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Facilitating Stakeholder Workshops




What makes stakeholder participation


   ustainable Uplands
in environmental management work?




nvolved
 Learning to manage future change
                                       www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
1. Important Terms
What are stakeholders?
• Anyone who can affect or be affected by a
  decision or action
                                    (after Freeman, 1984)




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
What is stakeholder participation?
• A process where stakeholders (e.g. individuals,
  groups and organisations) choose to take an
  active role in making decisions that affect them
                            (After Wandersman 1981; Wilcox 2003; Rowe et al. 2004)




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                                              www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
2. Basics of Participation




ustainable Uplands
Learning to manage future change
                                   www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Different levels/types of participation in
 community planning
The ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969)




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                               www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Different levels/types of participation
The wheel of participation (Wilcox, 2003)




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                            www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Different levels/types of participation
Communication flows (Rowe & Frewer, 2000)


      Facilitators                                  Stakeholders

                              Communication

      Facilitators                                  Stakeholders
                                    Consultation

     Facilitators                                   Stakeholders

                                    Participation
 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                                         www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Why engage stakeholders?
• Participation is increasingly embedded in policy
  for the normative & pragmatic reasons discussed
    • A democratic right e.g. Aarhus Convention
    • Higher quality and more durable decisions




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                            www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Challenges and disillusionment
• Empowering marginalised may interact with existing
  power structures to cause unintended consequences
• Group dynamics may create “dysfunctional consensus”
• Consultation fatigue as poorly run processes fail to
  deliver change




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                            www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Evidence for claims of participation?
• Few claims have been tested, but there is firm
  evidence that effective participation can enhance:
    • Quality of decisions: due to more comprehensive
    information inputs
    • Durability of decisions: due to stakeholder buy-in

• But, decision quality and durability are highly
  dependant on the quality of the process leading
  to them


 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                             www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Tools vs overall process
                                   • Participation is
                                     more than a
                                     collection of tools
                                     and methods for
                                     engaging
                                     stakeholders




ustainable Uplands
Learning to manage future change
                                          www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
ustainable Uplands
Learning to manage future change
                                   www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
1. Start talking to people as
   soon as you can

• From concept to
  completion
• Early involvement leads to
  higher quality and more
  durable decisions
• Avoid raising false
  expectations: make sure
  there’s something to
  negotiate

                                What makes stakeholder participation
                                in environmental management work?



                                nvolved
2. Make sure you’re
   talking to the
   right people
• The nature and
   legitimacy of
   outcomes is
   significantly
   affected by
   participant mix
• Lots of methods
   available now for
   “stakeholder
   analysis”
         What makes stakeholder participation
         in environmental management work?



        nvolved
3. Make sure you know    • Design the
   what people want to     process to the
   talk about              goals
                         • Identify goals
                           with stakeholders
                         • Be prepared to
                           negotiate and
                           compromise
                         • Partnerships,
                           ownership and
                           active
                           engagement in
                           the process is
                                 What makes stakeholder participation
                                 in environmental management work?


                           more likely
                                  nvolved
• Communicate
                     e.g. information
                     dissemination via leaflets or
                     the mass media, hotlines and
                     public meetings

4. Be flexible:    • Consult
                     e.g. consultation documents,
   base level of     opinion polls and
                     referendums, focus groups
   participation     and surveys
   & methods on    • Participate
   your context      e.g. citizen’s juries, consensus
   & objectives      conferences, task-forces and
                     public meetings with voting

                   • Tailor your
                     methods to
                     context    What makes stakeholder participation
                                in environmental management work?



                   • Manage power
                           nvolved
• The outcome of a participatory process is
  more sensitive to the manner in which it
  is conducted than the tools that are used
• Don’t underestimate the power of
  investing in a good facilitator to bring
  people together and deliver high quality
  outcomes




                                What makes stakeholder participation


    5. Get a facilitator
                                in environmental management work?



                               nvolved
6. Put local and scientific knowledge on an equal footing
• Science can help people make more informed decisions
• Local knowledge can question assumptions, and perhaps
   lead to more rigorous science




                                                 What makes stakeholder participation
                                                 in environmental management work?



                                                nvolved
• Decisions based on a combination of local and scientific
  knowledge may by more robust due to more
  comprehensive information inputs




                                                   What makes stakeholder participation
                                                   in environmental management work?



                                                  nvolved
3. Overcoming barriers to participation
Barriers to participation

                                        Practical: lack of time, money, skills

                                       Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based on
Increasingly tractable




                                           negative former experiences

                               Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes

                         World view (or epistemology):
                         • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local
                           knowledge and multiple perspectives
                         • If you know what’s right, why consult?
                         • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people
                           construct & perceive knowledge
Barriers to participation

                                        Practical: lack of time, money, skills

                                       Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based on
Increasingly tractable




                                           negative former experiences

                               Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes

                         World view (or epistemology):
                         • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local
                           knowledge and multiple perspectives
                         • If you know what’s right, why consult?
                         • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people
                           construct & perceive knowledge
Overcoming barriers
 Deeper issues may take generations to change
 But most of these are tractable issues
       Practical – we can make time/money and good
        practice skills available
       Stakeholder scepticism: replacing bad with good
        practice, negative with positive experiences
       Decision-maker scepticism: good practice can set
        boundaries (avoid raising false expectations via
        participation if no alternatives) and minimise bias
   The key: identifying, spreading and facilitating
    good practice
4. Planning & Facilitating Events




                             What makes stakeholder participation
                             in environmental management work?



                            nvolved
4a. Process Design



Includes some material based on a Dialogue Matters course (Diana Pound), with help from Ros Bryce




   ustainable Uplands
  Learning to manage future change
                                                                        www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
What is important in planning an event?
                       The ‘GROW’ Model*
                                    Goal            What is the issue to be addressed?




                                   Reality          Where are you now?



                                   Options          Possible options?
                                                    actionactionaction
                                                    ?

                                     Will
                                                    What will you do?



* Sir John Whitmore, Coaching for Performance: GROWing People, Performance and Purpose (Nicholas Brealey, 2002)



       ustainable Uplands
      Learning to manage future change
                                                                                     www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Goals
•    What do you want to achieve?
•    What do you want to change?
•    How will you know if you’ve been successful?
•    When do you want to have achieved your goal?




    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                               www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Reality
• What is happening at the moment? How have
  you verified this is true?
• What are you achieving at present?
• What action have you taken on this so far?
  What were the effects of this action?




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                              www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Options
• What actions could you take to move forward?
• What strategies have worked before in similar
  circumstances?
• If no barriers or limitations existed, what would
  you do?
• Which step will give the best result?
• Advantages/disadvantages of this step?
• Which option will you work on first?


  ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                              www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Will
•    What are you going to do?
•    When are you going to do it?
•    What help do you need?
•    Who will you involve?
•    What might prevent you from taking this step?
•    How can you overcome this?




    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                              www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
What is important in planning an event?
                                      Understanding the situation
                                      • Purpose
                                      • Outputs
                                      • Stakeholders
                                      • Timeframes
                                                                    Process plan
 Practicalities                                                     •Timetable
 •The team                                                          •No. of workshops
 •The venue                                                         •Key tasks
 •The tools                                                         •Action plan



            Task plan                                   Event plan
            •Purpose                                    •Timing
            •Questions                                  •Purpose
            •Groupings                                  •Outputs
            •Techiques
   ustainable Uplands                                   •Sessions
   Learning to manage future change
                                                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Event planning
• What is the purpose of the process/event?
• What are the outcomes you want?
• What are the outcomes stakeholders want?
• Who are the stakeholders?
• How does the event link to the wider project,
  process or your organisation’s goals?
• How will you keep people engaged?



    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                                www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Structuring an event
• Make a facilitation plan
   –   Timings (include buffer – things you can skip)
   –   Who will do what when?
   –   Equipment list
   –   Session/activity titles (for participants’ agenda)
   –   Detailed methods under each title
   –   Try out unfamiliar methods first




  ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                                www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Choosing techniques
• Be clear about outcomes and outputs required
• Alter group size depending on no. participants,
  tasks to be completed, amount of in-depth
  discussion needed and the level of conflict
• Self-facilitating small groups or many
  facilitators?
• Start with opening out techniques
• Explore/discuss, and if necessary close down
  (rank, prioritise etc)


 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                      www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Information gathering: opening out
•    Brainstorming
•    Metaplan
•    Venn diagrams
•    Listing
•    Carousel
•    Mapping and participatory GIS
•    Conceptual modelling or mind-mapping




    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                       www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Exploring: analysis
• Categorisation e.g. card sorting and Q
  methodology
• Problem tree analysis or cause-effect mapping
• SWOT analysis
• Timelines




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                     www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Decision making: closing down
•    Voting
•    Ranking
•    Prioritisation (e.g. sticky dots)
•    Multi-Criteria Evaluation




    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                         www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
4b. Facilitation Tools & Techniques




ustainable Uplands
Learning to manage future change
                                   www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Why facilitate?
•    Efficient: more discussed in less time
•    Impartiality
•    Clarity
•    A helpful atmosphere
•    Appropriate techniques
•    More people have a say
•    No organisation or individual in control or veto
•    The outcome is open


    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                                  www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
What do you fear most?
Group challenges:
• Dominating people, big egos
• Quiet or unconfident people
• Diverse groups: different ways of approaching
  an issue, different backgrounds and values

From within:
• Lack of confidence
• Lack of experience
• Too few tools & techniques: no plan B

 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Overcoming our fears
• Increasing our skill level:
   – Tools & techniques
   – Getting experience
• Increasing our personal confidence and power:
  developing “presence”




  ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Interpersonal facilitation skills:
• Empathetic
• Capable of building rapport with group and
  maintaining positive group dynamics
• Handling dominating or offensive individuals
• Encourage participants to question assumptions
  and re-evaluate entrenched positions
• Get the most out of reticent individuals
• Humble, open to feedback
• Perceived as impartial, open to multiple
  perspectives and approachable

 ustainable Uplands
Learning to manage future change
                                   www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Practical facilitation skills:
• Active listening and understanding
• Enable people to clarify their thoughts
• Let people know their opinions are valued
• Help people go beyond facts to meanings
• Help people to ‘own’ their problems, take
  responsibility for them and think of solutions
• Giving momentum and energy
• Ensuring everyone has an opportunity to input
• Making an impartial record of the discussion
• Writing clearly, managing paper (assistant?)


 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                     www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Practical skills continued:
• Non-verbal feedback:
   –   Eye contact
   –   Nodding, smiling
   –   Focussed attention
   –   Value silence




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
• Verbal feedback:
   –   Sounds, short phrases
   –   Clarifying details
   –   Encouraging/probing: asking for more information
   –   Open (not closed) questions
   –   Summarising: to confirm correct interpretation
   –   Reframing:
        • Technique to move people from a negative stance
          to discuss a positive way forward
        • Acknowledge what has been said
        • Ask an open question that seeks to get at the heart
          of the problem
        • Involve others in group in solving the problem


 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                             www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Useful Tricks
• Ground rules: agree at outset, refer back if need
• Parking space: park now and deal with later
• Open space: adapt to participant needs/interests
• Get an opinion leader to introduce the event: the
  group may be more likely to trust you by proxy
• Group mirroring – bring them with you:
      – Empathise with group feeling, start there
      – Keep smiling, positive & energised tone of voice,
        pace, increasingly open body language


    ustainable Uplands
    Learning to manage future change
                                                www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
5. Deep dynamics of facilitation




 ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                    www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
Plan
 Identity & roles
 Dealing with conflict
 Power & influence
 Appreciative inquiry




              From: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1385131/Russia-Victory-Day-Female-police-cadets-20-000-parade.html
Identity & Roles
Identity & Roles
Exercise in pairs:
• Draw a large circle on a piece of paper
• Make a pie chart with each segment representing
  different aspects of your identity – who you are e.g.
  teacher, researcher, dad...
• Make the size of each segment proportional to the
  importance of that part of your identity
• Swap with a neighbour and discuss
• Now draw the same pie chart again, this time
  making the size of the pieces proportional to the
  amount of time you spend being that part of you are
  (you can add/remove segments if need be)
1. We are typically more conscious of the parts
   of our identify that are different to those
   around us
• e.g. if you are from a different country,
   older/married etc.
2. We use different parts of who we are in
 different situations e.g. when we are in
 different groups of people
• We often do this without thinking about it
• We are not changing our identity – we’re just
  drawing on different parts of ourselves to adopt
  different roles
3. This has implications for group dynamics
• Groups take on their own identity – as a
  facilitator be aware of different identities within
  the group.
• For example:
   – an individual you interview may act differently and say
   very different things in a group
   – and they may do and say different things again if you
   put them in a another group
4. In conflicts, people slip into rehearsed
  opposing roles that prevent them listening or
  learning
Avoiding conflict
Early warning signs of conflict:
• First, be aware of your own feelings
• Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?
Early warning signs of conflict
• Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?
• Anxiety, dread, frustration, anger
• Irrational thoughts e.g. “they don’t like me”, “it is
  going to fail”
• Behaving out of character e.g. nervous checking
  of things, working faster
• Exhibiting high or low power characteristics that
  are out of role e.g. becoming bossy or submissive
Early warning signs of conflict
• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?
Early warning signs of conflict
• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?
• Cold, distant, withdrawn
• Withholding confidences or ideas
• Closing body language
• Threats and offhand comments (even as jokes)
• Argumentative, not agreeing, blaming
• Moralising, intellectualising
• Silence, passivity
Avoiding conflict
• Can building rapport / mutual understanding help
  avoid conflict?
• Brainstorm: how can you build rapport (do’s and
  don’ts)
Power & influence
Group discussion
• How can you identify those in a group with more
  or less power?
• What signs can you look for in yourself or others
  to identify high or low rank?
How much power do you possess?
• There are four types of power you can possess:
  1. situational
  2. social
  3. personal
  4. transpersonal
Situational Power
• Role in formal hierarchy
• Seniority
• Expertise or experience
• Access to decision makers
Social Power                • Social network
• Race or ethnicity         • Marital status/ children
• Gender/ orientation       • Appearance or
                              attractiveness
• Age
                            • Religious affiliation
• Class
                            • Title (e.g. Dr)
• Profession
• Wealth
• Education level
• Health/physical ability
Personal Power
                          • Ability to communicate
• Self awareness            and influence others
• Self confident and      • Integrity and honesty
  assertive
                          • Creativity
• Charisma
                          • Positive and honest
• Strength of character     estimation of your
                            worth and abilities
• Emotional maturity
                          • Easy to get on with, so
• Ability to empathise
                            can build networks
• Ability to survive
                          • Build others up
  adversity
• Life experience
Transpersonal Power
• Connection to something larger than yourself
• Spirituality or faith (not religion)
• Ability to move beyond or forgive past hurts
• Freedom from fear
• Service to an unselfish vision
You may not be able to change your situational
 power if you’re at the bottom of the
 organisation’s hierarchy
But you may be able to increase your power in
 other ways, especially your personal and
 transpersonal power.
What power do you already possess, and how
can you increase your power?
Fill in questionnaire
• Individually
• Then pair up with someone (preferably who you
  know) and swap notes
• Questions for you to both answer at the end of
  the sheet
Appreciative Enquiry
• Turns problem-solving on its head
• Focus on rediscovering and reorganising the
  good rather than problem solving
• Process of sharing success stories from the past
  and present, asking positive questions in pairs
• Conceive and plan the future on the basis of the
  successes and strengths that are identified
• Can include everyone in change/future planning
Appreciative Enquiry
• Pair up with someone
• Ask them to tell you a story about one of their
  greatest successes
• Get them to tell you right from the start, with a
  beginning, middle and end, like a story
• Prompt them to tell you why they were so
  pleased, how they felt and draw out the positives
Appreciative Enquiry
• How do you feel?!
Reading
• Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for
  environmental management: a literature review.
  Biological Conservation 141: 2417–2431
• Reed MS, Graves A, Dandy N, Posthumus H, Hubacek
  K, Morris J, Prell C, Quinn CH, Stringer LC (2009) Who’s
  in and why? Stakeholder analysis as a prerequisite for
  sustainable natural resource management. Journal of
  Environmental Management 90: 1933–1949




  ustainable Uplands
 Learning to manage future change
                                              www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands

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Facilitating workshops

  • 1. Facilitating Stakeholder Workshops What makes stakeholder participation ustainable Uplands in environmental management work? nvolved Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 3. What are stakeholders? • Anyone who can affect or be affected by a decision or action (after Freeman, 1984) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 4. What is stakeholder participation? • A process where stakeholders (e.g. individuals, groups and organisations) choose to take an active role in making decisions that affect them (After Wandersman 1981; Wilcox 2003; Rowe et al. 2004) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 5. 2. Basics of Participation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 6. Different levels/types of participation in community planning The ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 7. Different levels/types of participation The wheel of participation (Wilcox, 2003) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 8. Different levels/types of participation Communication flows (Rowe & Frewer, 2000) Facilitators Stakeholders Communication Facilitators Stakeholders Consultation Facilitators Stakeholders Participation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 9. Why engage stakeholders? • Participation is increasingly embedded in policy for the normative & pragmatic reasons discussed • A democratic right e.g. Aarhus Convention • Higher quality and more durable decisions ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 10. Challenges and disillusionment • Empowering marginalised may interact with existing power structures to cause unintended consequences • Group dynamics may create “dysfunctional consensus” • Consultation fatigue as poorly run processes fail to deliver change ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 11. Evidence for claims of participation? • Few claims have been tested, but there is firm evidence that effective participation can enhance: • Quality of decisions: due to more comprehensive information inputs • Durability of decisions: due to stakeholder buy-in • But, decision quality and durability are highly dependant on the quality of the process leading to them ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 12. Tools vs overall process • Participation is more than a collection of tools and methods for engaging stakeholders ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 13. ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 14. 1. Start talking to people as soon as you can • From concept to completion • Early involvement leads to higher quality and more durable decisions • Avoid raising false expectations: make sure there’s something to negotiate What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 15. 2. Make sure you’re talking to the right people • The nature and legitimacy of outcomes is significantly affected by participant mix • Lots of methods available now for “stakeholder analysis” What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 16. 3. Make sure you know • Design the what people want to process to the talk about goals • Identify goals with stakeholders • Be prepared to negotiate and compromise • Partnerships, ownership and active engagement in the process is What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? more likely nvolved
  • 17. • Communicate e.g. information dissemination via leaflets or the mass media, hotlines and public meetings 4. Be flexible: • Consult e.g. consultation documents, base level of opinion polls and referendums, focus groups participation and surveys & methods on • Participate your context e.g. citizen’s juries, consensus & objectives conferences, task-forces and public meetings with voting • Tailor your methods to context What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? • Manage power nvolved
  • 18. • The outcome of a participatory process is more sensitive to the manner in which it is conducted than the tools that are used • Don’t underestimate the power of investing in a good facilitator to bring people together and deliver high quality outcomes What makes stakeholder participation 5. Get a facilitator in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 19. 6. Put local and scientific knowledge on an equal footing • Science can help people make more informed decisions • Local knowledge can question assumptions, and perhaps lead to more rigorous science What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 20. • Decisions based on a combination of local and scientific knowledge may by more robust due to more comprehensive information inputs What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 21. 3. Overcoming barriers to participation
  • 22. Barriers to participation Practical: lack of time, money, skills Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based on Increasingly tractable negative former experiences Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes World view (or epistemology): • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local knowledge and multiple perspectives • If you know what’s right, why consult? • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people construct & perceive knowledge
  • 23. Barriers to participation Practical: lack of time, money, skills Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based on Increasingly tractable negative former experiences Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes World view (or epistemology): • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local knowledge and multiple perspectives • If you know what’s right, why consult? • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people construct & perceive knowledge
  • 24. Overcoming barriers  Deeper issues may take generations to change  But most of these are tractable issues  Practical – we can make time/money and good practice skills available  Stakeholder scepticism: replacing bad with good practice, negative with positive experiences  Decision-maker scepticism: good practice can set boundaries (avoid raising false expectations via participation if no alternatives) and minimise bias  The key: identifying, spreading and facilitating good practice
  • 25. 4. Planning & Facilitating Events What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 26. 4a. Process Design Includes some material based on a Dialogue Matters course (Diana Pound), with help from Ros Bryce ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 27. What is important in planning an event? The ‘GROW’ Model* Goal What is the issue to be addressed? Reality Where are you now? Options Possible options? actionactionaction ? Will What will you do? * Sir John Whitmore, Coaching for Performance: GROWing People, Performance and Purpose (Nicholas Brealey, 2002) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 28. Goals • What do you want to achieve? • What do you want to change? • How will you know if you’ve been successful? • When do you want to have achieved your goal? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 29. Reality • What is happening at the moment? How have you verified this is true? • What are you achieving at present? • What action have you taken on this so far? What were the effects of this action? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 30. Options • What actions could you take to move forward? • What strategies have worked before in similar circumstances? • If no barriers or limitations existed, what would you do? • Which step will give the best result? • Advantages/disadvantages of this step? • Which option will you work on first? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 31. Will • What are you going to do? • When are you going to do it? • What help do you need? • Who will you involve? • What might prevent you from taking this step? • How can you overcome this? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 32. What is important in planning an event? Understanding the situation • Purpose • Outputs • Stakeholders • Timeframes Process plan Practicalities •Timetable •The team •No. of workshops •The venue •Key tasks •The tools •Action plan Task plan Event plan •Purpose •Timing •Questions •Purpose •Groupings •Outputs •Techiques ustainable Uplands •Sessions Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 33. Event planning • What is the purpose of the process/event? • What are the outcomes you want? • What are the outcomes stakeholders want? • Who are the stakeholders? • How does the event link to the wider project, process or your organisation’s goals? • How will you keep people engaged? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 34. Structuring an event • Make a facilitation plan – Timings (include buffer – things you can skip) – Who will do what when? – Equipment list – Session/activity titles (for participants’ agenda) – Detailed methods under each title – Try out unfamiliar methods first ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 35. Choosing techniques • Be clear about outcomes and outputs required • Alter group size depending on no. participants, tasks to be completed, amount of in-depth discussion needed and the level of conflict • Self-facilitating small groups or many facilitators? • Start with opening out techniques • Explore/discuss, and if necessary close down (rank, prioritise etc) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 36. Information gathering: opening out • Brainstorming • Metaplan • Venn diagrams • Listing • Carousel • Mapping and participatory GIS • Conceptual modelling or mind-mapping ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 37. Exploring: analysis • Categorisation e.g. card sorting and Q methodology • Problem tree analysis or cause-effect mapping • SWOT analysis • Timelines ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 38. Decision making: closing down • Voting • Ranking • Prioritisation (e.g. sticky dots) • Multi-Criteria Evaluation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 39. 4b. Facilitation Tools & Techniques ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 40. Why facilitate? • Efficient: more discussed in less time • Impartiality • Clarity • A helpful atmosphere • Appropriate techniques • More people have a say • No organisation or individual in control or veto • The outcome is open ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 41. What do you fear most? Group challenges: • Dominating people, big egos • Quiet or unconfident people • Diverse groups: different ways of approaching an issue, different backgrounds and values From within: • Lack of confidence • Lack of experience • Too few tools & techniques: no plan B ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 42. Overcoming our fears • Increasing our skill level: – Tools & techniques – Getting experience • Increasing our personal confidence and power: developing “presence” ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 43. Interpersonal facilitation skills: • Empathetic • Capable of building rapport with group and maintaining positive group dynamics • Handling dominating or offensive individuals • Encourage participants to question assumptions and re-evaluate entrenched positions • Get the most out of reticent individuals • Humble, open to feedback • Perceived as impartial, open to multiple perspectives and approachable ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 44. Practical facilitation skills: • Active listening and understanding • Enable people to clarify their thoughts • Let people know their opinions are valued • Help people go beyond facts to meanings • Help people to ‘own’ their problems, take responsibility for them and think of solutions • Giving momentum and energy • Ensuring everyone has an opportunity to input • Making an impartial record of the discussion • Writing clearly, managing paper (assistant?) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 45. Practical skills continued: • Non-verbal feedback: – Eye contact – Nodding, smiling – Focussed attention – Value silence ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 46. • Verbal feedback: – Sounds, short phrases – Clarifying details – Encouraging/probing: asking for more information – Open (not closed) questions – Summarising: to confirm correct interpretation – Reframing: • Technique to move people from a negative stance to discuss a positive way forward • Acknowledge what has been said • Ask an open question that seeks to get at the heart of the problem • Involve others in group in solving the problem ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 47. Useful Tricks • Ground rules: agree at outset, refer back if need • Parking space: park now and deal with later • Open space: adapt to participant needs/interests • Get an opinion leader to introduce the event: the group may be more likely to trust you by proxy • Group mirroring – bring them with you: – Empathise with group feeling, start there – Keep smiling, positive & energised tone of voice, pace, increasingly open body language ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 48. 5. Deep dynamics of facilitation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 49. Plan  Identity & roles  Dealing with conflict  Power & influence  Appreciative inquiry From: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1385131/Russia-Victory-Day-Female-police-cadets-20-000-parade.html
  • 51. Identity & Roles Exercise in pairs: • Draw a large circle on a piece of paper • Make a pie chart with each segment representing different aspects of your identity – who you are e.g. teacher, researcher, dad... • Make the size of each segment proportional to the importance of that part of your identity • Swap with a neighbour and discuss • Now draw the same pie chart again, this time making the size of the pieces proportional to the amount of time you spend being that part of you are (you can add/remove segments if need be)
  • 52. 1. We are typically more conscious of the parts of our identify that are different to those around us • e.g. if you are from a different country, older/married etc.
  • 53. 2. We use different parts of who we are in different situations e.g. when we are in different groups of people • We often do this without thinking about it • We are not changing our identity – we’re just drawing on different parts of ourselves to adopt different roles
  • 54. 3. This has implications for group dynamics • Groups take on their own identity – as a facilitator be aware of different identities within the group. • For example: – an individual you interview may act differently and say very different things in a group – and they may do and say different things again if you put them in a another group
  • 55. 4. In conflicts, people slip into rehearsed opposing roles that prevent them listening or learning
  • 56. Avoiding conflict Early warning signs of conflict: • First, be aware of your own feelings • Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?
  • 57. Early warning signs of conflict • Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself? • Anxiety, dread, frustration, anger • Irrational thoughts e.g. “they don’t like me”, “it is going to fail” • Behaving out of character e.g. nervous checking of things, working faster • Exhibiting high or low power characteristics that are out of role e.g. becoming bossy or submissive
  • 58. Early warning signs of conflict • Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?
  • 59. Early warning signs of conflict • Early signs of conflict you can detect in others? • Cold, distant, withdrawn • Withholding confidences or ideas • Closing body language • Threats and offhand comments (even as jokes) • Argumentative, not agreeing, blaming • Moralising, intellectualising • Silence, passivity
  • 60. Avoiding conflict • Can building rapport / mutual understanding help avoid conflict? • Brainstorm: how can you build rapport (do’s and don’ts)
  • 62. Group discussion • How can you identify those in a group with more or less power? • What signs can you look for in yourself or others to identify high or low rank?
  • 63. How much power do you possess? • There are four types of power you can possess: 1. situational 2. social 3. personal 4. transpersonal
  • 64. Situational Power • Role in formal hierarchy • Seniority • Expertise or experience • Access to decision makers
  • 65. Social Power • Social network • Race or ethnicity • Marital status/ children • Gender/ orientation • Appearance or attractiveness • Age • Religious affiliation • Class • Title (e.g. Dr) • Profession • Wealth • Education level • Health/physical ability
  • 66. Personal Power • Ability to communicate • Self awareness and influence others • Self confident and • Integrity and honesty assertive • Creativity • Charisma • Positive and honest • Strength of character estimation of your worth and abilities • Emotional maturity • Easy to get on with, so • Ability to empathise can build networks • Ability to survive • Build others up adversity • Life experience
  • 67. Transpersonal Power • Connection to something larger than yourself • Spirituality or faith (not religion) • Ability to move beyond or forgive past hurts • Freedom from fear • Service to an unselfish vision
  • 68. You may not be able to change your situational power if you’re at the bottom of the organisation’s hierarchy But you may be able to increase your power in other ways, especially your personal and transpersonal power. What power do you already possess, and how can you increase your power?
  • 69. Fill in questionnaire • Individually • Then pair up with someone (preferably who you know) and swap notes • Questions for you to both answer at the end of the sheet
  • 70. Appreciative Enquiry • Turns problem-solving on its head • Focus on rediscovering and reorganising the good rather than problem solving • Process of sharing success stories from the past and present, asking positive questions in pairs • Conceive and plan the future on the basis of the successes and strengths that are identified • Can include everyone in change/future planning
  • 71. Appreciative Enquiry • Pair up with someone • Ask them to tell you a story about one of their greatest successes • Get them to tell you right from the start, with a beginning, middle and end, like a story • Prompt them to tell you why they were so pleased, how they felt and draw out the positives
  • 73. Reading • Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417–2431 • Reed MS, Graves A, Dandy N, Posthumus H, Hubacek K, Morris J, Prell C, Quinn CH, Stringer LC (2009) Who’s in and why? Stakeholder analysis as a prerequisite for sustainable natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1933–1949 ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands