planting Material •Pineapple can be propagated by sucker, slip and crown.
  10. 10. Production Technology Plant Density •Planting density of 63,400 plants/ha (22.5 x 60 x 75 cm.) is ideal for sub-tropical and mild humid conditions. •In rainfed, high fertile and hilly areas in north eastern states, a somewhat lower density of 31,000 plants/ha. is recommended. 10/25/2016 10 Treatment of Planting Material •Planting material should be dipped in 0.2% Dithane M-45 before planting to protect the plants against bud rot.
  11. 11. Planting •The best time of planting pineapple is early rains or early winter. •Suckers should be planted at 10 - 15cm depth. •About 500g FYM or cow dung is to be added to the soil of each hole. 10/25/2016 11 Planting method •Four different planting systems viz. flat-bed, furrow, contour and trench are followed.
  12. 12. Irrigation •. About 8 to 12 light irrigations during winter and summer months are beneficial. Manures and fertilizes •Pineapple requires abundant supply of Nitrogen and Potash. •Manuring should be done in 2-3 equal doses every year, once at the onset of monsoon and again at the end of the rainy season. •The fertilizers doses recommended for obtaining higher yield are 10g N, 5gP2O5 and 10g K20 per plant year in addition to 500g FYM . 10/25/2016 12
  13. 13. Interculture •Weeding should be done at least 3-4 times a year. •Chemical weedicides like bromacil @3kg and Diuron @ 2kgper ha are used. •Before the new weeds emerge, a second spraying @ 1.5kg per ha after 15 days is necessary. 10/25/2016 13
  14. 14. Plant protection No serious pest or disease of pineapple is prevalent in India. However, Mealy bug and Heart rot are important pest and disease respectively. 10/25/2016 14 Mealy bug Heart rot
  15. 15. Harvesting •Fruits are mainly harvested during July-August. •Spray of parachlorophenoxyacetic acid 10 days before harvest reduces physiological breakdown during transport and storage. •Harvesting for local markets should be done at full maturity stage and for distance markets at 75-80% maturity stage. •Pineapple fruits should be allowed to grow on the plant as late as possible for development of good flavour and colour on ripening. 10/25/2016 15
  16. 16. 10/25/2016 16
  17. 17. Post harvest management •Preharvest application of ethephon (500 - 2000 ppm) at the starting is stated to improve the fruit quality. •Cooling temperature is 7-100C for ripe and half-ripe ones. •The relative humidity will be 85-95 per cent. •Storage period of pineapple is 2-4 weeks depending on the cultivar and ripening stage. 10/25/2016 17
  18. 18. PROCESSING •Traditionally pineapple is consumed fresh or canned. •Pineapple is now consumed in the form of concentrated juice, dehydrated and/or sugared, canned in slices. • Among the newer developments are dried chips, cocktail-type drinks and wine. 10/25/2016 18
  19. 19. 10/25/2016 19
  20. 20. DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF PINEAPPLE PROCESSING ARE •Canned pineapple 10/25/2016 20 •Dried pineapple •Nectar •Juice •Pulp •Concentrated Frozen Juice •Jelly •Marmalades •Vinegar •Sauce , jam , candy and toffee
  21. 21. 10/25/2016 21 Canned Pineapple Dried Pineapple
  22. 22. Marketing It is in high demand from the processing industry as well Indian pineapple is exported to Nepal, U.K., Spain and U.A.E. The main products of export are canned slices, juice and jam. Kew and Giant Kew are better suited for canning, while Queen and Mauritius cultivars are good for juice production. The market requires certain characteristics in terms of flavour , fruit size, shell colour, general appearance and shelf life. 10/25/2016 22
  23. 23. Yield The yield from a plant population of 35000 - 40000 per ha is about 40-50 tonnes and that from a plant population of 43000-50000 per ha normally varies from 50 to 60 tonnes. Yield of 60-70 t/ha is possible with still higher population of about 63000 per ha. 10/25/2016 23
  24. 24. 10/25/2016 24

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