Ecodynamics of Modernity &Vulnerability in the Early Modern World<br />George Hambrecht<br />(City University of New York)...
Environmental Historical Archaeology<br />Archaeobotany, Archaeoentomology, Geoarchaeology, Zooarchaeology<br />Environmen...
Early Modern Iceland<br />
Early Modern Archaeological Sites <br />Hornbrekka<br />
Lakagigar – Famine of the Mist<br />Early Modern Iceland – hostile geology<br />Catastrophe in Iceland but effects elsewhe...
Other unpleasant parts of 18th century Iceland<br />
An ossified society?<br />Dominated by a landowning  farming class who created legal barriers to reform<br />Short-term te...
The early modern Icelandic‘vulnerability + rigidity’ narrative<br />Early modern Iceland as  a static  society in the 17th...
‘Obvious’ solutions?<br />Enlightenment criticisms<br />Lack of  Agricultural improvement<br />Lack of intensified fishing...
The view from Archaeology<br />Regional and local adaptation<br />Marine resources  increase inland-Skutustadir<br />When ...
Centers of Rigidity?<br />Two Bishops  manors at  Holar (N) and Skalholt (S) founded ca 1100 AD<br />Medieval institutions...
Elite Agricultural improvement<br />Attempts at barley growing in the late 17th century at Skalholt<br />Literacy and Inte...
Skalholt: excavations 2002-07 <br />A changing ‘habitus’ <br />Zooarchaeology<br />Beef production<br />Dairy Farming<br /...
Skalholt to Reykjavik : Cows to Fish<br />Cameralist political-economics<br />Paternalistic<br />Market production <br />I...
Skalholt to Reykjavik: Concentric to Polycentric Settlement spaces<br />
Iceland today<br />2007 UN report ranks Iceland top for  best quality of life on the planet (in the subarctic too!).<br />...
Different data – different story<br />Historical Archaeology reveals a society with great resilience in the face of except...
Early Modern Archaeology & Global Environmental History: Challenging Simple Stories Together<br />Material culture  + the ...
 CUNY Human Ecodynamics Research Center (HERC)<br />www.nabohome.org,  www.gheahome.org<br />
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G. Hambrecht & G.Lucus. Ecodynamics of modernity and vulnerability in the Early Modern World, presentation Resilience 2011

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G. Hambrecht & G.Lucus. Ecodynamics of modernity and vulnerability in the Early Modern World, presentation Resilience 2011

  1. 1. Ecodynamics of Modernity &Vulnerability in the Early Modern World<br />George Hambrecht<br />(City University of New York)<br />Gavin Lucas<br />(University of Iceland)<br />
  2. 2. Environmental Historical Archaeology<br />Archaeobotany, Archaeoentomology, Geoarchaeology, Zooarchaeology<br />Environmental reconstruction<br />Widespread climate impact<br />Widespread human economic impact<br />Local + regional<br />
  3. 3. Early Modern Iceland<br />
  4. 4. Early Modern Archaeological Sites <br />Hornbrekka<br />
  5. 5. Lakagigar – Famine of the Mist<br />Early Modern Iceland – hostile geology<br />Catastrophe in Iceland but effects elsewhere as well?<br />
  6. 6. Other unpleasant parts of 18th century Iceland<br />
  7. 7. An ossified society?<br />Dominated by a landowning farming class who created legal barriers to reform<br />Short-term tenancy + primitive agriculture<br />Lack of fencing<br />Lack of plows<br />Lack of fertilizer<br />Restriction on Fishing <br />Laws against numbers of hooks per line + number of oars allowed (keeping the boats small)<br />
  8. 8. The early modern Icelandic‘vulnerability + rigidity’ narrative<br />Early modern Iceland as a static society in the 17th and 18th centuries.<br />Trapped in a medieval mindset & overwhelmed by natural disaster and oppressive elites<br />‘obvious’ solutions to their economic problems ignored- labor mis-allocated (cows not fish)<br />‘Prisoners of Culture’<br />Rigidity trap? Poverty trap?<br />
  9. 9. ‘Obvious’ solutions?<br />Enlightenment criticisms<br />Lack of Agricultural improvement<br />Lack of intensified fishing projects<br />Underdeveloped wool production<br />
  10. 10. The view from Archaeology<br />Regional and local adaptation<br />Marine resources increase inland-Skutustadir<br />When you have sea-ice – have seal for dinner….Svalbard<br />Poor but entrepreneurial fisher-farmers at Finnbogastadir<br />
  11. 11. Centers of Rigidity?<br />Two Bishops manors at Holar (N) and Skalholt (S) founded ca 1100 AD<br />Medieval institutions with long histories<br />MAJOR land owners, esp. of prime grazing land<br />Inland sites with little direct access to the sea- all about pastures and cattle.<br />
  12. 12. Elite Agricultural improvement<br />Attempts at barley growing in the late 17th century at Skalholt<br />Literacy and International contacts<br />Bishop’s (hornless) cows<br />a novel more ‘modern’ look?<br />Enlightenment sense of the plasticity of nature<br />
  13. 13. Skalholt: excavations 2002-07 <br />A changing ‘habitus’ <br />Zooarchaeology<br />Beef production<br />Dairy Farming<br />Architectural change<br />Modernized gable s<br />“Street like” central axis<br />Planned village like lay out<br />Literacy- printing press<br />Imported ceramics, fruit, wine<br />Massive place based investment in landesque capital and ideology<br />But: t he bishop/cathedral move to Reykjavik after a major earthquake in 1784<br />
  14. 14. Skalholt to Reykjavik : Cows to Fish<br />Cameralist political-economics<br />Paternalistic<br />Market production <br />Industrial stimulus<br />Weaving company<br />Commercial fish processing<br />Provisioning of workers<br />Administrative center in 1786<br />
  15. 15. Skalholt to Reykjavik: Concentric to Polycentric Settlement spaces<br />
  16. 16. Iceland today<br />2007 UN report ranks Iceland top for best quality of life on the planet (in the subarctic too!).<br />190,000 of 300,000 live in greater Reykjavik<br />Imported Kiwi Fruit + Banking Disaster……<br />The story continues, but not as total tragedy<br />
  17. 17. Different data – different story<br />Historical Archaeology reveals a society with great resilience in the face of exceptionally bad climatic and environmental conditions <br />Rigidity trap?- or backloop beginning?<br />
  18. 18. Early Modern Archaeology & Global Environmental History: Challenging Simple Stories Together<br />Material culture + the participants voice<br />High resolution environmental data<br />Local to regional to global scale<br />Longue durée and human life spans<br />Mobilizing the Ecodynamics of Modernity for Sustainability<br />
  19. 19. CUNY Human Ecodynamics Research Center (HERC)<br />www.nabohome.org, www.gheahome.org<br />

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