How to become an effective   knowledge manager        Mark Reed
1 What is knowledge?
Data              Information            Knowledge               Wisdom• Raw numbers &   • Useful data (that    • Informat...
Different ways of viewing and       constructing knowledge...Universal truth generatedby reducing the world to its constit...
Different types of knowledge...                          Knowledge TypeLocal                                              ...
Knowledge generation                                                        Producers                                     ...
2 Who managesknowledge?
Lecturers?– Enabling students to gain new knowledge and put it  in context
Researchers?– Generating new knowledge, debating/sharing  with their peers and communicating their findings
All of us
3 How do you manageknowledge?
3 How do you manageknowledge?
e.g. internet, apps,              podcasts, books, journals,                                              Accessing       ...
Our own knowledge       A class’s knowledge   A community’s knowledge?The knowledge of communities of practice/interest at...
5 How? A role forsocial learning?
A change in understanding                                                               among individuals                 ...
The promise of social learning...  – Transformative ideas, attitudes and behaviours    that diffuse rapidly through peer-t...
With the growing use of social mediaplatforms, it is possible for new knowledge to“go viral” in seconds...
> 1 hour before Obama’snews conference, KeithUrbahn (Chief of Staff toDonald Rumsfeld, justover 1000 followers)tweeted the...
Then picked up by NYTimes reporter, Brian Stelter (>50K followers)
• By the time Obama addressed the nation at 23.30 EST,     the news was being mentioned on Twitter 30,000     times per mi...
But not everyone has access to       knowledge in this way...
...often those who needthe knowledge most
6 Social learning atinternational scales
We need:1. Diverse, socially-connected media2. To institutionalise social learning
1. Diverse, socially-connected media  – Adapted to different learning preferences  – Fully accessible, no matter how remot...
2. Institutionalising social learning   – The incorporation of local     knowledge and opinion in     environmental decisi...
– But often operates in consultation or communication  modes, so we need to institutionalise:   • Respect for different so...
7 Two short case studies
• The Sustainable Uplands project  –   Reed MS, Bonn A, Slee W, Beharry-Borg N, Birch J, Brown I, Burt TP, Chapman D, Chap...
Knowledge exchange with stakeholders:• Co-generation of knowledge with small but  representative groups of highly connecte...
• You Tube and DVDs – as requested by stakeholders  concerned about the abstract nature of the GIS  outputs we’d suggested...
• Policy briefs• Presentations to policy makers, policy advisors and  practitioner groups• DEFRA placement• Consultancy co...
Public engagement:• Twitter (now over 1400 followers)  www.twitter.com/reluuplands• Interactive website www.ouruplands.co....
Arts:• Song and music video by award-winning  photography collective• Jazz composition by Huw Warren• Conceptual art by Da...
The first international environmental convention toexplicitly consider local as well as scientificknowledge, and involve C...
Now interested in developing a knowledgemanagement system to facilitate monitoring andassessment of land degradation from ...
For example in southern Africa:   – Land degradation indicators developed to combine local     and scientific knowledge of...
– FIRM groups in Namibia integrating monitoring results to  regional level where farmers can provide each other with  supp...
– Potential for this model to be replicated elsewhere to  provide an international picture of land degradation  severity &...
8 Conclusion
• We are all knowledge managers, and can  probably get better at managing knowledge• By becoming more effective knowledge ...
Contact             Mark Reed                 Senior Lecturer, Centre for Planning & Environmental Management, School of  ...
How to become an effective knowledge manager
How to become an effective knowledge manager
How to become an effective knowledge manager
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How to become an effective knowledge manager

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This presentation asks what it takes to become an effective manager of knowledge beyond the individual, to the classroom, community and international scales. At these scales, might social learning provide a mechanism through which we can facilitate the spread of new ideas, and perhaps even attitudes and behaviours? The session will consider the possibilities, using case studies from the Sustainable Uplands project at the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, considering how we can each become more effective knowledge managers, and so affect change far beyond our immediate sphere of influence.

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How to become an effective knowledge manager

  1. 1. How to become an effective knowledge manager Mark Reed
  2. 2. 1 What is knowledge?
  3. 3. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom• Raw numbers & • Useful data (that • Information that is • “Constructive” use facts has been analysed/ known by an of knowledge interpreted) individual/group (Matthews, 1997) • “Use of knowledge ...to achieve a common good” (Sternberg, 2001)
  4. 4. Different ways of viewing and constructing knowledge...Universal truth generatedby reducing the world to its constituent parts to Knowledge as a social test hypotheses construction leading to multiple realities
  5. 5. Different types of knowledge... Knowledge TypeLocal Generalised/Universal Extent to which knowledge is locally generated/relevant versus universalInformal Formal Extent to which knowledge generated via formal, codified processesNovice Expert Extent to which those generating knowledge are regarded as expertsTacit Implicit Explicit Extent to which knowledge is(cannot be articulated) (not yet articulated) articulated and accessible to others (articulated) Extent to which knowledge isTraditional Scientific embedded in and reflects traditional cultural values/norms, or in the scientific method Raymond CM, Fazey I, Reed MS, Stringer LC, Robinson GM, Evely AC (2010) Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management: From products to processes. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 1766-1777
  6. 6. Knowledge generation Producers Producers generate or co-generate knowledge together Knowledge Knowledge Transfer Know- ledge Exchange Different ways of Producers Users Producers Users Producers Users Storage Two-way flow of managing One-way flow of existing knowledge existing knowledge knowledge... Knowledge application Users Users apply knowledge gained through transfer or exchange and provide feedback to or become producers of knowledgeReed MS, Fazey I, Stringer LC, Raymond CM, Akhtar-Schuster M, Begni G, Bigas H, Brehm S,Briggs J, Bryce R, Buckmaster S, Chanda R, Davies J, Diez E, Essahli W, Evely A, Geeson N,Hartmann I, Holden J, Hubacek K, Ioris I, Kruger B, Laureano P, Phillipson J, Prell C, Quinn CH,Reeves AD, Seely M, Thomas R, van der Werff Ten Bosch MJ, Vergunst P, Wagner L (2011)Knowledge management for land degradation monitoring and assessment: an analysis ofcontemporary thinking. Land Degradation & Development
  7. 7. 2 Who managesknowledge?
  8. 8. Lecturers?– Enabling students to gain new knowledge and put it in context
  9. 9. Researchers?– Generating new knowledge, debating/sharing with their peers and communicating their findings
  10. 10. All of us
  11. 11. 3 How do you manageknowledge?
  12. 12. 3 How do you manageknowledge?
  13. 13. e.g. internet, apps, podcasts, books, journals, Accessing lectures/classes, discussion existing with peers knowledge Internalising and Sharing adapting knowledge e.g. Making it your A learning via tweets, blogs/articles, your own insights discussing, mind maps & process Prezis, trying it out (a bit like Kolb?) e.g. written records of how you made ite.g. asking questions (and your own (e.g.often discovering existing Generating tweets, blogs, preziknowledge), and where Storing etc.), (social?) newthere are no answers, knowledge bookmarks, audiodesigning research to knowledge notes, databases ofanswer them your reading
  14. 14. Our own knowledge A class’s knowledge A community’s knowledge?The knowledge of communities of practice/interest at national and international scales? The knowledge necessary to implement and monitor international policy processes? All of the above?
  15. 15. 5 How? A role forsocial learning?
  16. 16. A change in understanding among individuals What is social learning (SL)? Beyond the SL individual/group scale to reach wider social Via social units or communities interactions/processes of practice within societyReed MS, Evely AC--, Cundill G, Fazey I, Glass J, Laing A, Newig J, Parrish B, PrellC, Raymond C, Stringer LC (2010) What is social learning? Ecology & Society 15 (4): r1.[online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/resp1/
  17. 17. The promise of social learning... – Transformative ideas, attitudes and behaviours that diffuse rapidly through peer-to-peer networks to affect social change across spatial scales Hype... or reality?
  18. 18. With the growing use of social mediaplatforms, it is possible for new knowledge to“go viral” in seconds...
  19. 19. > 1 hour before Obama’snews conference, KeithUrbahn (Chief of Staff toDonald Rumsfeld, justover 1000 followers)tweeted the newsRe-posted 80 times infirst minute, over 300times within twominutes
  20. 20. Then picked up by NYTimes reporter, Brian Stelter (>50K followers)
  21. 21. • By the time Obama addressed the nation at 23.30 EST, the news was being mentioned on Twitter 30,000 times per minute • A number of others guessed the news earlier and were ignored – impact is about credibility of source as much as it about connectednesshttp://blog.socialflow.com/post/5246404319/breaking-bin-laden-visualizing-the-power-of-a-single
  22. 22. But not everyone has access to knowledge in this way...
  23. 23. ...often those who needthe knowledge most
  24. 24. 6 Social learning atinternational scales
  25. 25. We need:1. Diverse, socially-connected media2. To institutionalise social learning
  26. 26. 1. Diverse, socially-connected media – Adapted to different learning preferences – Fully accessible, no matter how remote or disadvantaged the audience – Keeping in mind that people learn best from other people, and that all learning is socially mediated
  27. 27. 2. Institutionalising social learning – The incorporation of local knowledge and opinion in environmental decision-making is increasingly being institutionalised e.g. Aarhus Convention, WFD
  28. 28. – But often operates in consultation or communication modes, so we need to institutionalise: • Respect for different sources of knowledge, from local to scientific, to facilitate two-way exchange and (where relevant) integration of knowledges • Social forms of communication that facilitate engagement with and adaptation of new knowledge to local contexts e.g. Web 2.0, effective engagement with local groups/associations
  29. 29. 7 Two short case studies
  30. 30. • The Sustainable Uplands project – Reed MS, Bonn A, Slee W, Beharry-Borg N, Birch J, Brown I, Burt TP, Chapman D, Chapman PJ, Clay G, Cornell SJ, Fraser EDG, Holden J, Hodgson JA, Hubacek K, Irvine B, Jin N, Kirkby MJ, Kunin WE, Moore O, Moseley D, Prell C, Quinn C, Redpath S, Reid C, Stagl S, Stringer LC, Termansen M, Thorp S, Towers W, Worrall F (2009) The future of the uplands. Land Use Policy 26S: S204– S216 Funded by• The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) – Reed MS, Buenemann, M, Atlhopheng J, Akhtar-Schuster M, Bachmann F, Bastin G, Bigas H, Chanda R, Dougill AJ, Essahli W, Evely AC, Fleskens L, Geeson N, Glass JH, Hessel R, Holden J, Ioris A, Kruger B, Liniger HP, Mphinyane W, Nainggolan D, Perkins J, Raymond CM, Ritsema CJ, Schwilch G, Sebego R, Seely M, Stringer LC, Thomas R, Twomlow S, Verzandvoort S (2011) Cross-scale monitoring and assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management: a methodological framework for knowledge management. Land Degradation & Development 22: 261-271 Funded by
  31. 31. Knowledge exchange with stakeholders:• Co-generation of knowledge with small but representative groups of highly connected, influential stakeholders, selected via Social Network Analysis
  32. 32. • You Tube and DVDs – as requested by stakeholders concerned about the abstract nature of the GIS outputs we’d suggested• Articles in professional journals/magazines• Newsletters• Project websites
  33. 33. • Policy briefs• Presentations to policy makers, policy advisors and practitioner groups• DEFRA placement• Consultancy contracts
  34. 34. Public engagement:• Twitter (now over 1400 followers) www.twitter.com/reluuplands• Interactive website www.ouruplands.co.uk• Schools resources (March 2012)
  35. 35. Arts:• Song and music video by award-winning photography collective• Jazz composition by Huw Warren• Conceptual art by Dalziel & Scullion (hunting bag)• Traditional story told by a storyteller and made into a children’s book
  36. 36. The first international environmental convention toexplicitly consider local as well as scientificknowledge, and involve CSOs in the process ofdeveloping and implementing policy
  37. 37. Now interested in developing a knowledgemanagement system to facilitate monitoring andassessment of land degradation from local (field)scales, to regional, national and international scales
  38. 38. For example in southern Africa: – Land degradation indicators developed to combine local and scientific knowledge of early changes in rangeland function/condition in Botswana & Namibia – Enable land managers to reliably monitor change themselves without external assistance
  39. 39. – FIRM groups in Namibia integrating monitoring results to regional level where farmers can provide each other with support & advice and access help from extension services– Results gathered by FIRM groups inform national land degradation monitoring & assessment
  40. 40. – Potential for this model to be replicated elsewhere to provide an international picture of land degradation severity & extent, based on locally derived measurements that incorporate local knowledge?– Being discussed at UNCCD 10th Conference of the Parties this week– Already being used to evaluate all the UN’s Global Environment Facility funded Sustainable Land Management projects
  41. 41. 8 Conclusion
  42. 42. • We are all knowledge managers, and can probably get better at managing knowledge• By becoming more effective knowledge managers, we can affect change far beyond our immediate sphere of influence
  43. 43. Contact Mark Reed Senior Lecturer, Centre for Planning & Environmental Management, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen m.reed@abdn.ac.uk www.twitter.com/lecmsr www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplandsThanks to: Anna Evely, Ioan Fazey & Lindsay Stringer from Sustainable Uplands and DESIRE for helping develop these ideas

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