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FENUI.pptx

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND THE IMPACT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON SCHOOL PERFOMANCE IN NDOP HEALTH DISTRICT Presented by NCHOFONG NORA FENUI BSc (Applied Zoology) Matriculation Number: UBa20HP047 SEPTEMBER, 2022 Supervisor PROF. GERALD NGO TEKE 1
  2. 2. 2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 1/2  Teenage pregnancy is a term used to describe the period in which a fetus develops inside the womb of a young girl between the age of 13 to 19 [1].  This may be caused by voluntary sexual relations among school-children, early marriage, transactional sex with adults and other forms of sexual abuse.  Babies born to adolescents are more likely to be born preterm, have low birth weights, die in the neonatal or post neonatal period. 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 2/2 The teenage mothers may suffer higher risk of obstructed labor, anemia, urinary tract infections, preeclampsia, high rate of cesarean sections, maternal mortality, premature labor, fistula and STIs.  Children born to teenage mothers have a 63% increased risk of being born into poverty compared to children born to older mothers [3]. 4
  5. 5. PROBLEM STATEMENT 1/2  Teenage pregnancy has remained persistent and also is a major cause of early school drop outs which limit the educational opportunities of teenagers in local communities.  Factors such as the lack of information about sexual and reproductive health, lack of education, community, social and family pressure to marry, sexual violence, early child marriage may lead to teenage pregnancy [10]. 5
  6. 6. PROBLEM STATEMENT 2/2  Teenage mothers are unlikely to complete high school education which could perpetuate the cycle of impoverishment among them [9].  This study is therefore, concerned with the identification of the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy on the academic performance of the teenagers at selected health areas in Ndop health district which is a subdivision in the Northwest region of Cameroon. 6
  7. 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy and their prevention? What is the influence of teenage pregnancy on the school performance of teenagers in Ndop health district? What are some of the social, health, psychological, educational and economic issues that pregnant teenagers experience? 7
  8. 8. 8 Null hypothesis Teenage pregnancy does not have a significant effect on the academic performance of teenagers in Ndop health district. Alternative hypothesis Teenage pregnancy has a significant on the academic performance of teenagers in Ndop health district RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  9. 9. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES GENERAL OBJECTIVE  To determine how teenage pregnancy affects the education of teenagers in Ndop health district. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES To assess the factors that contributes to teenage pregnancy in Ndop health district.  To evaluate the effect of teenage pregnancy on the school performance of teenagers in Ndop health district. To determine the social, health, psychological, educational and economic issues that pregnant teenagers experience. 9
  10. 10. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study increased the level of knowledge of the researcher, their scope of reasoning and widen their knowledge on the risk factors of teenage pregnancy and its influence on academic performance. It provided and increased teenagers level of knowledge on teenage pregnancy, the causes, consequences and risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and how it can be prevented.  This work which carried out in this area was one of its kind and will assist the ministry public health with up-to-date information that will help in control programs against teenage pregnancies in this area. 10
  11. 11. 11 The study was carried out in Ndop Sub Division of the North West Region of Cameroon.  It is made up of a of 41,279 inhabitants. • STUDY DESIGN • STUDY AREA The study was a descriptive cross- sectional study design in which randomly selected households were enrolled and data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. This study took place in selected quarters of Bamessing, Bamali, Bamunka and Bambalang health areas. SAMPLING TECHNIC  A convenience sampling technique was used to select the desired sample size for this survey. METHODOLOGY 1/4
  12. 12. 12 • Sample size The sample size was determined based on the Cochran`s formula for sample size calculation giving a sample size of 382 individuals. • Study Population The study was a descriptive cross- sectional study in Ndop. The study population consisted of teenagers and their parents . METHODOLOGY 2/4
  13. 13. METHODOLOGY 3/4 Inclusion criteria 13 Exclusion Criteria  Female teenagers within the age range of 10 to 19 years that were pregnant or gave birth, female teenagers that dropped out from school.  An individual who took ill or travelled during the period of the study was excluded.  A teenager who has been away for a long time and just came into the community during the period of the study was excluded.
  14. 14. METHODOLOGY 4/4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION  Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Bamenda housed in the FHS before going to the field for research.  An administrative clearance was also obtained from the Regional Delegation of Public Health (RDPH). 14
  15. 15. 15 Variables Attributes Frequency (n) Percentage (%) Age 10-14years 9 3.5% 15-19years 245 96.5% Religion Christianity 52 20.5% Islam 63 24.8% None 139 54.7% Highest level of education Primary 94 37.0% Secondary 160 63.0% Residential area Bamessing 26 10.2% Bamali 43 16.9% Bamunka 59 23.2% Bambalang 126 49.6% Occupation Farmer 146 57.5% Tailor 4 1.6% Business 34 13.4% Seeking opportunities 35 13.8% Hair dresser 35 13.8% Annual household income Less than 25,000FCFA 169 66.5% Prefer not to say 85 33.5% RESULTS 1/7 Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics
  16. 16. RESULTS 2/7 Frequency n Percentage % Age of first sexual intercourse? 9-14 years 124 48.8% 15-19 years 130 51.2% Age of first pregnancy? 9-14 years 13 5.1% 15-19 years 241 94.9% Do you hold your parents responsible for you having a pregnancy at this age? No 215 84.6% Yes 39 15.4% Did you indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity? No 221 87.0% Yes 33 13.0% Were you aware of the various family planning methods? No 193 76.0% Yes 61 24.0% What do you think are the possible causes of teenage pregnancy? Poverty 69 27.2% Lack of parental care 77 30.3% Broken homes 98 38.6% High rate of illiteracy 10 3.9% 16 Table 2: Factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy
  17. 17. Frequency 12.20% 6.70% 6.30% 3.90% 6.30% 19.70% 0.40% 5.50% 39.00% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% Early sexual relations Influenced by friends Alcohol and drug abuse Non use of contraceptives Broken home Wanted to relieve stress Lack of finance Sexual abuse Lack of parental care Pressing needs that led to teenage pregnancy RESULTS 3/7 17
  18. 18. 18 RESULTS 4/7 23.20% 27.60% 23.60% 14.20% 11.40% School dropout Increase rate of child abuse Pressure on social amenities High rate of unemployment Increase crime rate 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Effects of teenage pregnancy on the school performance Frequency
  19. 19. 19 RESULTS 5/7 Questions Attributes Count Column N % Did teenager become pregnant while attending school? Yes 254 100.0% Did teenager find it difficult to attend school due to your pregnancy? No 29 11.4% Yes 225 88.6% Did teenager have difficulties in studying due to the pregnancy? Yes 254 100.0% Did teenager class results decrease due to pregnancy? Yes 254 100.0% Did teenager stop schooling because of your pregnancy? Yes 254 100.0% Will you continue with your education after delivery? No 194 76.4% Yes 60 23.6% What will prevent you from continuing with your education after your pregnancy? Your baby 70 27.6% lack of finance 109 42.9% no time for school 30 11.8% lack emotional support 20 7.9% Feel discouraged 25 9.8% What plans do you have for yourself concerning education? Go back to school and continue from where I stopped 53 20.9% Get into business 120 47.2% Learn a trade 80 31.5% How do you think teenage mothers can be best supported within the educational system? Financially 138 54.3% Emotionally 73 28.7% Morally 43 16.9%
  20. 20. 20 RESULTS 6/7 Questions Attribute Frequency (n) Percentage % How did you feel when you knew you were pregnant? Disappointed 49 19.3% Sad 67 26.4% Depressed 73 28.7% Suicidal 7 2.8% Scared 58 22.8% On a day to day basis, who takes care of the baby? The father of the child 39 15.4% Your family 96 37.8% Friends/peers 16 6.3% Yourself 103 40.6% What are the main challenges you are facing in bringing up this child? Financial challenges 144 56.7% Emotional challenges 83 32.7% Depression 27 10.6% What are the challenges of being a teenage mother in your community? Financial challenges 110 43.3% Low self-esteem 76 29.9% Depression 40 15.7% School dropout 28 11.0% Did teenager have any health complications during your pregnancy or child birth? No 96 37.8% Yes 158 62.2% Did teenager’s baby have any health complications during pregnancy or after birth? No 131 51.6% Yes 123 48.4% Did teenagers use any of the following contraceptives/family planning? condom 68 26.8% Withdrawal method 61 24.0% I did not know any 125 49.2% How often did you use them? Regularly 113 44.5% Never 141 55.5% Did teenagers know how to protect themselves from STI’s/HIV? No 224 88.2% Yes 30 11.8% Did teenagers experience low self-esteem due to pregnancy? No 85 33.5% Yes 169 66.5% Did teenagers receive health care (anti natal/post natal) when they were pregnant/in labor? Yes 254 100.0% Do teenagers take their child to a health facility for checkup? No 64 25.2% Yes 190 74.8% Do teenagers know where to go to obtain family planning or SRH services and information? No 134 52.8% Yes 120 47.2%
  21. 21. 21 RESULTS 7/7 28.00% 22.80% 36.60% 12.60% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% Public education on the use of contraceptives Intensification of sex education in schools, hospitals, homes and the community Encouragement of sexual abstinence Intensification of girl child education Measures put in place to reduce teenage pregnancy Figure 5: Measures put in place to reduce teenage pregnancy Frequency
  22. 22. CONCLUSION 22 This study provided insight into the Ndop population’s knowledge on the factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy and school attendance do not go well together in that there is a detrimental effect on their education and their future plans in school. With regards to the social, health, psychological and economic crises that pregnant teenagers faced, there was a significant effect .
  23. 23. RECOMMENDATIONS 23 Encouragement of sexual abstinence, abstain from early sexual relation, encouragement on the use of contraceptives. Proper education and intensification of sex education and topics should include menstruation, sexual intercourse, pregnancy. The community should avoid public humiliation of pregnant teenagers and encourage them, give moral support, emotional support and financial support.
  24. 24. REFERENCES 1) Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Zhang J, et al. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG. 2014;121(Suppl 1):40–8. 2) Vargas, G., Borus, J. and Charlton, B.M. (2017) Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: The Role of Young Men. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 29, 393-398. 3) UNICEF. Mädchen in Entwicklungsländern. UNICEF, Austria, 2001. 24
  25. 25. THANKS FOR YOUR KEEN ATTENTION 25

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