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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion, sometimes referred to as “water on the lungs,” is the build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs. The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.

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PLEURAL EFFUSION
PRESENTED BY
ABHAY RAJPOOT
DEFINITION
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the
fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
INCIDENCE
Pleural effusion is a fairly common condition. It is estimated to occur in
as high as one million people in the United States each year. The most
common underlying cause is congestive heart failure. Other common
causes include lung infections, some cancers, and blood clots in the lung.
RISK FACTORS
 Heart failure
 Pneumonia
 Cancers, such as lung, breast, lymphoma, mesothelioma
 Liver disease
 Connective tissue diseases (rheumatic heart disease, arthritis)
 Pulmonary embolism
 Radiation therapy
 Tuberculosis
 Nephrotic syndrome
 Pregnancy
ETIOLOGY
 A viral infection, such as the flu (influenza)
 A bacterial infection, such as pneumonia
 A fungal infection
 Autoimmune disorder, such as rheumatoid arthritis
 Certain medications
 Lung cancer near the pleural surface
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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Pleural effusion