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Imminent water-related crises in India


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India faces 3 major water-related challenges that will require significant intervention. First is limited supply of potable water; second lack of adequate sanitation and third - water pollution and environmental effects.

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Imminent water-related crises in India

  2. 2. India, the 2nd most populous country in the world, faces 3 serious challenges related to water: • Insufficient supply of fresh water • Inadequate sanitation • Water pollution
  3. 3. Fresh water 5000 years ago India had one of the best water supply systems in the World Dholavira water reservoir in Gujrat
  4. 4. Today’s scenario… Fresh water
  5. 5. Fresh water India has 16% of the global population, but just 4% of the world's fresh water
  6. 6. Rains or not, India is falling short on drinkable water (Source: The New York Times) Fresh water
  7. 7. By 2030, India’s fresh water demand will become double the capacity (Source: McKinsey report) Fresh water
  8. 8. Groundwater levels in major Indian cities declining at rapid pace Fresh water
  9. 9. 21% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water (Source: World Bank) Fresh water
  10. 10. Lack of clean drinking water is hurting India’s manufacturing sector, resulting in employment declines Fresh water
  11. 11. Two sustainable ways forward: Water conservation Fresh water
  12. 12. and water recycling Fresh water
  13. 13. Sanitation refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Source: World Health Organization Sanitation
  14. 14. Sanitation also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Source: World Health Organization Sanitation
  15. 15. “Sanitation is more important than political independence” — Mahatma Gandhi Sanitation
  16. 16. Yet… Sanitation
  17. 17. More than 50% of India’s population still doesn’t have access to proper sanitation Sanitation
  18. 18. India currently has the highest number (62 million) of children who suffer from stunting due to poor sanitation (Source: UNICEF) Sanitation
  19. 19. National Indian average of sanitation, hygiene and water safety is only 34 % (58% urban and 23% poor) Sanitation
  20. 20. Over 75 % of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe households do not have access to safe sanitation (Source: UN MDG report) Sanitation
  21. 21. Government of India has constructed over 2 Crore new toilets under the Swachha Bharat Mission (Source: Swachha Bharat Mission) Sanitation
  22. 22. But the biggest challenge is availability of water for toilet/urinal flushing Sanitation
  23. 23. Freedom from open defecation will not be achieved without sufficient water supply for toilet cleaning Sanitation
  24. 24. Wastewater treatment has long been a neglected area in urban water planning Water pollution
  25. 25. The consequence… Water pollution
  26. 26. India generates 22,900 million litres per day (MLD) of domestic wastewater Water pollution
  27. 27. Currently, India’s sewage treatment capacity is only 30% of the generation (Source: Central Pollution Control Board) Water pollution
  28. 28. Remaining 70 per cent sewage remains untreated and directly flow into our water bodies Water pollution
  29. 29. Maharashtra sends 2,383 MLD of untreated sewage directly into the Arabian Sea. Water pollution
  30. 30. Installation and operating costs of existing technologies are rather high and hence are ill- afforded by the communities Water pollution
  31. 31. Decentralized sewage treatment facilities are effective and low- cost Water pollution
  32. 32. Conserving Fresh water Improving Sanitation Reducing Water pollution One solution for solving all 3 problems Wastewater recycling and reuse