Spacecraft Observations of Jupiter • Pioneer 10 flew by Jupiter on December 1, 1973. • Pioneer 11 flew by Jupiter on December 1, 1974. • Voyager 1 flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. • Voyager 2 flew by Jupiter on July 9, 1979. • Ulysses, studies the poles of the Sun. Jupiter flyby February 8, 1992. • Galileo Orbiter/Atmospheric Probe - 1995 – 2003. • Hubble Space Telescope - observations since April 25, 1990. • Cassini – en route to Saturn, December 2000, and now there.
The VoyagerSpacecraft on its way,looking backat Earth and our Moon
Galileo atmospheric probe of Jupiter’s atmosphere - December 7th, 1995 Depth of measurements ~200 km
Jupiter, with its dark belts (where gases move down into the interior), and light zones(where gases move upwards). Alsovisible is the Great Red Spot, a huge hurricane that hasbeen observed from Earth for ~ 350 years, and other more or lesstemporary surface features
Jupiter’s Cloud Structure180 km 1 2120 - 110 km Red Spot90 km 370 - 80 km 4 30 km 5
Strength of the magnetic fields of the planets.Jupiter has by far the strongest magnetic field, because its interior is made of an excellent electric conductor (liquid metallic hydrogen), and because the planet rotates around its axis faster than any other (once in 10 hours).
Aurora at poles of Jupiter – show that Jupiter has a strong magnetic field