PROF. S.P. SINGH ARTI GUPTA
B.SC (AG) 4th
I.D.NO : R-13013
•The pineapple is a tropical and subtropical fruit .
•Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the commercially important fruit crops of India.
•Total annual world production is estimated at 14.6 MT of fruits.
•India is the fifth largest producer of pineapple with an annual output of about 1.2 MT.
•Other leading producers are Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, China, Nigeria, Mexico,
Indonesia, Colombia and USA.
•Cultivation of pineapple originated in Brazil.
Domain : Eukarya
Kingdom : Plantae
Phylum : Anthophyta
Class : Lilopsida
Order : Bromeliales
Family : Bromeliaceae
Subfamily : Bromelioideae
Genus : Ananas
Species : Ananas comosus
•The major pineapple producing states in India are Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka,
Meghalaya, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Bihar.
•India produces more than 8% of total world production of pineapple.
States Area(‘000ha) Production(‘000t) Productivity
STATE-WISE AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE
•Slightly acidic soil with pH range of 5.5 to 6.0 is considered optimum for pineapple
•The optimum temperature required for successful cultivation is 220-320 C.
•The most popular commercial pineapple variety in India is Giant Kew.
•Other important verities are Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte, Jaldhup, Desi, etc.
•The fruit is a good source of vitamin A,B,C and also calcium, magnesium, potassium
•It is also a good source of bromelin, a digestive enzyme.
•It is consumed fresh or in the form of juice, jam, squash and syrup.
•Among all forms, canned slices and juice are in much demand in India, constituting
about 70% of the production.
•Pineapple can be propagated by sucker, slip and crown.
•Planting density of 63,400 plants/ha (22.5 x 60 x 75 cm.) is ideal for sub-tropical and
mild humid conditions.
•In rainfed, high fertile and hilly areas in north eastern states, a somewhat lower density
of 31,000 plants/ha. is recommended.
Treatment of Planting Material
•Planting material should be dipped in 0.2% Dithane M-45 before planting to protect
the plants against bud rot.
•The best time of planting pineapple is early rains or early winter.
•Suckers should be planted at 10 - 15cm depth.
•About 500g FYM or cow dung is to be added to the soil of each hole.
•Four different planting systems viz. flat-bed, furrow, contour and trench are followed.
•. About 8 to 12 light irrigations during winter and summer months are beneficial.
Manures and fertilizes
•Pineapple requires abundant supply of Nitrogen and Potash.
•Manuring should be done in 2-3 equal doses every year, once at the onset of monsoon
and again at the end of the rainy season.
•The fertilizers doses recommended for obtaining higher yield are 10g N, 5gP2O5 and
10g K20 per plant year in addition to 500g FYM .
•Weeding should be done at least 3-4 times a year.
•Chemical weedicides like bromacil @3kg and Diuron @ 2kgper ha are used.
•Before the new weeds emerge, a second spraying @ 1.5kg per ha after 15 days is
No serious pest or disease of pineapple is prevalent in India. However, Mealy bug and
Heart rot are important pest and disease respectively.
Mealy bug Heart rot
•Fruits are mainly harvested during July-August.
•Spray of parachlorophenoxyacetic acid 10 days before harvest reduces physiological
breakdown during transport and storage.
•Harvesting for local markets should be done at full maturity stage and for distance
markets at 75-80% maturity stage.
•Pineapple fruits should be allowed to grow on the plant as late as possible for
development of good flavour and colour on ripening.
Post harvest management
•Preharvest application of ethephon (500 - 2000 ppm) at the starting is stated to improve
the fruit quality.
•Cooling temperature is 7-100C for ripe and half-ripe ones.
•The relative humidity will be 85-95 per cent.
•Storage period of pineapple is 2-4 weeks depending on the cultivar and ripening stage.
•Traditionally pineapple is consumed fresh or canned.
•Pineapple is now consumed in the form of concentrated juice, dehydrated and/or
sugared, canned in slices.
• Among the newer developments are dried chips, cocktail-type drinks and wine.
DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF PINEAPPLE
•Concentrated Frozen Juice
•Sauce , jam , candy and toffee
It is in high demand from the processing industry as well Indian pineapple is exported
to Nepal, U.K., Spain and U.A.E.
The main products of export are canned slices, juice and jam.
Kew and Giant Kew are better suited for canning, while Queen and Mauritius
cultivars are good for juice production.
The market requires certain characteristics in terms of flavour , fruit size, shell colour,
general appearance and shelf life.
The yield from a plant population of 35000 - 40000 per ha is about 40-50 tonnes and
that from a plant population of 43000-50000 per ha normally varies from 50 to 60
Yield of 60-70 t/ha is possible with still higher population of about 63000 per ha.