Facilitating Stakeholder WorkshopsWhat makes stakeholder participation   ustainable Uplandsin environmental management wor...
1. Important Terms
What are stakeholders?• Anyone who can affect or be affected by a  decision or action                                    (...
What is stakeholder participation?• A process where stakeholders (e.g. individuals,  groups and organisations) choose to t...
2. Basics of Participationustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change                                   www.see.lee...
Different levels/types of participation in community planningThe ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) ustainable Uplan...
Different levels/types of participationThe wheel of participation (Wilcox, 2003) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage fut...
Different levels/types of participationCommunication flows (Rowe & Frewer, 2000)      Facilitators                        ...
Why engage stakeholders?• Participation is increasingly embedded in policy  for the normative & pragmatic reasons discusse...
Challenges and disillusionment• Empowering marginalised may interact with existing  power structures to cause unintended c...
Evidence for claims of participation?• Few claims have been tested, but there is firm  evidence that effective participati...
Tools vs overall process                                   • Participation is                                     more tha...
ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change                                   www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
1. Start talking to people as   soon as you can• From concept to  completion• Early involvement leads to  higher quality a...
2. Make sure you’re   talking to the   right people• The nature and   legitimacy of   outcomes is   significantly   affect...
3. Make sure you know    • Design the   what people want to     process to the   talk about              goals            ...
• Communicate                     e.g. information                     dissemination via leaflets or                     t...
• The outcome of a participatory process is  more sensitive to the manner in which it  is conducted than the tools that ar...
6. Put local and scientific knowledge on an equal footing• Science can help people make more informed decisions• Local kno...
• Decisions based on a combination of local and scientific  knowledge may by more robust due to more  comprehensive inform...
3. Overcoming barriers to participation
Barriers to participation                                        Practical: lack of time, money, skills                   ...
Barriers to participation                                        Practical: lack of time, money, skills                   ...
Overcoming barriers Deeper issues may take generations to change But most of these are tractable issues       Practical...
4. Planning & Facilitating Events                             What makes stakeholder participation                        ...
4a. Process DesignIncludes some material based on a Dialogue Matters course (Diana Pound), with help from Ros Bryce   usta...
What is important in planning an event?                       The ‘GROW’ Model*                                    Goal   ...
Goals•    What do you want to achieve?•    What do you want to change?•    How will you know if you’ve been successful?•  ...
Reality• What is happening at the moment? How have  you verified this is true?• What are you achieving at present?• What a...
Options• What actions could you take to move forward?• What strategies have worked before in similar  circumstances?• If n...
Will•    What are you going to do?•    When are you going to do it?•    What help do you need?•    Who will you involve?• ...
What is important in planning an event?                                      Understanding the situation                  ...
Event planning• What is the purpose of the process/event?• What are the outcomes you want?• What are the outcomes stakehol...
Structuring an event• Make a facilitation plan   –   Timings (include buffer – things you can skip)   –   Who will do what...
Choosing techniques• Be clear about outcomes and outputs required• Alter group size depending on no. participants,  tasks ...
Information gathering: opening out•    Brainstorming•    Metaplan•    Venn diagrams•    Listing•    Carousel•    Mapping a...
Exploring: analysis• Categorisation e.g. card sorting and Q  methodology• Problem tree analysis or cause-effect mapping• S...
Decision making: closing down•    Voting•    Ranking•    Prioritisation (e.g. sticky dots)•    Multi-Criteria Evaluation  ...
4b. Facilitation Tools & Techniquesustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change                                   ww...
Why facilitate?•    Efficient: more discussed in less time•    Impartiality•    Clarity•    A helpful atmosphere•    Appro...
What do you fear most?Group challenges:• Dominating people, big egos• Quiet or unconfident people• Diverse groups: differe...
Overcoming our fears• Increasing our skill level:   – Tools & techniques   – Getting experience• Increasing our personal c...
Interpersonal facilitation skills:• Empathetic• Capable of building rapport with group and  maintaining positive group dyn...
Practical facilitation skills:• Active listening and understanding• Enable people to clarify their thoughts• Let people kn...
Practical skills continued:• Non-verbal feedback:   –   Eye contact   –   Nodding, smiling   –   Focussed attention   –   ...
• Verbal feedback:   –   Sounds, short phrases   –   Clarifying details   –   Encouraging/probing: asking for more informa...
Useful Tricks• Ground rules: agree at outset, refer back if need• Parking space: park now and deal with later• Open space:...
5. Deep dynamics of facilitation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change                                    ww...
Plan Identity & roles Dealing with conflict Power & influence Appreciative inquiry              From: http://www.daily...
Identity & Roles
Identity & RolesExercise in pairs:• Draw a large circle on a piece of paper• Make a pie chart with each segment representi...
1. We are typically more conscious of the parts   of our identify that are different to those   around us• e.g. if you are...
2. We use different parts of who we are in different situations e.g. when we are in different groups of people• We often d...
3. This has implications for group dynamics• Groups take on their own identity – as a  facilitator be aware of different i...
4. In conflicts, people slip into rehearsed  opposing roles that prevent them listening or  learning
Avoiding conflictEarly warning signs of conflict:• First, be aware of your own feelings• Early signs of conflict you can d...
Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?• Anxiety, dread, frustration, anger• ...
Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?
Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?• Cold, distant, withdrawn• Withholding ...
Avoiding conflict• Can building rapport / mutual understanding help  avoid conflict?• Brainstorm: how can you build rappor...
Power & influence
Group discussion• How can you identify those in a group with more  or less power?• What signs can you look for in yourself...
How much power do you possess?• There are four types of power you can possess:  1. situational  2. social  3. personal  4....
Situational Power• Role in formal hierarchy• Seniority• Expertise or experience• Access to decision makers
Social Power                • Social network• Race or ethnicity         • Marital status/ children• Gender/ orientation   ...
Personal Power                          • Ability to communicate• Self awareness            and influence others• Self con...
Transpersonal Power• Connection to something larger than yourself• Spirituality or faith (not religion)• Ability to move b...
You may not be able to change your situational power if you’re at the bottom of the organisation’s hierarchyBut you may be...
Fill in questionnaire• Individually• Then pair up with someone (preferably who you  know) and swap notes• Questions for yo...
Appreciative Enquiry• Turns problem-solving on its head• Focus on rediscovering and reorganising the  good rather than pro...
Appreciative Enquiry• Pair up with someone• Ask them to tell you a story about one of their  greatest successes• Get them ...
Appreciative Enquiry• How do you feel?!
Reading• Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for  environmental management: a literature review.  Biological Conserva...
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Facilitating workshops

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ACES training on how to be a good facilitator in research contexts

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Facilitating workshops

  1. 1. Facilitating Stakeholder WorkshopsWhat makes stakeholder participation ustainable Uplandsin environmental management work?nvolved Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  2. 2. 1. Important Terms
  3. 3. What are stakeholders?• Anyone who can affect or be affected by a decision or action (after Freeman, 1984) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  4. 4. What is stakeholder participation?• A process where stakeholders (e.g. individuals, groups and organisations) choose to take an active role in making decisions that affect them (After Wandersman 1981; Wilcox 2003; Rowe et al. 2004) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  5. 5. 2. Basics of Participationustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  6. 6. Different levels/types of participation in community planningThe ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  7. 7. Different levels/types of participationThe wheel of participation (Wilcox, 2003) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  8. 8. Different levels/types of participationCommunication flows (Rowe & Frewer, 2000) Facilitators Stakeholders Communication Facilitators Stakeholders Consultation Facilitators Stakeholders Participation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  9. 9. Why engage stakeholders?• Participation is increasingly embedded in policy for the normative & pragmatic reasons discussed • A democratic right e.g. Aarhus Convention • Higher quality and more durable decisions ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  10. 10. Challenges and disillusionment• Empowering marginalised may interact with existing power structures to cause unintended consequences• Group dynamics may create “dysfunctional consensus”• Consultation fatigue as poorly run processes fail to deliver change ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  11. 11. Evidence for claims of participation?• Few claims have been tested, but there is firm evidence that effective participation can enhance: • Quality of decisions: due to more comprehensive information inputs • Durability of decisions: due to stakeholder buy-in• But, decision quality and durability are highly dependant on the quality of the process leading to them ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  12. 12. Tools vs overall process • Participation is more than a collection of tools and methods for engaging stakeholdersustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  13. 13. ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  14. 14. 1. Start talking to people as soon as you can• From concept to completion• Early involvement leads to higher quality and more durable decisions• Avoid raising false expectations: make sure there’s something to negotiate What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  15. 15. 2. Make sure you’re talking to the right people• The nature and legitimacy of outcomes is significantly affected by participant mix• Lots of methods available now for “stakeholder analysis” What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  16. 16. 3. Make sure you know • Design the what people want to process to the talk about goals • Identify goals with stakeholders • Be prepared to negotiate and compromise • Partnerships, ownership and active engagement in the process is What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? more likely nvolved
  17. 17. • Communicate e.g. information dissemination via leaflets or the mass media, hotlines and public meetings4. Be flexible: • Consult e.g. consultation documents, base level of opinion polls and referendums, focus groups participation and surveys & methods on • Participate your context e.g. citizen’s juries, consensus & objectives conferences, task-forces and public meetings with voting • Tailor your methods to context What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? • Manage power nvolved
  18. 18. • The outcome of a participatory process is more sensitive to the manner in which it is conducted than the tools that are used• Don’t underestimate the power of investing in a good facilitator to bring people together and deliver high quality outcomes What makes stakeholder participation 5. Get a facilitator in environmental management work? nvolved
  19. 19. 6. Put local and scientific knowledge on an equal footing• Science can help people make more informed decisions• Local knowledge can question assumptions, and perhaps lead to more rigorous science What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  20. 20. • Decisions based on a combination of local and scientific knowledge may by more robust due to more comprehensive information inputs What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  21. 21. 3. Overcoming barriers to participation
  22. 22. Barriers to participation Practical: lack of time, money, skills Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based onIncreasingly tractable negative former experiences Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes World view (or epistemology): • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local knowledge and multiple perspectives • If you know what’s right, why consult? • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people construct & perceive knowledge
  23. 23. Barriers to participation Practical: lack of time, money, skills Stakeholder fatigue, apathy based onIncreasingly tractable negative former experiences Fear of losing control, unwanted/biased outcomes World view (or epistemology): • Reductionists, in search of universal truth, find it hard to value local knowledge and multiple perspectives • If you know what’s right, why consult? • Often related to disciplinary background, but more about the way people construct & perceive knowledge
  24. 24. Overcoming barriers Deeper issues may take generations to change But most of these are tractable issues  Practical – we can make time/money and good practice skills available  Stakeholder scepticism: replacing bad with good practice, negative with positive experiences  Decision-maker scepticism: good practice can set boundaries (avoid raising false expectations via participation if no alternatives) and minimise bias The key: identifying, spreading and facilitating good practice
  25. 25. 4. Planning & Facilitating Events What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  26. 26. 4a. Process DesignIncludes some material based on a Dialogue Matters course (Diana Pound), with help from Ros Bryce ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  27. 27. What is important in planning an event? The ‘GROW’ Model* Goal What is the issue to be addressed? Reality Where are you now? Options Possible options? actionactionaction ? Will What will you do?* Sir John Whitmore, Coaching for Performance: GROWing People, Performance and Purpose (Nicholas Brealey, 2002) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  28. 28. Goals• What do you want to achieve?• What do you want to change?• How will you know if you’ve been successful?• When do you want to have achieved your goal? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  29. 29. Reality• What is happening at the moment? How have you verified this is true?• What are you achieving at present?• What action have you taken on this so far? What were the effects of this action? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  30. 30. Options• What actions could you take to move forward?• What strategies have worked before in similar circumstances?• If no barriers or limitations existed, what would you do?• Which step will give the best result?• Advantages/disadvantages of this step?• Which option will you work on first? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  31. 31. Will• What are you going to do?• When are you going to do it?• What help do you need?• Who will you involve?• What might prevent you from taking this step?• How can you overcome this? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  32. 32. What is important in planning an event? Understanding the situation • Purpose • Outputs • Stakeholders • Timeframes Process plan Practicalities •Timetable •The team •No. of workshops •The venue •Key tasks •The tools •Action plan Task plan Event plan •Purpose •Timing •Questions •Purpose •Groupings •Outputs •Techiques ustainable Uplands •Sessions Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  33. 33. Event planning• What is the purpose of the process/event?• What are the outcomes you want?• What are the outcomes stakeholders want?• Who are the stakeholders?• How does the event link to the wider project, process or your organisation’s goals?• How will you keep people engaged? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  34. 34. Structuring an event• Make a facilitation plan – Timings (include buffer – things you can skip) – Who will do what when? – Equipment list – Session/activity titles (for participants’ agenda) – Detailed methods under each title – Try out unfamiliar methods first ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  35. 35. Choosing techniques• Be clear about outcomes and outputs required• Alter group size depending on no. participants, tasks to be completed, amount of in-depth discussion needed and the level of conflict• Self-facilitating small groups or many facilitators?• Start with opening out techniques• Explore/discuss, and if necessary close down (rank, prioritise etc) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  36. 36. Information gathering: opening out• Brainstorming• Metaplan• Venn diagrams• Listing• Carousel• Mapping and participatory GIS• Conceptual modelling or mind-mapping ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  37. 37. Exploring: analysis• Categorisation e.g. card sorting and Q methodology• Problem tree analysis or cause-effect mapping• SWOT analysis• Timelines ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  38. 38. Decision making: closing down• Voting• Ranking• Prioritisation (e.g. sticky dots)• Multi-Criteria Evaluation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  39. 39. 4b. Facilitation Tools & Techniquesustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  40. 40. Why facilitate?• Efficient: more discussed in less time• Impartiality• Clarity• A helpful atmosphere• Appropriate techniques• More people have a say• No organisation or individual in control or veto• The outcome is open ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  41. 41. What do you fear most?Group challenges:• Dominating people, big egos• Quiet or unconfident people• Diverse groups: different ways of approaching an issue, different backgrounds and valuesFrom within:• Lack of confidence• Lack of experience• Too few tools & techniques: no plan B ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  42. 42. Overcoming our fears• Increasing our skill level: – Tools & techniques – Getting experience• Increasing our personal confidence and power: developing “presence” ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  43. 43. Interpersonal facilitation skills:• Empathetic• Capable of building rapport with group and maintaining positive group dynamics• Handling dominating or offensive individuals• Encourage participants to question assumptions and re-evaluate entrenched positions• Get the most out of reticent individuals• Humble, open to feedback• Perceived as impartial, open to multiple perspectives and approachable ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  44. 44. Practical facilitation skills:• Active listening and understanding• Enable people to clarify their thoughts• Let people know their opinions are valued• Help people go beyond facts to meanings• Help people to ‘own’ their problems, take responsibility for them and think of solutions• Giving momentum and energy• Ensuring everyone has an opportunity to input• Making an impartial record of the discussion• Writing clearly, managing paper (assistant?) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  45. 45. Practical skills continued:• Non-verbal feedback: – Eye contact – Nodding, smiling – Focussed attention – Value silence ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  46. 46. • Verbal feedback: – Sounds, short phrases – Clarifying details – Encouraging/probing: asking for more information – Open (not closed) questions – Summarising: to confirm correct interpretation – Reframing: • Technique to move people from a negative stance to discuss a positive way forward • Acknowledge what has been said • Ask an open question that seeks to get at the heart of the problem • Involve others in group in solving the problem ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  47. 47. Useful Tricks• Ground rules: agree at outset, refer back if need• Parking space: park now and deal with later• Open space: adapt to participant needs/interests• Get an opinion leader to introduce the event: the group may be more likely to trust you by proxy• Group mirroring – bring them with you: – Empathise with group feeling, start there – Keep smiling, positive & energised tone of voice, pace, increasingly open body language ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  48. 48. 5. Deep dynamics of facilitation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  49. 49. Plan Identity & roles Dealing with conflict Power & influence Appreciative inquiry From: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1385131/Russia-Victory-Day-Female-police-cadets-20-000-parade.html
  50. 50. Identity & Roles
  51. 51. Identity & RolesExercise in pairs:• Draw a large circle on a piece of paper• Make a pie chart with each segment representing different aspects of your identity – who you are e.g. teacher, researcher, dad...• Make the size of each segment proportional to the importance of that part of your identity• Swap with a neighbour and discuss• Now draw the same pie chart again, this time making the size of the pieces proportional to the amount of time you spend being that part of you are (you can add/remove segments if need be)
  52. 52. 1. We are typically more conscious of the parts of our identify that are different to those around us• e.g. if you are from a different country, older/married etc.
  53. 53. 2. We use different parts of who we are in different situations e.g. when we are in different groups of people• We often do this without thinking about it• We are not changing our identity – we’re just drawing on different parts of ourselves to adopt different roles
  54. 54. 3. This has implications for group dynamics• Groups take on their own identity – as a facilitator be aware of different identities within the group.• For example: – an individual you interview may act differently and say very different things in a group – and they may do and say different things again if you put them in a another group
  55. 55. 4. In conflicts, people slip into rehearsed opposing roles that prevent them listening or learning
  56. 56. Avoiding conflictEarly warning signs of conflict:• First, be aware of your own feelings• Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?
  57. 57. Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in yourself?• Anxiety, dread, frustration, anger• Irrational thoughts e.g. “they don’t like me”, “it is going to fail”• Behaving out of character e.g. nervous checking of things, working faster• Exhibiting high or low power characteristics that are out of role e.g. becoming bossy or submissive
  58. 58. Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?
  59. 59. Early warning signs of conflict• Early signs of conflict you can detect in others?• Cold, distant, withdrawn• Withholding confidences or ideas• Closing body language• Threats and offhand comments (even as jokes)• Argumentative, not agreeing, blaming• Moralising, intellectualising• Silence, passivity
  60. 60. Avoiding conflict• Can building rapport / mutual understanding help avoid conflict?• Brainstorm: how can you build rapport (do’s and don’ts)
  61. 61. Power & influence
  62. 62. Group discussion• How can you identify those in a group with more or less power?• What signs can you look for in yourself or others to identify high or low rank?
  63. 63. How much power do you possess?• There are four types of power you can possess: 1. situational 2. social 3. personal 4. transpersonal
  64. 64. Situational Power• Role in formal hierarchy• Seniority• Expertise or experience• Access to decision makers
  65. 65. Social Power • Social network• Race or ethnicity • Marital status/ children• Gender/ orientation • Appearance or attractiveness• Age • Religious affiliation• Class • Title (e.g. Dr)• Profession• Wealth• Education level• Health/physical ability
  66. 66. Personal Power • Ability to communicate• Self awareness and influence others• Self confident and • Integrity and honesty assertive • Creativity• Charisma • Positive and honest• Strength of character estimation of your worth and abilities• Emotional maturity • Easy to get on with, so• Ability to empathise can build networks• Ability to survive • Build others up adversity• Life experience
  67. 67. Transpersonal Power• Connection to something larger than yourself• Spirituality or faith (not religion)• Ability to move beyond or forgive past hurts• Freedom from fear• Service to an unselfish vision
  68. 68. You may not be able to change your situational power if you’re at the bottom of the organisation’s hierarchyBut you may be able to increase your power in other ways, especially your personal and transpersonal power.What power do you already possess, and howcan you increase your power?
  69. 69. Fill in questionnaire• Individually• Then pair up with someone (preferably who you know) and swap notes• Questions for you to both answer at the end of the sheet
  70. 70. Appreciative Enquiry• Turns problem-solving on its head• Focus on rediscovering and reorganising the good rather than problem solving• Process of sharing success stories from the past and present, asking positive questions in pairs• Conceive and plan the future on the basis of the successes and strengths that are identified• Can include everyone in change/future planning
  71. 71. Appreciative Enquiry• Pair up with someone• Ask them to tell you a story about one of their greatest successes• Get them to tell you right from the start, with a beginning, middle and end, like a story• Prompt them to tell you why they were so pleased, how they felt and draw out the positives
  72. 72. Appreciative Enquiry• How do you feel?!
  73. 73. Reading• Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417–2431• Reed MS, Graves A, Dandy N, Posthumus H, Hubacek K, Morris J, Prell C, Quinn CH, Stringer LC (2009) Who’s in and why? Stakeholder analysis as a prerequisite for sustainable natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1933–1949 ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands

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