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Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease. It causes irritation, inflammation, and ulcers in the lining of your large intestine (also called your colon). There's no cure, and people usually have symptoms off and on for life

1 of 20
Ulcerative colitis
Prepared by
Mr.Abhay Rajpoot
HOD (Dep. of Medical Surgical)
abhayrajpoot5591@gmail.com
Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
INTRODUCTION
• Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that
causes inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the digestive tract.
• Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of large intestine
(colon) and rectum.
• Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to
life-threatening complications. While it has no known cure,
treatment can greatly reduce signs and symptoms of the
disease and bring about long-term remission.
DEFINITION
• Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease. It
causes irritation, inflammation, and ulcers in the lining large
intestine.
• There’s no cure, and people usually have symptoms off and
on for life. But the right treatments can help to keep a handle
on the disease.
Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
RISK FACTORS
Ulcerative colitis affects about the same number of women and
men. Risk factors may include:
• Age. Ulcerative colitis usually begins before the age of 30. But it
can occur at any age, and some people may not develop the
disease until after age 60.
• Race or ethnicity. Although whites have the highest risk of the
disease, it can occur in any race.
• Family history.

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Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

  • 1. Ulcerative colitis Prepared by Mr.Abhay Rajpoot HOD (Dep. of Medical Surgical) abhayrajpoot5591@gmail.com
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the digestive tract. • Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of large intestine (colon) and rectum. • Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to life-threatening complications. While it has no known cure, treatment can greatly reduce signs and symptoms of the disease and bring about long-term remission.
  • 4. DEFINITION • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease. It causes irritation, inflammation, and ulcers in the lining large intestine. • There’s no cure, and people usually have symptoms off and on for life. But the right treatments can help to keep a handle on the disease.
  • 6. RISK FACTORS Ulcerative colitis affects about the same number of women and men. Risk factors may include: • Age. Ulcerative colitis usually begins before the age of 30. But it can occur at any age, and some people may not develop the disease until after age 60. • Race or ethnicity. Although whites have the highest risk of the disease, it can occur in any race. • Family history.
  • 7. CAUSES • The exact cause of ulcerative colitis remains unknown. Previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that these factors may aggravate but don't cause ulcerative colitis. • One possible cause is an immune system malfunction. • Heredity also seems to play a role in that ulcerative colitis is more common in people who have family members with the disease.
  • 9. TYPES • Ulcerative proctitis. Inflammation is confined to the area closest to the anus (rectum), and rectal bleeding may be the only sign of the disease. • Proctosigmoiditis. Inflammation involves the rectum and sigmoid colon the lower end of the colon. Signs and symptoms include bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps and pain, and an inability to move the bowels in spite of the urge to do so (tenesmus). • Left-sided colitis. Inflammation extends from the rectum up through the sigmoid and descending colon. Signs and symptoms include bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping and pain on the left side, and urgency to defecate. • Pancolitis. This type often affects the entire colon and causes bouts of bloody diarrhea that may be severe, abdominal cramps and pain, fatigue, and significant weight loss.
  • 11. SYMPTOMS • Diarrhea, often with blood or pus • Abdominal pain and cramping • Rectal pain • Rectal bleeding — passing small amount of blood with stool • Urgency to defecate • Inability to defecate despite urgency • Weight loss • Fatigue • Fever • In children, failure to grow
  • 12. LAB TESTS • Blood tests. • Stool studies. White blood cells or certain proteins in stool can indicate ulcerative colitis. A stool sample can also help rule out other disorders, such as infections caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites. Endoscopic procedures • Colonoscopy. This exam allows to view entire colon using a thin, flexible, lighted tube with a camera on the end. • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. A flexible, lighted tube to examine the rectum and sigmoid colon the lower end of the colon
  • 15. COMPLICATIONS • Severe bleeding • A hole in the colon (perforated colon) • Severe dehydration • Bone loss (osteoporosis) • Inflammation of the skin, joints and eyes • An increased risk of colon cancer • A rapidly swelling colon (toxic megacolon) • Increased risk of blood clots in veins and arteries
  • 16. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Anti-inflammatory drugs • Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and are appropriate for the majority of people with this condition. These drugs include: -5-aminosalicylates. Examples: Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) -Corticosteroids. These drugs, which include prednisone and budesonide, are generally reserved for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis that doesn't respond to other treatments.
  • 17. Immune system suppressors • These drugs also reduce inflammation, but they do so by suppressing the immune system response that starts the process of inflammation. For some people, a combination of these drugs works better than one drug alone. Immunosuppressant drugs include: • Azathioprine • Cyclosporine
  • 18. OTHER DRUGS • Anti-diarrheal medications • Pain relievers • Antispasmodics • Iron supplements