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NHSMUN

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NHSMUN

  1. 1. NHSMUN 2015 National High School Model United Nations New York City | March 04-07, 2015 IMUNAInternational Model United Nations Association Update Paper NHSMUN United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Committee
  2. 2. Shirley Wu Secretary-General Princeton University Lily O’Connell Director-General University of Pennsylvania Brody Duncan Conference Director McGill University Alec Guertin Director of Security University of California, Berkeley Jason Toney Chief of External Relations Bard College Laura Beltran-Rubio Chief of Staff Parsons The New School for Design Jinny Jung Under-Secretary General of Administrative Affairs University of Michigan Helen Robertson Under-Secretary General University of Virginia Joe Sherlock Under-Secretary General Bowdoin College Erin Corcoran Under-Secretary General Harvard University Costanza Cicero Under-Secretary General University of Bologna Alyssa Greenhouse Under-Secretary General Duke University Paula Kates Under-Secretary General Tufts University NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-for-profit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level. NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL MODEL UNITED NATIONS T h e 4 1 s t A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e • M a r c h 4 – M a r c h 7 , 2 0 1 5 February 2015 Dear Delegates, Welcome to NHSMUN 2015! My name is Abha Nath and I am unbelievably excited to work at this conference as the Assistant Director for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, otherwise known as UNESCO. I have been involved with Model UN since my freshman year of high school and cannot wait to continue through my involvement at NHSMUN. NHSMUN is an amazing conference and I knew I wanted to be on staff since my senior year of high school when I attended the conference myself in the World Trade Organization committee (2013). I currently attend the University of Southern California as a sophomore studying Computer Science and Business Administration. I have been in Southern California for most of my life, so in my free time I enjoy spending a lot of time under the sun, lounging at the beach, playing beach volleyball or stand-up paddleboarding. I also enjoy spending my free time going on long walks or hikes, attending many small concerts and reading The Onion at coffee shops. As for committee, I am very excited to hear what you all will present in debate. We have been working really hard to find current and relevant topics for you to debate and we sincerely hope that you will use your thorough research to come up with creative solutions to these topics! It is important to remember that the problems addressed in these topics are constantly changing, so confront them in a current time frame. Our twitter is a great way to keep up with both topics: @NHSMUN_UNESCO. If at any point you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to get in touch with me! I would love to help you all out in any way possible. You can contact us by email unesco.nhsmun@imuna.org. I am eager to read your position papers and meet you all so soon! Good luck with your research and see you in March! Sincerely, Abha Nath Assistant Director, UNESCO @NHSMUN_UNESCO
  3. 3. Shirley Wu Secretary-General Princeton University Lily O’Connell Director-General University of Pennsylvania Brody Duncan Conference Director McGill University Alec Guertin Director of Security University of California, Berkeley Jason Toney Chief of External Relations Bard College Laura Beltran-Rubio Chief of Staff Parsons The New School for Design Jinny Jung Under-Secretary General of Administrative Affairs University of Michigan Helen Robertson Under-Secretary General University of Virginia Joe Sherlock Under-Secretary General Bowdoin College Erin Corcoran Under-Secretary General Harvard University Costanza Cicero Under-Secretary General University of Bologna Alyssa Greenhouse Under-Secretary General Duke University Paula Kates Under-Secretary General Tufts University NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-for- profit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level. NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL MODEL UNITED NATIONS T h e 4 1 s t A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e • M a r c h 4 – M a r c h 7 , 2 0 1 5 February 2015 Dear Delegates, My name is Luke Linden and I’m thrilled to be one of your UNESCO Assistant Directors at NHSMUN 2015. As a former NHSMUN delegate myself, I remember the excitement and nervousness that accompanies the experience, and I hope that the rest of NHSMUN staff and I can make this a rewarding and engaging experience for you all. By way of introduction, I grew up in Bay Shore, New York and am currently studying International Politics and Economics at Middlebury College in sunny Middlebury, Vermont. I’ve attended NHSMUN for three years as a delegate and participated in the World Bank and WIPO. Aside from my fierce devotion to Model UN and all things international, I spend my free time honing my French horn technique, hitting the slopes, or hibernating during Vermont’s endless winters. I hope I get a chance to familiarize myself with each of you and create a stimulating and encouraging environment for debate. Both topics presented to you are complex, multifaceted, and urgent. UNESCO plays a unique role in each, and it is important that you take an approach that is both rooted in UNESCO’s historical role as a committee and innovative. While there are limits to what can be accomplished, do not mistake this for a shortage of issues that need be addressed. With regards to Protecting Journalists, UNESCO has a unique opportunity to advocate for free speech and ensure the safe and free spread of information. UNESCO is uniquely interested in the Preservation of Syrian Culture, largely through the six World Heritage Sites that reside in Syria. Within both Protecting Journalists and Preserving Syrian Culture, there exist countless areas of concern and potential points of contention. If each of you brings your best ideas forward, I have faith that there will be productive and healthy debate. Good luck to each of you! I’m looking forward to seeing all of your hard work put into practice in March! If you have any questions, please feel free to email me or any other NHSMUN staffer or to tweet to the official NHSMUN 2015 UNESCO account. Sincerely, Luke Linden Assistant Director, UNESCO @NHSMUN_UNESCO
  4. 4. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 1 - TOPIC A: PROTECTING JOURNALISTS UPDATE PAPER The preservation of the basic civil and human rights of journalists has become increasingly significant. It has been reported that within the last 10 years, over 600 journalists and media workers were either murdered intentionally or killed due to unsafe working environments.1 Even more surprisingly, however, is that most of these crimes are committed in non-conflict areas. In 2014 alone, over 60 journalist deaths have been reported. Though this is ten less than the deaths reported in 2013, the number remains alarmingly high.2 It is important to keep in mind that this is only a narrow representation of the cases that have been reported, as data demonstrates that anywhere between 2-5% of journalist-related incidents fail to be officially accounted for and recorded.3 On 7 January 2015, the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo was invaded by two unmasked gunmen who killed 12 people in the office in a radical extremist response to some of the magazine’s controversial issues.4 The public quickly started a movement on the evening of the 7th coined as “je suis Charlie,” which was a larger endorsement of freedom of speech and freedom of press. 5 People in France, and all across the world, have come together through demonstrations to stand in unity against the threats to free speech and press. 6 By 11 January, over 2 million people were actively participating in rallies in France to help demonstrate their support.7 Journalists’ rights continue to be tested on an international level, and it is becoming more and more difficult for them to report in high-tension situations. In general, several reports attest to the fact that the Middle East remains one of the “deadliest and most high-risk” areas for journalists and media workers.8 In the past three years alone, 79 incidents have been recorded regarding journalist deaths due to work-related reasons. Journalists in Mogadishu, Somalia have been meeting with key partners of the UN in efforts to foster a safer work environment for themselves.9 As one of the top ten deadliest regions for journalist reporting, Somalia is an area in which journalists have experienced “assassinations, imprisonment, and harassment,” “often without impunity,” according to strategic communications director for the U.N. Assistance Mission in Somalia.10 Consequently, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1"Safety of Journalists and Impunity," United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, accessed 22 Dec. 2014, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/freedom-of-expression/safety-of-journalists/. 2 Kathryn Rosembaum, "Protecting More Than the Front Page: Codifying a Reporter's Privilege for Digital and Citizen Journalists," Notre Dame Law Review 89, no. 1427 (2014). 3 Ibid. 4 Eilana Dockterman, “Charlie Hebdo Editor Killed in Paris Attack Built Career on Defiance,” TIME Magazine, http://time.com/3657402/charlie-hebdo-stephane-charbonnier-paris-attack/. 5 ibid. 6 ibid. 7 ibid. 8 Kathryn Rosembaum, "Protecting More Than the Front Page: Codifying a Reporter's Privilege for Digital and Citizen Journalists." 9 Anne Newman and Ronald David Glass, "Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters," The Journal of Higher Education 85, no. 3 (2014): 283-311, http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed December 3, 2014). 10 Ibid.
  5. 5. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 2 - this impunity is “giving more opportunity for the killers to do more attacks against the journalists.”11 Even more alarming, however, is the number—which is over 350—of incidents reported regarding basic abuse and infringement of rights in 2014.12 Reporters, broadcast journalists, and media workers’ rights are constantly violated. According to a report conducted by Reporters Without Borders, in 2014 66 journalists were killed, 116 were kidnapped, and 178 were imprisoned.13 Moreover, most of them are risking their lives to do these jobs and receive, on average, only seventy dollars per piece.14 As a result, the public has acted. Senator Aitzan Ahsan of Pakistan, for example, took action in December 2014 to make this topic current in the Pakistani parliament by consistently bringing up the abuse of journalists’ rights in parliamentary sessions. Many legislators in government have vowed to enact tabled drafts of laws before March 2015 due to the direness of the situation.15 The executive council of the PFUJ, or Pakistani Federal Union of Journalists has joined forces with other journalist associations to “provide...proposals and potential bills” to help their own security.16 As most of these incidents occurred in Northeastern Africa and in the Middle East, these bills hoped to focus more on the safety of these areas and journalist/media worker protection programs through official military personnel.17 The United Nations has also made an effort to combat this issue. On 19 September, the UN Human Rights’ Council (UNHRC) passed a resolution which addresses the impunity of crimes committed against journalists.18 According to Thomas Hughes, executive director of Article 19, the resolution works to send a universal message that all attacks on journalists and media workers must be reprimanded and unexcused.19 Furthermore, UNESCO has joined forces and consolidated resources with multiple other UN organizations, such as the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression (SRFOE), the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial (SROE), Summary or Arbitrary Executions (SAE), and other regional Rapporteurs to help combat this issue.20 Just a few months ago, UNESCO in conjunction with the SRFOE and the SROE declared an international holiday—the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists– on 2 November, 2014 as part of an awareness campaign to help involve the international community in ending these !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11 Ibid. 12 Phil Brooks, "Capitol Perspectives: Protecting the Public from Journalists," CBS St. Louis. 10 Nov. 2014, accessed 30 Nov. 2014. http://stlouis.cbslocal.com/2014/11/10/capitol-perspectives-protecting-the-public-from-journalists/. 13 Alexandre Balguy-Gallois, Jessica Lescs, and Prisca Orsonneau, "Bringing Predators of Freedom of Information to Justice," Reporters Without Borders, accessed 22 Dec. 2014, http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/bringing_predators_of_freedom_of_information_to_justice.pdf. 14"Recent News and Updates," Committee to Protect Journalists, accessed 17 Dec. 2014, http://www.cpj.org/news/ . 15 Noor Aftab, "Efforts Afoot to Get Journalists Safety Bill Approved," The News International, 5 Dec. 2014, accessed 26 Dec. 2014, http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-2-288357-Efforts-afoot-to-get-journalists-safety-bill-approv. 16 Ibid. 17 Alexandre Balguy-Gallois, Jessica Lescs, and Prisca Orsonneau, "Bringing Predators of Freedom of Information to Justice." 18 “Safety of Journalists,” United Nations General Assembly, accessed 10 Jan. 2015, http://www.article19.org/data/files/medialibrary/37704/Journalists-Resolution-Draft-.pdf 19 "UN Resolution on Journalists' Safety Hailed by ARTICLE 19," Today's Zaman, accessed 25 Dec. 2014. http://www.todayszaman.com/national_un-resolution-on-journalists-safety-hailed-by-article-19_359972.html. 20 Benjamin Cabouat, "Informal Meeting of the Security Council on "Protecting Journalists," United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization, 28 Nov. 2014, accessed 22 Dec. 2014. http://en.unesco.org/events/informal-meeting- security-council-“protecting-journalists
  6. 6. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 3 - crimes. Both organizations are also working with UNESCO to launch two intensive training programs in the Middle East. This event also helped inform countries of the necessary steps that need to be taken to help implement UN Resolution A/HRC/27/L.7, as well as the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity.21 Similarly, organizations that actively advocate for the rights of journalists have taken major steps in the last year to further address this problem. Reporters Without Borders improved its monitoring of journalist-related crimes through means such as increased transparency with tracking locations of journalists, reporting crimes, and greater access to databases containing information relating to these crimes (i.e. high-risk situations to avoid, escape routes…etc.). As of December 2014, the Thuraya Telecommunications Company partnered up with the International New Safety Institute (INSI) to help provide safety training to journalists worldwide. This joint coalition provided a safety plan, along with certain products, to “mitigate the risks to journalists in this field.”22 Hannah Storm, Director of INSI, argues that “having access to Thuraya's satellite equipment, INSI can help journalists understand the importance of having robust communications plans in place, showing them how such equipment works, why it is important and how it can in turn help them stay safe.”23 Moreover, the National Lesbian Gay Journalists Association made significant progress in funding by raising 13% more money than the previous year as a result of their 2014 benefit to help target groups of journalists from being oppressed based on their sexuality.24 There is still significant progress to be made with regard to journalistic safety. Regardless of how much the problem has increased recently, great strides are also being made in attempting to combat this.25 However, more can be done at both the individual and the international level, though remain mindful of the limitations on UNESCO’s jurisdiction. In order to address this topic, more should be done to promote journalism as a credible and essential means of disseminating information that citizens have a right to know and that journalists have a right to express.26 This problem can be addressed in two main components: the protection of journalists safety and human rights, and the importance of positively promoting journalism globally, which in turn will motivate countries to modify their judicial system accordingly.27 Journalists are often seen as a threat by governments for reasons of negative public image and slower efficiency. The implications of helping and protecting the rights of journalists can only be positive ones. Creating a safer environment for reporters and journalists’ will not only allow citizens to be aware of current events, but it will also provide a more comfortable atmosphere for journalists to accurately report news. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 21 "UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity," UN Plan of Action | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, accessed 21 Dec. 2014. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication- and-information/freedom-of-expression/safety-of-journalists/un-plan-of-action/. 22 "Thuraya International News Safety Institute Adopt Safety Plans Products," Daily Satellite News, 10 Dec. 2014, accessed 23 Dec. 2014. http://www.satnews.com/story.php?number=313149550. 23 Ibid. 24 "Journalists, Committee to Protect," Attacks on the Press Journalism on the World's Front Lines, 2014 ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2014. 25 Benjamin Cabouat, "Informal Meeting of the Security Council on "Protecting Journalists." 26 "Protection of Journalists," New Communication Order 4: 1-142, accessed 23 Dec. 2014, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0004/000421/042108Eb.pdf. 27 "UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity."
  7. 7. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 4 - TOPIC B: PRESERVING SYRIAN CULTURE UPDATE PAPER Recent developments in Syria have intensified challenges to protecting and preserving its cultural history. A satellite analysis published in October 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science has found that five of Syria’s six World Heritage Sites exhibit “significant damage,” with only the Ancient City of Damascus remaining undamaged since the beginning of the Civil War in 2011.28 The Ancient City of Aleppo in particular has sustained heavy damage, with the list of destroyed and damaged structures including the Great Mosque of Aleppo, the Suq al-Madina, the Grand Serail of Aleppo, and the Hammam Yalbougha an-Nasry, among many others. A UN report published in late December of 2014 complements these findings, determining through satellite evidence that nearly 300 cultural heritage sites have been destroyed in Syria since 2011, including sites that are not necessarily listed as one of Syria’s six UNESCO-sponsored World Heritage Sites.29 Seizures of territory in Syria and Iraq by Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) jihadists in recent months have further worsened the situation, as such groups deem the reverence of tombs and non-Islamic relics to be idolatrous, leading them to destroy sites and significant cultural relics.30 The United Nations has condemned the actions of jihadist groups attempting to destroy culturally significant sites, calling for greater action and more comprehensive protection. In early December at an international conference at UNESCO’s Paris headquarters, Irina Bokova, the Director-General of UNESCO, denounced the destruction and illicit trafficking of culturally significant sites and properties, calling for the creation of “protected cultural zones” around heritage sites that would become focal points for security and stressing the importance of education and cultural preservation in the peacemaking process.31 Bokova stated, “There can be no purely military solution to this crisis…to fight fanaticism, we also need to reinforce education, a defense against hatred, and protect heritage, which helps forge collective identity,” highlighting the importance of culture and cultural identity in the peacemaking and development process.32 At the same conference, decision-makers, experts, and representatives also agreed on the need to implement the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, which designates cultural property as part of a common heritage that demands protection from all nations during wartime, effectively calling on all nations to work against the destruction of cultural property in Syria.33 Furthermore, participants in the conference agreed on the need to end !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 28 "American Association for the Advancement of Science; New High-Resolution Satellite Image Analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage Sites 'Exhibit Significant Damage'," NewsRx Health (12 Oct 2014). 29 "UN: 300 Cultural Heritage Sites Destroyed, Looted in Syria," Al - Akhbar, 23 Dec 2014. 30 Ibid. 31 “UN News - UNESCO Chief Calls for ‘protected Cultural Zones’ in War-Torn Iraq, Syria,” UN News Service Section, 3 Dec 2014. 32 Ibid. 33 “Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, the Hague, 1954.” In The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Propterty in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, the Netherlands: The United Nations, 1954.
  8. 8. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 5 - impunity against intentional destruction of cultural heritage, which is regarded as a war crime under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.34 UNESCO has also recently initiated a number of projects aimed at preserving Syria’s increasingly threatened cultural heritage. The UNESCO office in Beirut is leading the “Emergency Safeguarding of the Syrian Cultural Heritage” project, funded by the European Union and co-organized by the Flemish Government, the ICCROM-ATHAR Regional Conservation Centre, and the Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage in Bahrain.35 The project aims to strengthen the capabilities of Syrian experts and institutions at the local, regional, and international level in responding to emergency situations arising from the intensified destruction of Syrian heritage sites. In early December, UNESCO organized a three-week training course within the “Emergency Safeguarding of the Syrian Cultural Heritage” project deemed “First Aid to Cultural Built Heritage in Syria,” aiming to bring conservation architects, engineers, archaeologists, and experts up-to-date on conservation trends and techniques.36 In particular, the course focused on crisis management and the development of first response teams that can gradually bring training techniques and expertise to regional centers throughout Syria. Furthermore, the course worked on raising awareness and deepening expert’s understanding of the importance of cultural heritage and growing threats to such heritage. As a participant, Mona Alkhouli from the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM), suggests, “It provided us with a deeper understanding of the concept of cultural heritage and the dangers surrounding it…and introduced us to important elements previously disregarded in heritage protection plans, like the debris management.”37 Participants in the training program agreed to continue to build the capacities of regional and national centers and to transfer their new expertise to other experts. Participants also requested complementary training from UNESCO in the future, suggesting a need for sustained programs that continue to offer training and support to experts in the region. As the conflict in Syria progresses and the humanitarian situation continues to degrade, concerns over cultural heritage and its protection will continue to be a major concern, and demand greater attention and action on the part of UNESCO. Recalling these recent efforts and the challenges they’ve brought attention to, including the need for sustained organizational support and the logistical challenges of organizing training programs, would serve delegates well as they consider potential resolutions. Apart from UNESCO, a number of NGOs have responded to the growing crisis in recent months with greater action aimed at protecting and preserving Syria’s cultural heritage. The Spain-based NGO Heritage for Peace, in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and Family Affairs of the Syrian Interim Government, held a training program for the Interim Government’s Task Force on Antiquities and Museums from 23-26 November.38 Special focus was placed on damage assessment and the collection of data, with the hope that systematic, consistent, and accurate data collection on damaged sites will make it easier to initiate protective and reconstructive efforts, as well as to give greater validity to awareness campaigns and to offer reliable evidence in cases of future prosecutions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 34 “UNESCO Conference Calls for Protected Cultural Zones to Be Established Syria and Iraq.” 35 “UNESCO Concludes Training Course on ‘First Aid to Cultural Built Heritage in Syria.’” 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid. 38 Heritage for Peace, 2014. Damage Assessment Training For Staff Of The Syrian Interim Ministry Of Culture And Family Affairs.
  9. 9. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 6 - brought up for the illicit destruction of Syria’s cultural heritage.39 This is something delegates should undoubtedly keep in mind when devising solutions and responses to intensified threats to Syria’s cultural heritage. At the end of the program, participants were expected to pass on their training to colleagues throughout Syria, thus strengthening the capacity of the entire region to preserve and protect Syria’s cultural heritage. Other groups, such as nonprofit organizations, have begun to harness new technologies to tackle the task of heritage site documentation and preservation. The American nonprofit CyArk uses cutting- edge technology to capture enormous data, including millions of images, to digitally preserve culturally significant heritage sites.40 At its most recent Annual Summit, CyArk added the Ancient City of Damascus in Syria to its list of 500 sites to be catalogued over the next five years. Efforts to digitally preserve these sites not only create a permanent document of the site, but also can aid in restoration projects, providing a digital model for architects. While its goals differ slightly from those of UNESCO, it is a project growing in visibility that offers a novel solution to the preservation of threatened world heritage sites. Delegates of UNESCO will need to address a number of logistical challenges. Mobilizing and training personnel to protect and preserve Syria’s heritage sites poses enormous complications, but intensifying threats to cultural sites demands immediate action. In addition, accurate and consistent documentation remains a necessity, with the potential to aid not only in current preservation efforts, but in awareness campaigns as well as peacemaking and redevelopment efforts in the future. Delegates will need to grapple with all of these issues, focusing on regional, national, international challenges as well as both short-term emergency response and long-term preservation. Four years in with little end in sight, the Syrian Civil War continues to pose an enormous humanitarian, security, and cultural crisis. With hundreds of thousands dead and over a million displaced, it is more important than ever that the cultural history of Syria’s peoples be preserved and maintained.4142 The protection of cultural heritage not only strengthens the collective identity of the Syrian people, but it offers a platform for peace and development in the years to come. The more that is lost, the greater the challenges of peace and reconstruction will be in the future. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 39 Ibid. 40 "CyArk; High Tech Race to Save 500 Significant World Heritage Sites Brings Together World Leaders and Corporate Supporters," Journal of Engineering (22 Oct 2014): 800. 41 Mark Memmott, “Fighting Has Forced More Than 1.5 Million Syrians To Move, U.N. Says,” NPR.org. 42 Laura Smith-Spark, “With More than 191,000 Dead in Syria, U.N. Rights Chief Slams Global ‘Paralysis’ - CNN.com,” CNN.
  10. 10. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 7 - BIBLIOGRAPHY TOPIC A Aftab, Noor. "Efforts Afoot to Get Journalists Safety Bill Approved." The News International. 5 December 2014. Accessed 22 December 2014. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News- 2-288357-Efforts-afoot-to-get-journalists-safety-bill-approved. Article that focuses on recent efforts to pass a bill that will help promote the safety of journalists. "Alerts." Committee to Protect Journalists. Accessed 31 December 2014. http://www.cpj.org/news/. News updates released by the Committee to protect journalists. Balguy-Gallois, Alexandre, Jessica Lescs, and Prisca Orsonneau. "Bringing Predators of Freedom of Information to Justice." Reporters Without Borders. Accessed 22 December 2014. http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/bringing_predators_of_freedom_of_information_to_justice.pd f. An article by Reporters Without Borders, that focuses on the individuals and countries that have violated the rights of journalists. Billow, Abdulaziz. "Safety of Journalists in Somalia a Major Concern." Voice of America. 1 December 2014. Accessed 24 December 2014. http://www.voanews.com/content/safety-of- journalists-a-major-concern-in-somalia/2540643.html. An article that focuses on the threats to safety for journalists in Somalia. Brooks, Phil. "Capitol Perspectives: Protecting the Public from Journalists." CBS St. Louis. 10 November 2014. Accessed 30 November 2014. http://stlouis.cbslocal.com/2014/11/10/capitol-perspectives-protecting-the-public-from- journalists/. An article that provides a different perspective on the issue and very interesting insight. Cabouat, Benjamin. "Informal Meeting of the Security Council on "Protecting Journalists." United Natione Educational Scientific Cultural Organization. 28 November 2014. Accessed 22 December 2014. http://en.unesco.org/events/informal-meeting-security-council-“protecting- journalists”. A discussion of the informal meeting staged by the UN Security Council with the topic of discussing the rights of journalist. Dockterman, Eilana. “Charlie Hebdo Editor Killed in Paris Attack Built Career on Defiance.” TIME Magazine. http://time.com/3657402/charlie-hebdo-stephane-charbonnier-paris-attack/. A profile on one of the editors killed in the attacks on Charlie Hebdo and his previous work in support of journalistic rights.
  11. 11. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 8 - "Efforts Afoot to Get Journalists Safety Bill Approved." The News International, Pakistan. 5 December 2014. Accessed 26 December 2014. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-2-288357- Efforts-afoot-to-get-journalists-safety-bill-approv. A discussion of recent efforts to pass a safety bill in support of journalists. Essiz, Ismail Selim. "Necessity of Safety Brakes in Journalism." Daily Sabah. 22 December 2014. Accessed 22 December 2014. http://www.dailysabah.com/readers- corner/2014/12/22/necessity-of-safety-brakes-in-journalism. An article discussing the importance of certain safety measures and protections for journalists in danger areas. "Fostering Freedom of Expression." United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization. 30 January 2013. Accessed 24 December 2014. http://en.unesco.org/themes/fostering- freedom-expression. A page on the UNESCO website that focuses on efforts around the world to promote freedom of expression. Committee to Protect Journalists. Attacks on the Press Journalism on the World's Front Lines. 2014 ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2014. An article published by the committee to protect journalists that discusses recent attacks on journalists in danger zones. "Journalists' Safety: Legislators Vow to Enact Law by March." The Express Tribune. 5 December 2014. Accessed 23 December 2014. http://tribune.com.pk/story/801977/journalists-safety- legislators-vow-to-enact-law-by-march/. An article in the Express Tribune that discusses the desire of many legislators to enact a journalist safety law. Newman, Anne and Ronald David Glass. "Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters." The Journal of Higher Education 85, no. 3 (2014): 283- 311. http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed December 3, 2014). An article from the journal Muse that compares Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists. "Protection of Journalists." New Communication Order 4:1-142. Accessed 23 December 2014. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0004/000421/042108Eb.pdf. A web articles that discusses the necessity of changing negative perceptions of journalists and their work. Rosenbaum, Kathryn. "Protecting More Than the Front Page: Codifying a Reporter's Privilege for Digital and Citizen Journalists." Notre Dame Law Review 89, no. 1427 (2014). “Safety of Journalists” United Nations General Assembly. Accessed 10 January 2015. http://www.article19.org/data/files/medialibrary/37704/Journalists-Resolution-Draft-.pdf An articles published by the UN General Assembly, which focuses on how best to provide for the safety of journalists.
  12. 12. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 9 - "Safety of Journalists and Impunity." United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accessed 30 December 2014. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and- information/freedom-of-expression/safety-of-journalists/. An article published by UNESCO, which addresses the issue of Impunity and its negative impact on promoting the safety of journalists. Simpson, Ian. "Sixty Journalists Killed in 2014, Mideast Deadliest Area: Watchdog." Reuters. 23 December 2014. Accessed 31 December 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/23/us-usa-journalistsla-deaths- idUSKBN0K114M20141223. An article published by Reuters that focuses on the high death toll for journalists in 2014 and what this says about the safety of the profession in the Middle East. “'Stand up for Justice', UN Urges on First Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists." UN News Center. 2 November 2014. Accessed 30 November 2014. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49231. An official account of the UN’s support to end impunity. "Thuraya International News Safety Institute Adopt Safety Plans Products." Daily Satellite News. 10 December 2014. Accessed 23 December 2014. http://www.satnews.com/story.php?number=313149550. A discussion of the safety training that this organization provides for journalists. "UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization." UN Plan of Action | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accessed 21 December 2014. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/freedom-of- expression/safety-of-journalists/un-plan-of-action/. The official UN Plan of Action dedicated to addressing the issue of the safety of journalists. "UN Resolution on Journalists' Safety Hailed by ARTICLE 19." Today's Zaman. Accessed 25 December 2014. http://www.todayszaman.com/national_un-resolution-on-journalists- safety-hailed-by-article-19_359972.html. An article which analyzes and provides commentary on the recent UN Resolution to protect Journalists. TOPIC B "American Association for the Advancement of Science; New High-Resolution Satellite Image Analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage Sites 'Exhibit Significant Damage'." NewsRx Health (12 Oct 2014). http://ezproxy.middlebury.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/156756411 9?accountid=12447.
  13. 13. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 10 - A description of damage sustained at Syria’s World Heritage Sites, determined through analysis of satellite imagery "CyArk; High Tech Race to Save 500 Significant World Heritage Sites Brings Together World Leaders and Corporate Supporters." Journal of Engineering (22 Oct 2014): 800. http://ezproxy.middlebury.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/161175742 8?accountid=12447. A new report on CyArk’s most recent annual summit, including their decision to include Syrian sites among its list of sites to be digitally preserved. “Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, the Hague, 1954.” In The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Propterty in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, the Netherlands: The United Nations, 1954. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/armed-conflict-and-heritage/the-hague- convention/text-of-the-convention-and-its-1st-protocol/#c284179. The full text of the Hague Convention, which was the first international treaty aimed at protecting collective global cultural property. Heritage for Peace, 2014. Damage Assessment Training For Staff Of The Syrian Interim Ministry Of Culture And Family Affairs. http://www.heritageforpeace.org/wp- content/uploads/2014/12/Damage-Assessment-Press-Release-1-December.pdf. A summary of a recent training program held by Heritage for Peace, an NGO, concerning the protection of cultural heritage. Mark Memmott. “Fighting Has Forced More Than 1.5 Million Syrians To Move, U.N. Says.” NPR.org. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/08/10/158553289/fighting-has- forced-more-than-1-5-million-syrians-to-move-u-n-says.Mark A news article describing the internal displacement of the Syrian people between the beginning of the conflict and August, 2012. Smith-Spark, Laura. “With More than 191,000 Dead in Syria, U.N. Rights Chief Slams Global ‘Paralysis’ - CNN.com.” CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/22/world/meast/syria- conflict/index.html A news report on the recent analysis by the UN that has put the death count of the Syrian conflict over 190,000. “UNESCO Concludes Training Course on ‘First Aid to Cultural Built Heritage in Syria.’” UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 11 Dec 2014. http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1208. A press release summarizing a training course hosted by UNESCO concerning the protection of cultural heritage. “UNESCO Conference Calls for Protected Cultural Zones to Be Established Syria and Iraq.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 3 Dec 2014. http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1206. A press release recounting a recent UNESCO-held international conference in Paris on threats to cultural heritage and diversity. "UN: 300 Cultural Heritage Sites Destroyed, Looted in Syria." Al - Akhbar, 23 Dec 2014. http://ezproxy.middlebury.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1639735929?accou ntid=12447.
  14. 14. National High School Model United Nations 2015 UNESCO - 11 - A news report that references a UN statement on the destruction of Syria’s cultural heritage, determined by satellite imagery and analysis “UN News - UNESCO Chief Calls for ‘protected Cultural Zones’ in War-Torn Iraq, Syria.” UN News Service Section, 3 Dec 2014. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49506#.VJ8Dm5TQFC. An alternative report on the recent UNESCO-led conference in Paris on threats to cultural heritage and diversity.

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