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Quadcopter based pesticide spraying system

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A drone that can be used to spray pesticides on the farm. This will reduce pollution for farmers.

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Quadcopter based pesticide spraying system

  1. 1. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The main source of income for the Indian economy is agriculture. Agriculture production depends on various environmental parameters like temperature, rain, etc. It is also affected by other major biological factors such as pests, diseases, etc. These biological factors can be controlled by human beings with the help of pesticides, ultimately increasing the productivity. For this purpose, farmers carry containers with pesticides and spray these pesticides in the field by themselves. They may cover their face but still they will get exposed to the pesticides. Pesticide exposure affects the human health in various ways and causes neurological and skin diseases. According to survey conducted by WHO (World Health Organization) it is estimated that every year about 3 million workers are affected by poisoning from pesticides from which 18000 die. This project aims to overcome the ill effects of pesticides on human beings and also used to spray pesticide over large areas in short interval of time compared to conventional spraying by using an automated aerial pesticide sprayer. This device is basically a combination of spraying mechanism on a quad copter frame. We use an autonomous quadcopter for this purpose. An autonomous quadcopter is capable of balancing on its own and flying from an origin to a goal using preset paths and directions. The quadcopter implements PID control, an ultrasonic sensor to detect obstacles, and an autonomous flight algorithm. To improve production and yield we have to use methods such as Precision Agriculture. Precision agriculture can be automated for primary and secondary agricultural tasks. The primary goal is to improve the agriculture production. The coupling between field workers and robots should be done in such a manner that humans should feel comfortable in the presence of robots. HRI system is introduced to face issues such as: regulations, safety and comfort. Flexible automation is focused in this work. This paper introduce a quad copter which is used for pesticide spraying in agriculture field is handle by android application. Here the quad copter can be control through android phone for fertilizer spraying. This system reduces the problem related to the agricultural field and also improves the agricultural productivity.
  2. 2. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 2 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) are operated remotely either by telemetry, where the operator maintains visual contact with the aircraft or autonomously along preprogrammed paths using GPS and inertial guidance. The initial uses in agriculture have been for remote sensing, with an emphasis on visual inspection of crop or field conditions and for tracking assets such as machinery, workers or product. UAV technology has utility in agriculture, forestry and vector control for not only observation and sensing but also for delivery of payloads, Including The application of crop inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides by UAV presents an engineering design challenge where the payload and power demands from a spraying or granular applicator are significantly greater than those of low-mass, low-power cameras or sensors for inspection. Increases in the payload mass that can be carried on-board and dispensed leads to increased flight endurance and improved economic return. Previous work has addressed the design of agricultural spray systems for small UAV’s (Huang, et al., 2009) including specialized electrostatic rotary atomizers (Run et al., 2011). The requirement for low volume application, in consideration of limited payload capacity, has been emphasized. Other work has investigated the use of multiple UAV’s flying in coordinated fleets for spray application (Wang et al, 2013) and the development of on-board monitoring systems to aid the ground-based operator’s situational awareness of the UAV’s status. The potential ease of deployment, reduction in operator exposure to chemicals and the improved ability to apply chemicals in a highly timely and highly spatially resolved manner make UAS spray application an attractive proposition from a technical viewpoint. However, there are concerns and limitations due to flight and chemical safety, potential environmental contamination, vehicle cost, flight endurance and payload constraints. Moreover, the regulatory treatment by aviation and environmental agencies remains unresolved. Spray deposition, vehicle suitability and work rate data are requisite to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of UAV deployment in agricultural spray applications, (Giles and Billing, 2014). A commercial UAV was used to spray crops and the work rate and spray deposition measured for a number of spray techniques and spray volume application rates. Quadcopter is a four armed, four rotor propelled helicopter with inherently unstable and nonlinear dynamics. Though it is difficult to develop control system achieve stability, the final system develop can be very agile and with the capability of unidirectional movement much more than other UAVs such as planes and helicopter (with single rotor). In the UAV world Quad-
  3. 3. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 3 rotors features one of the highest payloads capacities making it possible to load it with myriad of Sensors. Quad-rotors can be utilized for both indoor and outdoor data collection such as surveillance, building mapping, etc. Fig 1.1: Quadcopter All the points mentioned above are only valid if and only if we have utilized a Controller with a very high performance, meaning the control loops need to be faster (at least 4 times faster compared to other UAVs). Also there is an increase in the number of actuators which demands even more number of secondary control loops. Some problems are attributed to every form of UAV such as Sensor Data inaccuracies developed due to Glitches, Resolution and Threshold etc. These problems can be removed by using filters such as Complimentary and Kalman Filters. But even after applying these measure there may be errors which are retained by the system, and can be further reduced by utilizing as small order sensor as possible. Finally, all the hardware and software designs are made open-source. Now-a-Days multicopter UAVs especially quadcopters with state of the art controllers have gained quite a huge interest from engineering community because of many reasons like controlling all direction of movement in flying and hovering at certain points like a helicopter.
  4. 4. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 4 Fig 1.2: Quadcopter spraying pesticide The quadcopter is cost effective alternate to high cost standard rotorcrafts. The quadcopter was chosen for this project because of high stability and more lifting power. The control of quadcopter is easier than the helicopter model of vehicles. Some applications of quadcopter are Search and Rescue, Police, Code Enforcement /Inspections, Emergency, Management, Fire, Surveillance, Border Security, Defense, etc. Farmers can now start using drones for pesticide spraying, Drones can lift around 15 liters of pesticide at one time and cover a pretty large area in one go. This makes it easy for the farmers as he just has to program the drone and left it fly over the field in predefined patterns to cover the maximum area with pesticide this is turning out to be a very fast and efficient way of spraying pesticides and also safe as farmer does not inhale the toxic fumes. In India as individual farms are small and use of drones is useless there many companies have equipped with drones. A group of farmers can get together and rent this drone from these companies and spray in their field .Thus the idea was generated in our mind why can’t we use these types of Drones in Agricultural fields, then we started developing our initial idea.
  5. 5. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 5 CHAPTER 2 AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT Since India a country where agriculture is being given a prime importance our project will establish a key role in its development. New technologies are being implemented in every field day by day, thus this new innovation can also enhance the agricultural yield. Moreover to this, day by day the population rate is increasing drastically. Thus the food requirements also increase. World population has risen at a rate of 1.9% per year since 1960, but food production has grown at 2.8% per year due to the application of better crop production techniques. Most of the future population growth will occur in developing countries, those with limited ability to feed their growing populations or import food. Fertilizer use to increase production and maintain soil fertility has been essential to increasing food production, and will be essential in the future. World food grain reserves in 1996 were at their lowest levels since the early 1970s, and the rate of increase of food production has slowed. By the year 2020, the population is expected to be 8 billion people. To feed this population, the food grain production will have to increase from the current level of about 2 billion tons per year to over 3 billion tons. To achieve this level of crop output, intensification of the output on existing land must account for most of the growth, and the amount of fertilizer use will need to increase from 123 million tons of nutrients in 1994/95 to over 300 million tons in 2020. Such a quadcopter can be a useful tool to meet a crisis. Remote sensing by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is changing the way agriculture operates by increasing the spatial-temporal resolution of data collection. Micro-UAVs have the potential to further improve and enrich the data collected by operating close to the crops, enabling the collection of higher spatial-temporal resolution data. In that paper, we present a UAV-mounted measurement system that utilizes a laser scanner to compute crop heights, a critical indicator of crop health. The system filters, transforms, and analyzes the cluttered range data in real-time to determine the distance to the ground and to the top of the crops. We assess the system in our college premises. Our findings indicate that despite the dense canopy and highly variable sensor readings, we can precisely fly over crops and measure its height to within measurements gathered using current measurement technology.
  6. 6. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 6 The main aim of the project is to reduce health issues that may occur when farmers spray pesticides in to the field. Using a Quadcopter, we can prevent any health issues that may occur. This is because the complete system is autonomous and the quadcopter will go over the field to spray the pesticides. All the farmer would have to do is to select his area in the map service provided by the GPS vendor. On powering on the quadcopter, it will automatically fly over the field and when the quadcopter reaches the field the spraying will start automatically. After completing the spraying, the quadcopter will return back to its starting position. Alternatively, the quadcopter can also be controlled manually using a remote control. It requires some practice to use the quadcopter manually. If the farmer can learn it, then he can use it in manual mode. A completely autonomous drone will cost more so if the farmer can learn manual mode then he can buy a quadcopter which has only manual mode. This will reduce the cost of the quadcopter. Autonomous quadcopter requires a lot of additional components like GPS for navigation, Ultrasonic sensors to prevent hitting any obstacles and also to determine the height to which the drone can fly. Not to mention the difficulty to program these functions into the flight controller. Also there will be chances of error so a fully manual quadcopter will be more suitable for a small scale farmer. A small scale farmer will not be able to afford a fully autonomous quadcopter. Our project is designed for small scale farmers so we made it completely manual. This would make it much more affordable for small scale farmers. Another important aim is to make it simpler and less time consuming for farmers. Using a quadcopter will reduce the time considerably to spray pesticides into the field. The farmers wouldn’t have to walk directly into their field carrying heavy containers on their backs.
  7. 7. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 7 CHAPTER 3 EXISTING METHADOLOGY The existing system includes farmer spraying pesticides on the field by carrying large spray bottles with them. This can cause a lot of health problems and is also time consuming. Another system is the use of small airplanes to spray pesticide in the field. This method is very expensive. The existing system includes farmer spraying pesticides on the field by carrying large spray bottles with them. This can cause a lot of health problems and is also time consuming. Another system is the use of small airplanes to spray pesticide in the field. This method is very expensive. Chemicals play an important role in the efforts of countries to achieve economic growth and fulfill their development objectives, but, as much as they are vital for ensuring food security and economic growth, incorrect and indiscriminate use can be disastrous both for human health and the environment. Pesticides are common chemicals used to eliminate a great variety of unwelcome living organisms, particularly in agriculture. They are widely used in agriculture for the purposes of crop protection and in public health to control vector-borne infectious diseases. Because of high biological activity, and, in some cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause harmful effects to human health and to the environment. Improper handling may result in severe acute poisonings; in some cases, adverse health effects may also result from long-term, low-level exposures. As a result of widespread diffusion of pesticides, a great part of the population may be exposed to pesticides due to occupation. Several groups of people, characterized by quite different patterns and degree of exposure, face the risk of adverse effects. Occupational exposure typically occurs in workers involved in the manufacture of pesticides and among specific users in public health (e.g., exterminators of house pests). In the agricultural sector, exposure to pesticides typically occurs among farmers and professional applicators of pesticides.
  8. 8. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 8 Regarding the general population, individuals may be exposed to pesticide residues in food and drinking water on a daily basis or to pesticide drift in residential areas close to spraying areas. In developing nations, many old, non-patented, more toxic, environmentally persistent, and inexpensive types of chemicals are used extensively, creating significant acute health problems and also local environmental contamination. As a result, farmers and farm workers face greater risk of exposure to pesticides than typical non-agricultural workers, comprising a major group of workers that are consistently exposed to pesticides. Fig 3.1: Farmer spraying pesticide Pesticides may harm humans via poisoning or injuries. Poisoning is caused by pesticides that affect organs or systems inside the body, whereas injuries are usually caused by pesticides that are external irritants. Some pesticides are highly toxic to humans; only small amounts can cause highly harmful effects. Other active ingredients are less toxic, but overexposure to them also can be detrimental. Toxic effects by pesticide exposure can range from mild symptoms, like minor skin irritation or other allergic symptoms, to more severe symptoms, like strong headache, dizziness, or nausea. Some pesticides, e.g., the organophosphates, can cause severe symptoms, like convulsions, coma, and possibly even death.
  9. 9. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 9 Pesticide toxicity in humans can be categorized by the nature of exposure, the route through which exposure occurs, or the body system affected. As a general rule, any poison is more toxic if ingested than if inhaled and more toxic if inhaled than if absorbed by the skin (dermal exposure). Some toxic effects by pesticides are temporary, given that they are quickly reversible and do not cause severe or permanent damage. Certain pesticides may cause reversible damage, but full recovery may take long periods of time. Still other poisons may have irreversible effects, although the exposure is not fatal. Moreover to this, this huge pesticide tanks can cause heavy back pain to the farmers. Another prominent method being seen today is the use of large airplanes in hectares of agricultural field. An agricultural aircraft is an aircraft that has been built or converted for agricultural use - usually aerial application of pesticides (crop dusting) or fertilizer (aerial topdressing); in these roles they are referred to as "crop dusters" or "top dressers". To reduce drift of the sprayed materials, agricultural pilots attempt to fly just above the crops being treated. Fields are often surrounded by obstacles such as trees, telephone lines, and farm buildings. Purpose-built agricultural airplanes have strengthened cockpits to protect the pilot if an accident occurs. Aerial spraying has been controversial since the 1960s, due to environmental concerns about pesticide drift (raised for example by Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring). It is now often subject to restrictions, for example spraying pesticide is generally banned in Sweden, although exceptions can be made such as for an area plagued by mosquitoes during summer. Even the spread of fertilizer has raised concerns, for example in New Zealand fertilizer entering streams has been found to disproportionately promote growth of species that are more able to exploit the nutrients, in a process known as eutrophication, which has led to restrictions on topdressing near waterways. The only advantage of using aerial spraying is that it will do the process in a matter of seconds. Huge amounts of pesticides are used in this process. This amount may be more than what the crops require. This will lead to the pesticides overflowing and when it rains, these will eventually flow to a water body and will contaminate it. Large amounts of pesticides will also cause an environmental disaster called Biomagnification. This will cause the pesticides to travel through the food chain and eventually reach animals in the top of the food chain.
  10. 10. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 10 Since the 1970s, multiple countries started to limit or ban aerial application of pesticides, fertilizers and other products out of environmental and public health concerns, in particular from spray drift. Most notably, in 2009 the European Union prohibited aerial spraying of pesticides with a few highly restricted exceptions in article 9 of Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides, which effectively ended most aerial application in all member states and overseas territories. Moreover to this, small scale farmers cannot afford this kind of aircrafts since it is very expensive. Fig 3.2: Spraying airplanes
  11. 11. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 11 CHAPTER 4 PROPOSED METHADOLOGY To avoid the above mentioned issues, we propose a new system which we call Quadcopter based pesticide spraying system. Our project is a combination of a Quadcopter and a Pesticide Spraying System, we had synchronized a pesticide system to an X configured quadcopter. Thus the combination of these two equipment results in the formation our project. Fig 4.1: Quadcopter Configuration Quadcopter otherwise called quad rotor helicopter or quad rotor is a multi-rotor helicopter that is lifted and pushed by four rotors. Quad copters are named rotor make, rather than settled wing flying machine, on the grounds that their lift is created by an arrangement of rotors. There are two types of configuration in quadcopter construction. First one is Plus (+) configuration and another one is Cross (X) configuration. In this project we used X (Cross) configuration. Both the models are same, but the control of these models slightly different. The cross configuration is easier than plus configuration model.
  12. 12. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 12 In a quad copter, two of the propellers turn one way (clockwise) and the other two turn the other way (counterclockwise) and this empowers the machine to float in a steady arrangement. Right off the bat the engines which we utilized have a conspicuous reason to turn the propellers. Engines are appraised by kilo volts, the higher the kV rating, the speedier the engine turns at a consistent voltage. Next the Electric Speed controller or ESC is the thing that advises the engines how quick to turn at any given time. We require four ESCs for a quad copter, one associated with each engine. The ESCs are then associated specifically to the battery through either a wiring outfit or power circulation board. Numerous ESC1s accompany an inherent battery eliminator circuit (BEC), which enables you to control things like your flight control load up and radio beneficiary without interfacing them straight forwardly to the battery Our Quad copter utilizes four propellers, each controlled by its own particular engine and electronic speed controller and appropriately modify the RPM of each engine so as to self- balance out itself. The Quad copter stage gives security because of the counter pivoting engines. For Hovering over the skies the flight controller which is utilized is the “brain‟ of the quad copter. It houses the sensors, for example, whirligigs and quickening agents that decide how quick each of the quadcopter‟ engines turn and passes the control signs to the introduced Electronic Speed Controllers (ESCs) and the blend of these signs trains the ESCs to make fine changes in accordance with the engines rotational paces which thusly settles the craft. As the Quadcopter is synchronized with the spraying system, whenever the drone flies it will take on the spraying equipment into the air and this system is taken to the place where the pesticide to be sprayed, if the system once reaches the point where to be sprayed, operations are done on the required spot.
  13. 13. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 13 CHAPTER 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 4.2: Block Diagram of Quadcopter BLDC Motor ESC MultiWii Flight Controller ESC BLDC Motor ESC BLDC Motor ESC BLDC Motor LiPo Battery 2.4 GHz RF Receiver 2.4 GHz RF Transmitter
  14. 14. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 14 Fig 4.3: Block diagram of Sprayer Module
  15. 15. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 15 CHAPTER 4.2 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 4.2.1 MULTIWII SE V2.5 The MultiWii Copter is historically based on a Wii Motion Plus extension and an Arduino pro mini board. From a very simple, cheap, minimalist flight controller the project has now matured and supports all expected feature including GPS navigation. Multiwii is a quad rotor autopilot system (FC firmware) developed by many RC hobbyists around the world. This project uses an Arduino board as the processor; however it’s been seen to run on other platforms. This project aims to make the fabrication of electronics easy. Originally, it started with gyroscopes and accelerometers of the commercial off-the-shelf Wii motion controller from Nintendo, which needs less soldering (that’s why it’s called multi- wii). Multiwii later on began to support many different brands and models of Gyro and Acc sensors, the list can be found in the config.h file in the multiwii source code. There is a GUI- based interface software provided (shown on the very top of this post). You can use it to adjust your PID setting values, and many other features. At first it was a very basic flight controller system and it only supports simple flight control. Now it has been developed so much it even supports GPS modules, so you can have position hold and return to home functions. The good thing about this is it’s totally open source, all the development is carried out by the users and it’s amazing to see how it’s evolving over time too. Because of that, it’s a very flexible system, and you are open to much hardware, software, and functions possibility. For example, someone has make it possible to integrate Bluetooth module into the code, so they can control their quadcopter from their mobile phone, and tune their PID values from the phone while flying.
  16. 16. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 16 Fig 4.4: MultiwiiSE V2.0 Despite of all the flexibility of Multiwii, the performance of Multiwii is still not consistent, especially with more advanced functions like altitude hold. Multiwii takes effort to setup, and to get it working we will have to work much harder than using other more expensive controller board, especially if we are planning only use an Arduino board and not a manufactured multiwii Flight controller. The MultiWii has sensors such as Accelerometer, Gyroscope, and Magnetometer.
  17. 17. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 17 4.2.1.1 Gyroscope The L3GD20H is a low-power three-axis angular rate sensor. An angular rate gyro-scope is a device that produces a positive-going analog output for counterclockwise rotation around the sensitive axis considered. Sensitivity describes the gain of the sensor and can be determined by applying a defined angular velocity to it. This value changes very little over temperature and time. It includes a sensing element and an IC interface able to provide the measured angular rate to the external world through digital interface (I2C/SPI). Fig 4.5: Gyroscope 4.2.1.2 Accelerometer The system can be configured to generate an Interrupt signal for free-fall motion detection and Magnetic-field-detection. Thresholds and timing of Interruption generators are programmable by the end User. Sensitivities are describes the gain of the sensor and can be determined by applying 1g acceleration to it. As the sensor can be measure DC accelerations this can be done by easily pointing the axis of interest towards the center of the Earth noting the output value, rotating the sensor by 180 degrees (pointing to the sky) and noting the output value again once.
  18. 18. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 18 Fig 4.6: Accelerometer By doing so, 1 g accelerations are applied to the sensor. It subtracts from larger output value to smaller one, and dividing the result by 2, leads to actual sensitivity of the sensor. This value changes very little over temperature and time. The sensitivity tolerance describes the range of sensitivities of a large population of sensors. 4.2.1.2 Magnetometer A magnetometer measures magnetic fields. Because the earth has a significant magnetic field, the magnetometer can be used as a compass. As such it is useful to determine absolute orientation in the NESW plane. This allows better performance for dynamic orientation calculation in Attitude and heading reference systems which base on IMUs. Fig 4.7: Magnetometer
  19. 19. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 19 They are based on anisotropic magneto resistive (AMR) Permalloy technology sensors, which have superior accuracy and response time characteristics, while consuming significantly less power than alternative technologies. The MEMSIC magnetometers are ideal for electronic compass, GPS navigation and magnetic field detection applications. 4.2.2 ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROLLER An electronic speed control or ESC is an electronic circuit that controls and regulates the speed of an electric motor. It may also provide reversing of the motor and dynamic breaking. Miniature electronic speed controls are used in electrically powered radio controlled models. Full size electric vehicles also have systems to control the speed of their drive motors. An electronic speed control follows a speed reference signal (derived from a throttle lever, joystick, or other manual input) and varies the switching rate of a network of field effect transistors (FETs). By adjusting the duty cycle or switching frequency of the transistors, the speed of the motor is changed. The rapid switching of the transistors is what causes the motor itself to emit its characteristic high-pitched whine, especially noticeable at lower speeds. Different types of speed controls are required for brushed DC motors and brushless DC motors. A brushed motor can have its speed controlled by varying the voltage on its armature. (Industrially, motors with electromagnet field windings instead of permanent magnets can also have their speed controlled by adjusting the strength of the motor field current.) A brushless motor requires a different operating principle. The speed of the motor is varied by adjusting the timing of pulses of current delivered to the several windings of the motor. Brushless ESC systems basically create three-phase AC power, as in a variable frequency drive , to run brushless motors. Brushless motors are popular with radio controlled airplane hobbyists because of their efficiency, power, longevity and light weight in comparison to traditional brushed motors. Brushless AC motor controllers are much more complicated than brushed motor controllers The correct phase varies with the motor rotation, which is to be taken into account by the ESC: Usually, back EMF from the motor is used to detect this rotation, but variations exist that use magnetic (Hall effect) or optical detectors.
  20. 20. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 20 Computer-programmable speed controls generally have user-specified options which allow setting low voltage cut-off limits, timing, acceleration, braking and direction of rotation. Reversing the motor's direction may also be accomplished by switching any two of the three leads from the ESC to the motor. ESCs are normally rated according to maximum current, for example, 25 amperes or 25 A. Generally the higher the rating, the larger and heavier the ESC tends to be which a factor when calculating mass is and balance in airplanes. Many modern ESCs support nickel metal hydride, lithium ion polymer and lithium iron phosphate batteries with a range of input and cut- off voltages. The type of battery and number of cells connected is an important consideration when choosing a battery eliminator circuit (BEC), whether built into the controller or as a stand- alone unit. A higher number of cells connected will result in a reduced power rating and therefore a lower number of servos supported by an integrated BEC, if it uses a linear voltage regulator. A well designed BEC using a switching regulator should not have a similar limitation. Fig 4.8: Electronic Speed Controller (ESC)
  21. 21. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 21 Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) are an essential component of modern quadcopters (and all multirotors) that offer high power, high frequency, high resolution 3-phase AC power to the motors in an extremely compact miniature package. These craft depend entirely on the variable speed of the motors driving the propellers. This wide variation and fine RPM control in motor/prop speed gives all of the control necessary for a quadcopter (and all multirotors) to fly. Quadcopter ESCs usually can use a faster update rate compared to the standard 50 Hz signal used in most other RC applications. A variety of ESC protocols beyond PWM are utilized for modern-day multirotors, including, Oneshot42, Oneshot125, Multishot, and DShot. Most modern ESC contains a microcontroller interpreting the input signal and appropriately controlling the motor using a built-in program, or firmware. In some cases it is possible to change the factory built-in firmware for an alternate, publicly available, open source firmware. This is done generally to adapt the ESC to a particular application. Some ESCs are factory built with the capability of user upgradable firmware. Others require soldering to connect a programmer. With any ESC you will have a servo connector that connects to your flight controller. 95% of the time this will be a 3 wire connector, the middle wire (usually Red) will be the power output (5V) the white wire (sometimes orange) is the signal wire. The black wire (sometimes brown) is the ground connector. However in some cases when using OPTO ESC’s you might only have two connectors, the signal and ground wires with a space in the middle. An example of an ESC servo connector is shown below. Fig 4.9: Servo connector
  22. 22. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 22 4.2.3 BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) also known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors), or synchronous DC motors, are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces an AC electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop controller. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings that control the speed and torque of the motor. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor, or an induction (asynchronous) motor.[1] The advantages of a brushless motor over brushed motors are high power to weight ratio, high speed, and electronic control. Brushless motors find applications in such places as computer peripherals (disk drives, printers), hand-held power tools, and vehicles ranging from model aircraft to automobiles. A typical brushless motor has permanent magnets which rotate around a fixed armature, eliminating problems associated with connecting current to the moving armature. An electronic controller replaces the brush/commutator assembly of the brushed DC motor, which continually switches the phase to the windings to keep the motor turning. The controller performs similar timed power distribution by using a solid-state circuit rather than the brush/commutator system. Brushless motors offer several advantages over brushed DC motors, including high torque to weight ratio, more torque per watt (increased efficiency), increased reliability, reduced noise, longer lifetime (no brush and commutator erosion), elimination of ionizing sparks from the commutator, and overall reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI). With no windings on the rotor, they are not subjected to centrifugal forces, and because the windings are supported by the housing, they can be cooled by conduction, requiring no airflow inside the motor for cooling. This in turn means that the motor's internals can be entirely enclosed and protected from dirt or other foreign matter. Brushless motor commutation can be implemented in software using a microcontroller or microprocessor computer, or may alternatively be implemented in analogue hardware, or in digital firmware using an FPGA. Commutation with electronics
  23. 23. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 23 instead of brushes allows for greater flexibility and capabilities not available with brushed DC motors, including speed limiting, "micro stepped" operation for slow and/or fine motion control, and a holding torque when stationary. Controller software can be customized to the specific motor being used in the application, resulting in greater commutation efficiency. Fig 4.10: BLDC motor The maximum power that can be applied to a brushless motor is limited almost exclusively by heat too much heat weakens the magnets and will damage the winding's insulation. When converting electricity into mechanical power, brushless motors are more efficient than brushed motors. This improvement is largely due to the frequency at which the electricity is switched determined by the position sensor feedback. Additional gains are due to the absence of brushes, which reduces mechanical energy loss due to friction. The enhanced efficiency is greatest in the no-load and low-load region of the motor's performance curve. Under high mechanical loads, brushless motors and high-quality brushed motors are comparable in efficiency.
  24. 24. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 24 Environments and requirements in which manufacturers use brushless-type DC motors include maintenance-free operation, high speeds, and operation where sparking is hazardous (i.e. explosive environments) or could affect electronically sensitive equipment. The construction of a brushless motor may resemble that of a stepper motor. Unlike a stepper, a brushless motor is usually intended to produce continuous rotation. Stepper motors generally do not include a shaft position sensor for internal feedback of the rotor position. Instead a stepper controller will rely on a sensor to detect the position of the driven device. They are frequently stopped with the rotor in a defined angular position while still producing torque. A well designed brushless motor system can also be held at zero rpm and finite torque. 4.1.4 LIPO BATTERY A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium- ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid one. High conductivity semisolid (gel) polymers form this electrolyte. These batteries provide a higher specific energy than other lithium battery types and are being used in applications where weight is a critical feature - like tablet computers, cellular telephone handsets or radio-controlled aircraft. LiPo cells follow the history of lithium-ion and lithium-metal cells which underwent extensive research during the 1980s, reaching a significant milestone with Sony's first commercial cylindrical Li-ion cell in 1991. After that, other packaging forms evolved, including the pouch format now also called "LiPo". Lithium polymer cells have evolved from lithium-ion and lithium-metal batteries. The primary difference is that instead of using a liquid lithium-salt electrolyte (such as LiPF6) held in an organic solvent. The solid electrolyte can be typically classified as one of three types: dry SPE, gelled SPE and porous SPE. The dry SPE was the first used in prototype batteries, around 1978 by Michel Armand, Domain University, and 1985 by ANVAR and Elf Aquitaine of France, and Hydro Quebec of Canada.[ From 1990 several organizations like Mead and Valence in the United States and GS Yuasa in Japan developed batteries using gelled SPEs.
  25. 25. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 25 Fig 4.11: LiPo Battery A typical cell has four main components: positive electrode, negative electrode, separator and electrolyte. The separator itself may be a polymer, such as a micro porous film of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP); thus, even when the cell has a liquid electrolyte, it will still contain a "polymer" component. In addition to this, the positive electrode can be further decomposed in three parts: the lithium-transition-metal-oxide (such as LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4), a conductive additive, and a polymer binder of poly Vinylidene Fluoride (PVdF). The negative electrode material may have the same three parts, only with carbon replacing the lithium-metal- oxide. 4.2.5 PROPELLER A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by either or both Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law. A marine propeller of this type is sometimes colloquially known as a screw propeller or screw, however there is a different class of propellers known as cycloidal propellers – they are characterized by the higher propulsive efficiency averaging
  26. 26. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 26 0.72 compared to the screw propeller's average of 0.6 and the ability to throw thrust in any direction at any time. Their disadvantages are higher mechanical complexity and higher cost. The twisted aero foil shape of modern aircraft propellers was pioneered by the Wright brothers. While some earlier engineers had attempted to model air propellers on marine propellers, the Wrights realized that a propeller is essentially the same as a wing, and were able to use data from their earlier wind tunnel experiments on wings. They also introduced a twist along the length of the blades. This was necessary to ensure the angle of attack of the blades was kept relatively constant along their length.[27] Their original propeller blades were only about 5% less efficient than the modern equivalent, some 100 years later.[28] The understanding of low speed propeller aerodynamics was fairly complete by the 1920s, but later requirements to handle more power in smaller diameter have made the problem more complex. Alberto Santos Dumont, another early pioneer, applied the knowledge he gained from experiences with airships to make a propeller with a steel shaft and aluminum blades for his 14 bis biplane. Some of his designs used a bent aluminum sheet for blades, thus creating an airfoil shape. They were heavily under cambered, and this plus the absence of lengthwise twist made them less efficient than the Wright propellers. Even so, this was perhaps the first use of aluminum in the construction of an airscrew. Fig 4.12: Propeller
  27. 27. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 27 4.2.6 FRAME For the best performance to efficiency Quad-copter there is a perfect symmetrical of system design for accurate flight. For this symmetrical design there is only one possibly to install the controller, motors, props, ESCs etc. So the thinking about it should be + or X design of arm to be configure. So finally for better and simplicity we choose the + structure of it to design. For this the main things to see for whole system there is a fitting of each component very carefully installed. Must think about vibration there is not used steel body screw to this because of the vibration its need re-screw of it so perfectly configuration of each arm weight and all things must properly fitted with some rubber technology to be used for insulator with frame and components. The frame size depends on how big of a drone we need. This size is determined by the overall weight of the quadcopter and also the speed to which it can fly. There are different frame types available in the market. The two main factors by which we categorize frames is with the materials required to make them and the size of the frame. The lighter the frame the more efficient the quadcopter becomes. But the strength of the quadcopter is also a factor. The frame should be strong enough to support the flight. It shouldn’t break on small crashes. So there should be a balance between the weight and the strength of the material used. The material can be wood, metal, plastic or even carbon fiber. Let’s go over the most common types of materials that can be used when learning how to build a drone frame. While this list does not contain every possible material which can be used in a DIY project, it does include the more popular/budget-friendly ones. With that being said, let’s see what they are. 4.2.6.1 Wood If you’re trying to build a drone as cheaply as possible, then consider using a wooden frame. Wood isn’t the most aesthetically appealing option out there, but it’s certainly one of the most inexpensive. One reason why people love wooden frames is because if something breaks, you can quickly and easily replace it. If you’re going to use wood for your drone’s frame, then make sure that it doesn’t have any areas that are warped or twisted. High quality timber can be shaped to the required need. It will be light and strong. But there are many limitations to wood just because it is organic. One main disadvantage of wood is that it will not last long and may get decomposed quickly.
  28. 28. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 28 4.2.6.2 Carbon Fiber If you can afford it, I would highly recommend building your frame out of carbon fiber. The reason why is simple: carbon fiber is very tough and extremely lightweight. It’s this combination that will make your RC drone fly better and consume less energy. Remember that carbon fiber impedes RF signals (you’ll learn about these later), so make sure that you keep this in mind when you’re mounting important electronic components (like an antenna for example). 4.2.6.3 PCB Also known as “Printed Circuit Board”, this is a type of material that shares the same basic structure and properties as fiberglass. Unlike fiberglass, PCD is always flat. Frames that are less than 600mm in size typically use PCB for the bottom and top plates. In fact, small quadcopter frames can be built entirely from a single printed circuit board. Click here to learn more about printed circuit boards and how they work. 4.2.6.4 Plastic Most commercial RC drones that you buy today come with plastic frames. 3D printed molded plastic frames have become an incredibly popular amongst DIY drone enthusiasts. Generally, using a 3D printer to create a perfectly shaped plastic frame is something that only works on smaller drones. When using plastic sheets (not 3D printed shapes or objects), you can strategically use them on your landing gear or for the cover of your drone. 4.2.6.5 G10 Orange-Colored-G10-Epoxy-LaminateG10 is a variation of fiberglass that’s often used as a less expensive alternative to carbon fiber. From the outside, G10 and carbon fiber look almost identical, but they do vary slightly in their basic properties. You can purchase G10 in sheet format. As far as pricing is concerned, it costs less than carbon fiber but is still more expensive than wood, aluminum, or plastic. Here’s a really useful forum post I found on the major differences between G10 and regular fiberglass. 4.2.6.6 Aluminum Aluminum can also be used when building your frame. It’s lightweight (though not as lightweight as carbon fiber), flexible, and is relatively easy to work with. You can use aluminum to build the entire frame, or simply use the material to supplement certain parts of the frame (arms, landing gear, etc.). Another benefit to aluminum frames is that this type of material is both inexpensive as well as readily accessible.
  29. 29. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 29 The frame we are using for our project is made of high quality plastic. It is a popular frame and is called F 450. It has a dimension of 45cm. It also comes with a PCB that contains the power distribution circuit. We can solder the required components on the board. Components such as the ESC are tied to the frame using cable ties. Other components such as the motors can be screwed into the frame. The frame also has space to put the flight controller and the battery. Care should be taken to place all the components in the center of gravity. This is important as this determines the stability of the drone. Of course, the flight controller will stabilize the drone in its flight. But for perfect control, we need to maintain the center of gravity at the exact center of the quadcopter. Also, the components should be soldered and tied with care. There should not be any short circuit as a small short circuit is enough to damage the sensitive electronics. Glue gun can be used to insulate the solder joints. Fig 4.13: Quadcopter Frame
  30. 30. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 30 4.2.7 TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER MODULE A farmer doesn’t require a highly complicated remote control to operate the drone. In fact what he really needs is an easy to use controller which is as affordable as possible. One of the cheapest and good quality remote control is the FlySky FS-CT6B. Fig 4.14: FlySky FS-CT6B It has a standard 2.4 GHz antenna. It can be folded 90 degrees and can also be rotated for easy storage. It is completely made of plastic but when we consider the price, it seems to be alright. The sticks are as you'd expect for a flight TX - the right stick is free and sprung in both directions, whereas the left is free/self-centering on the left right axis, but lightly ratcheted and unspring in the vertical plane. Trim tabs are the traditional ratcheted type for all axes. The remaining controls are two rotary potentiometers labelled VR (B) and VR (A) which turn approximately 270 degrees (from around 10 o' clock to roughly 8 o' clock), and two small switches labelled SW.B and SW.A.
  31. 31. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 31 There's not much to say about the receiver. It is fairly small and doesn't appear to have BEC (battery eliminator circuitry) so would probably fry if connected to an older Tamiya ESC, and there's no bind button (hence the binding plug). Half of the length of the antenna is hidden by heat shrink tubing. We need to put 8 AA batteries to keep this working. Once you have everything unpacked and fresh AA batteries in your Transmitter (Tx) insert the CD into your drive and install T6onfig to your computer. Do not install the prolific drivers. Download the drivers from the link above and store them on your computer. Plug the USB cable included with your radio into a USB port on your computer. Your computer will start looking for drivers. It will eventually ask you for the location of the driver. Enter the location where you stored the downloaded drivers on your computer. After Windows has finished installing the driver it will be necessary to assign a COM port to the USB cable. To do this you simply go into “Device Manager” on your computer. Look under “Ports (COM & LTP)” the USB cable should appear as “Silicon Labsxxxxxxxx”. To assign a specific COM port to the cable right click on the USB cable and select “properties”. In the properties window click the “Port Settings tab. Then click the advanced button. In the next window you will see a “COM Port Number” button. Click that and select a port between 1 and 6, and click “OK”. You will now get a warning about other devices not working properly if you choose a port already assigned to another device. Ignore this warning and continue. After you have completed this step you may now plug the USB cable into your Tx. Open T6config, power on your Tx, and select the COM port you assigned to the USB cable (see illustration 1). Now you should see the channel bars moving as you manipulate the Tx sticks. If the channel bars do not respond to stick movement then double check the steps above. If everything is correct, try the above procedure with a different driver after you uninstall the previous driver. When the channel bars are responding to the stick movements then proceed to the next section. To save the default settings click the “Get User” button. This action downloads the information stored in the Tx's memory to T6config. Then click “Save” and select a location where you want to save the data. Create a new folder in the location you selected and name it “T6 Settings” and name the file “Default”, or “Default Settings”. In the “Save” window the “Save” button is mislabeled. It reads “Open”. Click it anyway to save your settings.
  32. 32. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 32 Fig 4.15: Selecting the COM port in T6config Fig 4.16: Saving your settings in T6config To start programming the Tx, the first step will be to select the Tx mode you will be using. You have a choice of Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3, and Mode 4 (see illustration 3). You will make this selection in regards to the geographical region where you reside. In the USA most users select “Mode 2”.
  33. 33. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 33 Fig 4.17: T6 Mode Selection window Fig 4.18: Open Window
  34. 34. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 34 Fig 4.19: Aircraft Type Window To select a model type click “Type”. In the type window there are four choices: 1. ACRO (airplane) 2. HELI-120 3. HELI-90 4. HELI-140 The T6 channel arrangement is:  CH 1 ailerons  CH 2 elevator  CH 3 throttle  CH 4 rudder  CH 5 aux  CH 6 aux The T6 has 2 switches on either side of the carry handle. They are designatedSW. A and SW. B.
  35. 35. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 35 Binding is the process by which the receiver learns which transmitter it is supposed to take instructions from and ignore all other signals. Usually it is a difficult process and also there is no manual available with the transmitter. Binding procedure is necessary otherwise the transmitter and the receiver may get interferences from other channels operating at 2.4 GHz. The combo comes pre-bound, but for future references the binding procedure is given below: 1. Insert the bind plug into the “Batt” port of the Rx. 2. Apply 4.5-6V power to Rx (LED will blink). 3. Press and hold the “Bind/Range Test” button while turning on the Tx. Then release the “Bind” button. 4. The LED on the Rx should stop blinking and stay on solid. 5. Power off the Rx and remove the bind plug. 6. Turn off the Tx. The Tx has to be turned off to exit “Bind Mode”. Your Tx and Rx should now be bound. The binding sequence is the only time that the Rx is powered on before Tx. After binding, the Tx must be powered on first and then power on the Rx. The pin out of the receiver is given below: Fig 4.20: Receiver Pin Out Additionally, SW.B (the upper left switch) acts as a throttle cut off in its "on" position (forward). SW.A (right side) reduces the steering servo travel end points by about 50% when engaged. The FlySky FS-CT6B is a 6 channel remote control. A quadcopter needs only 4 channels for complete control. So we can use the remaining 2 channels to control the spray module.
  36. 36. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 36 4.2.9 SPRAYER MODULE A spray module is a precision device that facilitates dispersion of liquid into a spray. Nozzles are used for three purposes: to distribute a liquid over an area, to increase liquid surface area, and create impact force on a solid surface. A wide variety of spray nozzle applications use a number of spray characteristics to describe the spray. Spray nozzles can be categorized based on the energy input used to cause atomization, the breakup of the fluid into drops. Spray nozzles can have one or more outlets; a multiple outlet nozzle is known as a compound nozzle. Single-fluid or hydraulic spray nozzles utilize the kinetic energy of the liquid to break it up into droplets. This most widely used type of spray nozzle is more energy efficient at producing surface area than most other types. As the fluid pressure increases, the flow through the nozzle increases, and the drop size decreases. Many configurations of single fluid nozzles are used depending on the spray characteristics desired. Fig 4.21: Sprayer module
  37. 37. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 37 Pressure-swirl spray nozzles are high-performance (small drop size) devices with one configuration shown. The stationary core induces a rotary fluid motion which causes the swirling of the fluid in the swirl chamber. A film is discharged from the perimeter of the outlet orifice producing a characteristic hollow cone spray pattern. Air or other surrounding gas is drawn inside the swirl chamber to form an air core within the swirling liquid. Many configurations of fluid inlets are used to produce this hollow cone pattern depending on the nozzle capacity and materials of construction. The uses of this nozzle include evaporative cooling and spray drying. The material of construction is selected based on the fluid properties of the liquid that is to be sprayed and the environment surrounding the nozzle. Spray nozzles are most commonly fabricated from metals, such as brass, Stainless steel, and nickel alloys, but plastics such as PTFE and PVC and ceramics (alumina and silicon carbide) are also used. Several factors must be considered, including erosive wear, chemical attack, and the effects of high temperature. Since we wanted our project to be as affordable as possible, we used a sprayer module used in a Maruti 800 car. It is used to spray water into the windshield. It requires a maximum of 12 volts to operate in full power. It takes this power from the LiPo battery. It is powerful enough to spray at a large distance. The spraying action is controlled by the farmer using the remote control An additional channel in the receiver is used for this purpose. Whenever the farmer turns on the switch in the transmitter, a 5V signal will be active in the receiver. This 5V will turn on a MOSFET which we configured as a switch. The supply from the battery was already connected to the MOSFET which in turn is connected to the sprayer module. So when the switch is turned on in the transmitter, the MOSFET will turn on and the supply voltage will pass through the sprayer module thereby spraying the contents. The pesticide is placed in a 300mL container which along with the sprayer module is attached to the lower side of the quadcopter. These are connected in such a way as it will not interfere with the center of gravity of the quadcopter. The center of gravity will be different at different times because the weight of the container will change depending upon the amount of pesticide in the container.
  38. 38. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 38 CHAPTER 4.3 COMPONENT DESIGNING 4.3.1 MAXIMUM AMPERE RATING Brushless ESCs are used to control brushless motors that are used on most quadcopters. The maximum amperage an ESC can handle needs to be greater than the motor/prop combination will draw. In terms of ESC, suggesting 20%-50% extra Amps are good rule to ensure your ESC do not burn out. For example Current rating for motor is 22A so ESC you are considering 30A should do fine. Here is simple formula, ESC = 1.2-1.5 x max amp rating of motor. So, we can select ESC between ranges of 26A to33A. 4.3.1.1 VOLTAGE FROM BATTERY Make sure your ESCs the ability to withstand the voltage from the chosen battery. If you remember our motor draws max 15amp, so watt value for 3S and 4S will be At 3S battery 11.1 x 15 = 166.5 Watt At 4S battery 14.8 x 15 = 222 Watt Since our motor and esc are not much efficient in capable of 4S battery we used 3S battery only. Since our motor is of max current 16 Amp and we can take the esc of 30A. Due to reason or formulae ESC (A) =1.2-1.5×MAX AMP OF MOTOR =1.5×16 =25. SO, we have chosen the ESC of 30A.
  39. 39. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 39 4.3.2 THRUST CALCULATION OF DRONE WITHOUT SPRAYING SYSTEM General required thrust is given by an formula mentioned below it is Thrust required = (total weight of setup) ×2/4. Therefore according to the frame, esc, and battery and other set up we are getting a weight of 1300 grams. That is frame weight is 950 grams and other will roughly weights of 350 grams Required Thrust = 1300×2/4 = 2600/4 = 650 grams Here we get the required thrust for each motor should be 650 grams for each motor. Now we have to calculate the actual amount of thrust that is going to produce by an individual motor. According to some sources have found that the thrust generated by motor is given by following formula T= [(eta×P) ²×2×pi×r²×air density] ^⅓ Where, Eta = prop hover efficiency let us take it as 0.7-0.8 P= shaft power = voltage ×current ×motor efficiency R = radius of propellers in meters Air density =1.22kg/m³ Voltage = 10v Current =16A Motor efficiency =75%=0. 75 Eta=0.7 Then, thrust is T= [(0. 7×10×16×0.75)²×2×3.14×0.127²×1.22] ^0.33 = [(84) ²×0.123] ^0.33 = (7056×0.123) ^0.33 = 871.92^0.33 = 9.348 N
  40. 40. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 40 Therefore Thrust calculated T = 9.348N = 9.348×0.101 Kg = 0.943kg = 943 grams Hence, the thrust generated by each motor = 943grams Since we have 4 motors in the quadcopter, the total thrust generated by all motors is given by multiplying, thrust with 4 Total thrust T = 943×4 grams = 3772 grams T = 3.772kg. If we again choose any less efficiency in motor then we will take some factor of safety, if they work only70% efficient in the above 70% efficient work we can produce thrust of Thrust T = 3.772×70/100 T = 2.64kg Therefore the min to min amount of thrust produced by all the motors is 2.64kg 4.3.2.1. THRUST WITH SPRAYING SYSTEM Required Thrust when we assemble the spraying equipment to the drone. It will be given by T2= (weight of drone +weight of seeding equipment)×2/4 T2 = (1300+400) ×2/4 T2 = (1700×2)/4 T2 = 3400/4 T2 = 850 grams Since the thrust produced by individual motor is943grams, that thrust is greater than the amount of thrust required with the combination of drone and spraying equipment, so our system will be in safe condition and work effectively.
  41. 41. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 41 4.3.3 BATTERY CALCULATION We have to calculate the amount of energy it is consuming; hence we have now calculating the source required by the battery. Max source = discharge rate*capacity = 20×2200 = 44000 = 44Amp 4.3.1.1. DISCHARGE RATE Discharge rate is simply how fast a battery can be discharged safely. In the RC Li-Po battery world it is called the “C” rating. Remember we should never discharge a Li-Po battery below 80% of its capacity. So, the max source i.e. ESCs should not exceed44A, since we have selected a 30A ESC there is no problem, it is perfect battery. 4.3.1.2. PROPELLER CALCULATION We have, Payload Capacity + The weight of the craft itself = Thrust * Hover Throttle % For example, If you choose 3s LiPo battery to supply power. Your propos is 10*4.7 and throttle is 75%.Theweight of the craft itself is 1700g and we, want to build our quadcopter which can load 1000 grams. 1000+1700 = T×75% T = 2700/0.75 T = 3600grams This amount of thrust should be provided by 4motors, so we can calculate individual thrust required by T = 3600/4 T = 900grams Since the thrust required is 900grams, as we calculated above thrust produced or generated by each motor is 943 grams. The system will be safe or will run without any defect. Finally we have concluded to select the 4propellers of size 10×4.5 inch which 2 are supposed to rotate CW and others CCW and they weigh 20gram per pair, so total weight is 80gram.
  42. 42. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 42 CHAPTER 4.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 4.3.1 MULTIWII SE V2.5 4.3.1.1 Loading The Mwc Firmware Prerequisites Most FCs (flight controllers) come loaded with older versions of Multiwii. Download latest versions of FC Firmware & MW Config&WinGUI (currently 2.3) from http://www.Multiwii .com. Configure for your quad & upload to FC. It is imperative that the firmware on FC &WinGUI /MW Config are same version. Arduino IDE Setup If not already done so, download the latest copy of the Arduino IDE from http://www.arduino.cc/ making sure to select the right version for your computer and operating system. Install the IDE per the prescribe procedures. On Windows Operating systems, a USB driver maybe required. The drivers are downloadable from http://www.ftdichip.com/FTDrivers.html Downloading the Firmware As of July 21, 2014, the main depository is located at https://code.google.com/p/multiwii/. Click the download tab followed by clicking the latest version. Save the file to a location on your file system. Decompress the file using your favor program placing the files in the Arduino IDE work direction. This direction can be located from within the IDE by clicking the Preferences button, the field named Sketchbook is the working location.
  43. 43. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 43 Config.h Options Selections This segment only covers the minimum configuration and suggested options. More options are available and will be covered in other areas. Select the Copter Type In this section, select the copter type, QUADX is default. If QUADX is not the desired type, place // before and remove them on the desired selection. /************************** The type of multicopter ****************************/ //#define GIMBAL //#define BI //#define TRI //#define QUADP #define QUADX //#define Y4 //#define Y6 //#define HEX6 //#define HEX6X //#define HEX6H // New Model //#define OCTOX8 //#define OCTOFLATP //#define OCTOFLATX //#define FLYING_WING //#define VTAIL4 //#define AIRPLANE //#define SINGLECOPTER //#define DUALCOPTER //#define HELI_120_CCPM //#define HELI_90_DEG Select the Flight Controller You will need to know your Flight Control type and information for this segment. Please consult the manufacture for detailed information about your board. Once you have this
  44. 44. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 44 information at-hand, select the board by removing the preceding //. If your board is not listed here, there is another option providing you know the sensors it has. /* if you use a specific sensor board: //#define FFIMUv1 // first 9DOF+baro board from Jussi, with HMC5843 <- //#define FFIMUv2 // second version of 9DOF+baro board from Jussi, with HMC5883 //#define FREEIMUv1 // v0.1 & v0.2 & v0.3 version of 9DOF board from Fabio //#define FREEIMUv03 // FreeIMU v0.3 and v0.3.1 //#define FREEIMUv035 // FreeIMU v0.3.5 no baro //#define FREEIMUv035_MS // FreeIMU v0.3.5_MS <- confirmed by Alex //#define FREEIMUv035_BMP // FreeIMU v0.3.5_BMP //#define FREEIMUv04 // FreeIMU v0.4 with MPU6050, HMC5883L, MS561101BA //#define FREEIMUv043 // same as FREEIMUv04 with final MPU6050 (with the right ACC scale) //#define NANOWII // the smallest multiwii FC based on MPU6050 + pro micro based proc<- confirmed by Alex //#define PIPO // 9DOF board from erazz //#define QUADRINO // full FC board 9DOF+baro board from witespy with BMP085 baro //#define QUADRINO_ZOOM // full FC board 9DOF+baro board from witespy second edition //#define QUADRINO_ZOOM_MS// full FC board 9DOF+baro board from witespy second edition <- confirmed by Alex //#define ALLINONE // full FC board or standalone 9DOF+baro board from CSG_EU //#define AEROQUADSHIELDv2 //#define ATAVRSBIN1 // Atmel 9DOF (Contribution by EOSBandi). requires 3.3V power. //#define SIRIUS // Sirius Navigator IMU //#define SIRIUSGPS // Sirius Navigator IMU using external MAG on GPS board //#define SIRIUS600 // Sirius Navigator IMU using the WMP for the gyro //#define SIRIUS_AIR // Sirius Navigator IMU 6050 32U4 from MultiWiiCopter.com
  45. 45. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 45 //#define SIRIUS_AIR_GPS // Sirius Navigator IMU 6050 32U4 from MultiWiiCopter.com with GPS/MAG remote located //#define SIRIUS_MEGAv5_OSD // Paris_Sirius™ ITG3050,BMA280,MS5611,HMC5883,uBlox http://www.Multiwiicopter.com //#define MINIWII // Jussi'sMiniWii Flight Controller //#define MICROWII // MicroWii 10DOF with ATmega32u4, MPU6050, HMC5883L, MS561101BA from http://flyduino.net/ //#define CITRUSv2_1 // CITRUS from qcrc.ca //#define CHERRY6DOFv1_0 //#define DROTEK_10DOF // Drotek 10DOF with ITG3200, BMA180, HMC5883, BMP085, w or w/o LLC //#define DROTEK_10DOF_MS // Drotek 10DOF with ITG3200, BMA180, HMC5883, MS5611, LLC //#define DROTEK_6DOFv2 // Drotek 6DOF v2 //#define DROTEK_6DOF_MPU // Drotek 6DOF with MPU6050 //#define DROTEK_10DOF_MPU// //#define MONGOOSE1_0 // mongoose 1.0 http://store.ckdevices.com/ //#define CRIUS_LITE // CriusMultiWii Lite //#define CRIUS_SE // CriusMultiWii SE //#define CRIUS_SE_v2_0 // CriusMultiWii SE 2.0 with MPU6050, HMC5883 and BMP085 //#define OPENLRSv2MULTI // OpenLRS v2 Multi Rc Receiver board including ITG3205 and ADXL345 //#define BOARD_PROTO_1 // with MPU6050 + HMC5883L + MS baro //#define BOARD_PROTO_2 // with MPU6050 + slave MAG3110 + MS baro //#define GY_80 // Chinese 10 DOF with L3G4200D ADXL345 HMC5883L BMP085, LLC //#define GY_85 // Chinese 9 DOF with ITG3205 ADXL345 HMC5883L LLC //#define GY_86 // Chinese 10 DOF with MPU6050 HMC5883L MS5611, LLC //#define GY_521 // Chinese 6 DOF with MPU6050, LLC //#define INNOVWORKS_10DOF // with ITG3200, BMA180, HMC5883, BMP085 available here http://www.diymulticopter.com
  46. 46. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 46 //#define INNOVWORKS_6DOF // with ITG3200, BMA180 available here http://www.diymulticopter.com //#define MultiWiiMega // MEGA + MPU6050+HMC5883L+MS5611 available here http://www.diymulticopter.com //#define PROTO_DIY // 10DOF mega board //#define IOI_MINI_MULTIWII// www.bambucopter.com //#define Bobs_6DOF_V1 // BobsQuads 6DOF V1 with ITG3200 & BMA180 //#define Bobs_9DOF_V1 // BobsQuads 9DOF V1 with ITG3200, BMA180 & HMC5883L //#define Bobs_10DOF_BMP_V1 // BobsQuads 10DOF V1 with ITG3200, BMA180, HMC5883L & BMP180 - BMP180 is software compatible with BMP085 //#define FLYDUINO_MPU // MPU6050 Break Out onboard 3.3V reg //#define CRIUS_AIO_PRO_V1 //#define DESQUARED6DOFV2GO // DEsquared V2 with ITG3200 only //#define DESQUARED6DOFV4 // DEsquared V4 with MPU6050 //#define LADYBIRD //#define MEGAWAP_V2_STD // available here: http://www.multircshop.com<- confirmed by Alex //#define MEGAWAP_V2_ADV //#define HK_MultiWii_SE_V2 // Hobbyking board with MPU6050 + HMC5883L + BMP085 //#define HK_MultiWii_328P // Also labeled "Hobbybro" on the back. ITG3205 + BMA180 + BMP085 + NMC5583L + DSM2 Connector (Spektrum Satellite) //#define RCNet_FC // RCNet FC with MPU6050 and MS561101BA http://www.rcnet.com //#define RCNet_FC_GPS // RCNet FC with MPU6050 + MS561101BA + HMC5883L + UBLOX GPS http://www.rcnet.com //#define FLYDU_ULTRA // MEGA+10DOF+MT3339 FC //#define DIYFLYING_MAGE_V1 // diyflying 10DOF mega board with MPU6050 + HMC5883L + BMP085 http://www.indoor-flying.hk //#define MultiWii_32U4_SE // Hextronik MultiWii_32U4_SE
  47. 47. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 47 //#define MultiWii_32U4_SE_no_baro // Hextronik MultiWii_32U4_SE without the MS561101BA for more free flash-memory //#define Flyduino9DOF // Flyduino 9DOF IMU MPU6050+HMC5883l //#define Nano_Plane // Multiwii Plane version with tail-front LSM330 sensor http://www.radiosait.ru/en/page_5324.html Independent sensors Selection This segment requires a little more knowledge about the Flight Controller board used and the axis orientation. (need more work.) /*************************** independent sensors ********************************/ /* leave it commented if you already checked a specific board above */ /* I2C gyroscope */ //#define WMP //#define ITG3200 //#define MPU3050 //#define L3G4200D //#define MPU6050 //combo + ACC //#define LSM330 //combo + ACC /* I2C accelerometer */ //#define NUNCHUCK // if you want to use the nunckuk connected to a WMP //#define MMA7455 //#define ADXL345 //#define BMA020 //#define BMA180 //#define BMA280
  48. 48. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 48 //#define NUNCHACK // if you want to use the nunckuk as a standalone I2C ACC without WMP //#define LIS3LV02 //#define LSM303DLx_ACC //#define MMA8451Q /* I2C barometer */ //#define BMP085 //#define MS561101BA /* I2C magnetometer */ //#define HMC5843 //#define HMC5883 //#define AK8975 //#define MAG3110 /* Sonar */ // for visualization purpose currently - no control code behind //#define SRF02 // use the Devantech SRF i2c sensors //#define SRF08 //#define SRF10 //#define SRF23 /* ADC accelerometer */ // for 5DOF from sparkfun, uses analog PIN A1/A2/A3 //#define ADCACC /* enforce your individual sensor orientation - even overrides board specific defaults */ //#define FORCE_ACC_ORIENTATION(X, Y, Z) {imu.accADC[ROLL] = Y; imu.accADC[PITCH] = -X; imu.accADC[YAW] = Z;} //#define FORCE_GYRO_ORIENTATION(X, Y, Z) {imu.gyroADC[ROLL] = -Y; imu.gyroADC[PITCH] = X; imu.gyroADC[YAW] = Z;} //#define FORCE_MAG_ORIENTATION(X, Y, Z) {imu.magADC[ROLL] = X; imu.magADC[PITCH] = Y; imu.magADC[YAW] = Z;} Failsafe Option The term Failsafe by traditional interpretation maybe a misnomer here however it is suggested if you are using a RX that does not have its own failsafe procedures. The MWC failsafe monitor the input from the RX for values within the 1000ms to 2000mz zone and if not,
  49. 49. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 49 will enable the failsafe. At this stage, failsafe is basically a control crash. It enable auto-leveling if the flight controller has an accelerometer and adjust the throttle to the defined value listed below. Here is addition info on Fail safe. /******** Failsafe settings ********************/ /* Failsafe check pulses on four main control channels CH1-CH4. If the pulse is missing or bellow 985us (on any of these four channels) the failsafe procedure is initiated. After FAILSAFE_DELAY time from failsafe detection, the level mode is on (if ACC or nunchuk is avaliable), PITCH, ROLL and YAW is centered and THROTTLE is set to FAILSAFE_THROTTLE value. You must set this value to descending about 1m/s or so for best results. This value is depended from your configuration, AUW and some other params. Next, after FAILSAFE_OFF_DELAY the copter is disarmed, and motors is stopped. If RC pulse coming back before reached FAILSAFE_OFF_DELAY time, after the small quard time the RC control is returned to normal. */ #define FAILSAFE // uncomment to activate the failsafe function #define FAILSAFE_DELAY 10 // Guard time for failsafe activation after signal lost. 1 step = 0.1sec - 1sec in example #define FAILSAFE_OFF_DELAY 200 // Time for Landing before motors stop in 0.1sec. 1 step = 0.1sec - 20sec in example #define FAILSAFE_THROTTLE (MINTHROTTLE + 200) // (*) Throttle level used for landing - may be relative to MINTHROTTLE - as in this case #define FAILSAFE_DETECT_TRESHOLD 985 Motor Stop Option The MOTOR_STOP option is suggested but not required. What it does is, the motors will not spin up when the throttle is at it lowest point. This can be helpful during the arming procedure. /*************************************************************************** ***********/ /*********************** motor, servo and other presets ***********************/
  50. 50. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 50 /*************************************************************************** ***********/ /* motors will not spin when the throttle command is in low position this is an alternative method to stop immediately the motors */ //#define MOTOR_STOP 4.3.1.2. Transmitter Configuration Mixing Setting Make sure the set the Transmitter mixing settings to ACRO (No mixing) in the US, type two or type One for else where. This procedure will very according to the brand so please consult your owner manual for special details of how this is done. Setting End Points Adjust the endpoints for the Pitch, Roll, Yaw and Throttle channels to their maximum allowable points or 1000ms for the low and 2000ms for the high. Trim the following channels as required. Throttle: 1000 - 1020 ms Pitch : 1500 Roll : 1500 Yaw : 1500 The GUI may be used as feedback if they are unable to be set via the transmitter. Set your transmitter end points. Using the WinGUI or MW Config open the RC CONTROLS tab look at the live tx data, then use your tx sub trim to set the throttle low at 1000 and all the mid sticks at 1500. Then using the tx end points adjustment make the throttle high point 2000, yaw left 1000, yaw right 2000, pitch down 1000, pitch up 2000, roll left 1000, roll right 2000. You may have to readjust for 1500 center. Ensure that all readings move in direction
  51. 51. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 51 of TX sticks & switches (maximum value when the sticks are in the upper right corner). Reverse on TX if not. Note: Do not set Ends Points less than 1000 or greater than 2000. Slightly within these limits is better than any value going outside these limits. The remaining channels, set to 1500ms but not critical for setup at this time. 4.3.1.3. ESC Calibration The ESC Calibration is the very foundation for a well-tuned aircraft. With this said, not all ESCs are created equality. Some, the end points are configurable (preferred) where others have a fixed points. Importantly the calibration of the ESCs min/max points using direct connection to RX which should be in the general area of 1050 to 2000ms. For this process, it is strongly suggestion to remove the props and have a means of quickly disconnection the battery if something should go wrong. There are other methods but this is easiest. Ensure motors are turning in correct direction with correct props for rotation & not mounted upside down. External Method Calibration One method is to build a simple connector using header pins with the top (Signal) and the bottom (ground) connected. The 5th pin would be connected to the RX throttle pin. This will assure all ESCs have the same signals values sent to them. MWC Special Build ESC Calibration /**** ESCs calibration ****/ /********************************************************************/ /* to calibrate all ESCs connected to MWii at the same time (useful to avoid unplugging/re- plugging each ESC) Warning: this creates a special version of MultiWii Code You cannot fly with this special version. It is only to be used for calibrating ESCs
  52. 52. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 52 Read How To at http://code.google.com/p/multiwii/wiki/ESCsCalibration */ #define ESC_CALIB_LOW MINCOMMAND #define ESC_CALIB_HIGH 2000 //#define ESC_CALIB_CANNOT_FLY // uncomment to activate GUI Interface Next connect to PC running WinGUI or MW Config. Calibrate ACC with FC level & not moving & Mag by moving FC thru all axis in 30seconds. Check graphs & readouts to confirm accurate calibration. Don't expect motor speed graphs to rise in sync & hold speed in GUI when quad not flying. This is normal & part of PID control Accelerometer Calibration Place the copter on a level surface and level the copter, a bubble leveler is not required but is helpful for better accuracy. Then click on the Acc. Calibrate option in the MultiWii GUI. Similarly calibrate other sensors such as the Gyroscope and Magnetometer. For calibration of accelerometer the flight controller should be moved to and fro in quick succession. For calibrating the gyroscope, the flight controller should be rotated in all axis. For calibrating the magnetometer, the flight controller should be moved in a circular matter. These are very important as they help the quadcopter to be stable during flight. Small winds will not destabilize the quadcopter during flight. Also it will be much easier to control.
  53. 53. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 53 Fig 4.22 MultiWii GUI Fig 4.23: MultiWii GUI after Calibrating All Sensors
  54. 54. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 54 There are two methods for Acc Calibration, By clicking the ACC Cal button in the GUI Or by using the Stick combination. Image shown is for Mode II transmitters. Fig 4.24: Magnetometer Calibration First Flight Testing Safety First Be aware that if you choose to run the MW version preinstalled on the FC it may have Motor Stop uncommented. This is not recommended for beginners as motors will not spin on arming & you will not know if Min Throttle is set correctly. Min Throttle should be set to lowest speed that will cause all motors to start reliably every time that quad is armed. Fight Test For the very first attempt at fight, it is best to have all modes (auto-leveling, Heading and Altitude Holding etc.) Disabled. Increase throttle slightly then decrease throttle fully and the motors need to be still rotating, if they stop then your min throttle setting needs increasing slightly. With all sensors calibrated correctly and mag declination set, using the default PIDs and in a nice open space ARM with throttle low and yaw right. Throttle-up slowly watching for the first signs of liftoff. Note any variations in Roll and Pitch axis, if the differences are contain, trim the axis in question. If there is Oscillation. this will require adjusting the P value for that axis. Make sure not to over control the copter, at this
  55. 55. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 55 point in the flight, very little control is necessary. At this stage of testing, ground turbulence is actually a good friend because if the Gyro is well tuned, the copter should be able to correct itself. PID settings The P was called many different things in the old days of instrumentation, ratio, rate, band, I/O and many more. It actually means that an input value change will give an output value change times a multiplier. The I value used to be called reset, time, and other things, it means time based on value of input/setpoint or vice versa in some instances multiplied by a corrective value. D the derivative is a bit harder to explain, but means mostly that an upset that happens very quick and/or large enough that it would not be handled by normal more gentle P and I can be handled by a complex calculation. D has to be used cautiously for it can induce violent outputs very quickly. In deeper words, D functions on the angle of the rate of change instead of the rate of change. Other Try again and if the motor idle speed is stable increase throttle quickly to approx. 50% and hover. If it drifts use TX trims to prevent it. Next enable Horizon mode. If quad drifts backwards just land disarm with throttle low yaw left. Then trim ACC with throttle high and hold your pitch roll stick in the opposite direction to the drift so in this case forward hold there until the light on your board flashes 5 times then centre stick, throttle low and rearm and try again. Repeat as required. DO NOT touch TX TRIMS to counter drift as you have already set this in Acro. Remember if you calibrate ACC again using GUI (or ACC stick Cal) you will lose these ACC adjustments & have to do it again. If motors don't have enough power to climb then vibration is probably your issue unless bad or low capacity LiPo. Buy good composite or CF props with quality adapters, balance everything & then retry. You may still need to set Gyro filter to 42Hz in Config.h if it won't climb or flies erratically.
  56. 56. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 56 CHAPTER 4.5 CONNECTING THE HARDWARE COMPONENTS The components can be connected in any order but it is advised to follow a specific order in order to avoid damaging the components  First, the four motors are connected to the legs of each frame using the screws provided with the motors. The motors should be screwed tightly to avoid any problems when the motors are spinning.  Then the frame legs are connected to the power distribution board using the screws. The quadcopter will start looking like a quadcopter when this step is complete. After screwing the legs of the frame, we should decide which should be the front side and the back side of the quadcopter. This is necessary because the flight controller uses this information to determine the flight of the quadcopter.  Then we have to connect the ESCs to each motor. This is an important step as this determines which direction the motors should spin. Starting from the left side of the front of the quadcopter, we number the motor as 1. The next motor, counting in the clockwise direction, is the 2nd motor. Then the 3rd motor is the one at the right side of the back of the quadcopter. Finally the 4th motor is the one at the left side of the back of the quadcopter.  The 1st and the 3rd motors rotate in the clockwise direction. The 2nd and the 4th motors rotate in the anti-clockwise direction. The motors are 3 phase brushless dc motors (BLDC). There are 3 wires in each motor to connect to 3 wire in the ESC. There is no particular order to connect the ESC wires with the motor wires. The order which we used is by simply connecting the wires in the same order as it is provided with the ESCs and the motors. So the first wire in the ESC is connected to the first wire in the motor and so on. This would theoretically rotate the motor in clockwise direction. We did this for the 1st and 3rd motors. For the 2nd and 4th motors we interchanged two wires. This would rotate these motors in the anti-clockwise direction.  Then, we solder the ESC’s positive and negative terminals to the power distribution board in the frame. The ESCs are then attached to the legs of the frame using Zip ties. This would prevent the ESCs from falling off during the flight.
  57. 57. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 57  The next step is to place the flight controller in a case and stick it to the power distribution board. A case is necessary to insulate the flight controller from the power distribution board.  The servo connectors in the ESCs are then connected to the flight controller. There is a particular order for this and it is printed on to the flight controller.  Next we attach the battery at the center of the frame. The battery is pretty heavy so it should be placed in such a way as the center of gravity of will be at the exact center of the frame.  A battery connector is also soldered to the power distribution board. This is used to connect to the battery terminals.  Then we attach the receiver to the frame and connect the channels of the receiver to the respective pins in the flight controller. The receiver should be placed at a small distance from the power distribution board in order to avoid any interferences.  Then we attach the landing gear to the bottom of the quadcopter. We made our landing gear using PVC. It is light weight and very cheap. It should be able to sustain the weight of the quadcopter when it is landing. We placed thermocol at the bottom of the landing gear for a cushion while it is landing.  Then we attached the sprayer module and the container using wire mesh. It is attached in such a way that it is easy to refill the container with pesticide as soon as it gets depleted.  The next step was to connect the sprayer module to the MOSFET and then to the battery. The MOSFET in turn is connected to the receiver to make it work like a switch.  Then we have to check whether the components are working properly. So we turn on the transmitter first and then turn on the quadcopter by connecting the battery to the power distribution board. We will hear a feedback sound from the motors.  The flight controller is armed by using the transmitter. This is done by lowering the throttle in the transmitter and then moving it in the left direction.  After arming the flight controller we raise the throttle slowly check if the motors are spinning in the right direction. Also check whether the sprayer module turns on.  If the motors are spinning in the right direction, we turn remove the battery connection and turn off the transmitter. Then we screw the propellers tightly into the motors.
  58. 58. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 58 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS After arming the quadcopter the throttle was raised which made the quadcopter lift off. Then the forward motion was carried out using the receiver. The quadcopter moved left, right, forward and backward depending on the input given to it. All the controls were working properly. The receiver was able to pick up the signal from distances over 50m. The sprayer module worked when the channel associated with it was turned on. The quadcopter moved with good stability. The most satisfactory output was that it was very easy to learn to control the quadcopter. Flying it over fields and spraying pesticides is easy. It is affordable for a small scale farmer and it is also easy to operate it. It requires lesser time and effort than going directly into the field. One of the main advantages of using a quadcopter to spray pesticides is that health problems due to inhalation of pesticides can be avoided. Usually farmers use marks and gloves to cover their face and arms while going into the field to spray pesticides. But the spraying process converts the liquid pesticides into tiny particles that will float around the farmer and eventually get inhaled by them. Pesticides as we know are poisonous and are meant to kill or drive away small insects and pests. Once these get inside the human body, it will stay there itself. Thereby causing various disorders like breathing trouble and asthma. These problems can be avoided by using a quadcopter to spray pesticides. Another major advantage is that the time required to spray pesticides on an entire field is reduced to a much lesser amount by the use of a quadcopter. It may not happen in the first try but once the farmer gets lots of practice, then he can spray pesticides with the quadcopter much faster than walking over the fields with pesticide spraying equipment. The farmer would have to wear all the safety equipment first and then carry the container and spray module and he would have to walk the entire field. This would obviously take a lot of time compared to just using a remote control to guide a quadcopter into the field and spray the pesticides. For a large field, a lot of labour is required to spray the field. This would be very expensive for the farmer as he would have to hire a lot of people to spray the entire field. However, with the help of a pesticide spraying drone, a farmer himself can do the work. He wouldn’t need the help of other people. So this means that not only is the quadcopter safe for the farmer but also it will make his farming practices more efficient.
  59. 59. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 59 This is also suitable for people who are not actual farmers but wants to do small scale farming if they have some free space left. A lot of reports have emerged that people should start small scale farming because of two main reasons. One is that the vegetables they buy are not healthy because they are grown in unhealthy conditions. Second is that fruits and vegetables are not easily available nowadays. There is a lack of food and with increasing population, the demand is only increasing. So more people should start cultivating vegetables at home. If they do not have time to look after those plants then they can use a fully autonomous quadcopter which they can control sitting at their office. So the importance of this project is not limited as just a college project. It is infact a prototype to what will be future of agriculture. Precision agriculture is the future and inorder to achieve full precision we need to use autonomous robots and quadcopters. This means that agriculture of the future will not require human intervention if at all required it would be a small number. Human error will therefore be absent and the machines will take decisions based on the environmental condition. No crop will get fertilizer or pesticide more than what is needed by it. Similarly, the amount of pesticide will be limited and only the required amount will be sprayed. This will undoubtedly increase the yield and reduce the labour required. It will also reduce pollution to a great extent. This is the only way by which we can meet food requirements in the future.
  60. 60. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 60 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION By successful implementation of such project affective spraying of pesticide can be achieved. It is the start of precision agriculture. The exposure of highly toxic pesticide to humans can be prevented. This is important as pesticide poisoning is a serious cause of death and other diseases among farmers. This can also be used in places where laborers are hard to find. Also the cost can be minimized because the farmer would not have to spend more money in providing labour. One can hasten the pesticide spraying process and cover large area in short time.This is also important not only for farmers but for people who do not have enough time to nurture crops. They can use our project to spray pesticides much quickly. Encounters with venomous snakes, which can be found regularly in fields can be prevented. The farmers safely cover their body to prevent attack of deadly insects and snakes. It will not be necessary if a quadcopter is used for this purpose. As spraying is done from lower altitude, environmental pollution can be reduced. Too much pesticides can cause some serious pollution but by using a quadcopter we are performing precision agriculture so there will not be any wastage.
  61. 61. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 61 CHAPTER 7 FUTURE SCOPE Weight lifting capacity of the quadcopter can be increased by increasing the number of motors or by increasing the propeller size or by increasing the rpm of the motor. Increased weight lifting capability will allow us to carry more pesticide in the tank. Pesticide carrying capacity can be increased by increasing the size of the tank. Flight time can be increased by increasing the battery capacity. But the problem is that when battery capacity increases the weight of the battery will also increase. In the future there may come batteries that have better capacities and lesser weight. Larger area can be covered by using more nozzles which can be arranged in the form of array. Using more number of nozzles will result in the pesticide in the container depleting faster. Angle of spraying can be controlled for accurate spraying. Different crops require different type of spraying. So the angle of spraying should be different for different crops. A servo motor can be used to control the angle of spraying. This will enable more accurate spraying. In the future components may become more affordable. At that time a completely autonomous drone will be more suitable. It can have a GPS module that can go to the field on its own. It can have a camera which can understand what type of crop it should spray and adjust the sprayer in such a way that may be suitable for the crop. It can also be IoT enabled which means that the user can get custom notifications on his smartphone when the quadcopter has completed the spraying action. The user can also use his smartphone to turn on the quadcopter anywhere in the field and remotely enable it to go spray in his particular field.
  62. 62. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 62 BIBILIOGRAPHY  Agriculture Drone for Spraying Fertilizer and Pesticides -Prof. Swati D Kale, Swati V Khandagale, Shweta S Gaikwad, Sayali S Narve, Purva V GangalDepartment of Electronics & Telecommunication, RajarshiShahu College of Engineering, Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India- Volume 5, Issue 12, December 2015,International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering  Development of Quad Copter Based Pesticide Spraying Mechanism for Agricultural Applications - IJIREEICE, International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering,Vol. 5, Special Issue 2, April 2017, Sadhana B1, Gourav Naik2, Mythri R J3, Puneeth G Hedge4, ShyamaKirana Sharma B5Assistant Prof, Dept. of ISE, CEC Benjanapadavu, Mangalore, India  Design and Analysis of Light Weight Agriculture Robot-ShaikHimamSaheb& G. SatishBabu,Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: AMechanical and Mechanics Engineering,Volume 17 Issue 6 Version 1.0 Year 2017  Quadcopter - A Smarter Way of Pesticide Spraying-ShilpaKedari, Pramod Lohagaonkar, Monika Nimbokar,GangaramPalve& Prof. PallaviYevale,Department of Computer Engg, SKN-SITS College of Engineering, Pune University, India-Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)Vol-2, Issue-6, 2016
  63. 63. Quadcopter UAV Based Pesticide Spraying System Dept. of ECE, VKCET 63 APPENDIX COMPONENT SPECIFICATION WEIGHT Frame Size=45cm 400g BLDC Motor Thrust=768g 50g ESC Current rating=30A 35g Propeller Length=10 inch 20g LiPo battery Capacity=2200mAh 180g Sprayer Module Voltage Rating=12V 100g Flight Controller Voltage Rating=5V 60g

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