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Suza dds 02 democracy governance and development show


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For diploma student

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Suza dds 02 democracy governance and development show

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  2. 2. DEMOCRACY, GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT •Definition of the concepts •Principles of democracy •Types of democracy •Merits and demerits of democrcy •Civil societies and its roles in democracy •Good governance •Principles of good governance
  3. 3. Where does democracy come from? • Democracy comes from the Greek word demokratía which is a union of two words demos meaning common people and kratos which means power. • Therefore democracy can simply be defined as the power of the common people • There is no universally accepted definition of ‘democracy’, but equality and freedom are both identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times.
  4. 4. What is democracy • Democracy is institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which the individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote. • Democracy is a system of government in which a country’s political leaders are chosen by the people in regular, free, and fair elections. • Democracy is a form of government in which power and civic responsibility are exercised by all adult citizens, directly or indirectly through their freely elected representatives.
  5. 5. What is Democracy? • “that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote” (Schumpeter 1947) • “a political system which supplies regular constitutional opportunities for changing the governing officials” (Lipset 1959) • “a system in which parties lose elections (Przeworski and Limongi 1991
  6. 6. What is democracy • The distinction of democracy from other forms of governing system is that in democracy the process is more valued than its outcome. • But in other forms of governments outcome is measured in line with the adage end justifies the means.
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  9. 9. EQUALITY
  16. 16. BILL OF RIGHTS
  18. 18. HUMAN RIGHTS
  20. 20. RULE OF LAW
  21. 21. Critical thinking • Is there any of the principle which is new to you? • Is there any of the principle which seem more important than others? • Which principles do you value more than others and why? • Is any of these principles seem under stress in our democracy?
  22. 22. Types of Democracy • Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is more than merely a procedural issue. Direct democracy is: • Rule by the people • Built on the Athenian model. • Still present in small town hall meetings.
  23. 23. Types of Democracy • A direct democracy gives the voting population the power to: • change constitutional laws, • Put forth initiatives, • Referendums and suggestions for laws, • Give binding orders to elective officials, such as revoking them before the end of their elected term.
  24. 24. Types of Democracy • Representative Democracy/ Indirect • Citizens elected political actors who will represent their preferences. • Assumptions of Indirect democracy : – Voters are aware. – Voters are rational. – Voters are tolerant. – Voters are informed.
  25. 25. Representative Democracy • Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. If the Head of State is also democratically elected, then it is called a democratic country. • The most common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes.
  26. 26. Representative Democracy • Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), • Representatives may be elected to represent the entire electorate proportionally. • Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums
  27. 27. Merits of democracy a) Democracy is the best form of government as the ruler are accountable to the people and have to fulfil their needs. b)Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. This reduces the chance of hasty and irresponsible decision from being taking and improve the quality of decision-making.
  28. 28. Merits of democracy c) It provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts especially in a diverse country like India. Infact democracy helps to keep our country together. c)Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens as it is based on the principle of political equality.
  29. 29. Demerits of democracy a) Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This led to instability. b) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality. c) So many people have to be consulted that it led to delays. d) It leads to corruption as it is based on electoral competition.
  30. 30. civil society • Civil society is defined as; Any organization or movement that works in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern. • Civil societies include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith- based organizations
  31. 31. Civil societies and its roles in democracy • Limit and control the power of the state by checking and monitoring political leaders, state officials and institutions; • Lobby for access to information, raise public concerns about bad governance and abuse of power, and expose corruption; • Promote political participation by educating people about their rights and obligations as citizens in a democracy (including voter education); • Deepen the democratic culture in the population by promoting democratic values and providing opportunities for practicing these values;
  32. 32. Civil societies and its roles in democracy • Provide alternative networks for constructive dialogue on cooperation for citizens and provide new forms of solidarity across tribal, religious or other divisions; • Express the interests of different stakeholders and societal groups and provide opportunities for dialogue and lobbying with political actors and government institutions;
  33. 33. Civil societies and its roles in democracy • Provide training for civil society activists, multipliers, peer educators and even future politicians; • Mediate and help to resolve conflicts; • Monitor elections; • Disseminate information and thereby complement the role of the media.
  34. 34. Governance • Governance is the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes: • (a) the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; • (b) the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies; and • (c) the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them.”
  35. 35. Good governance • Good governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country s affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences. UNDP (1997)
  36. 36. Good governance • Good governance is a process, where rules and well-functioning institutions are applied to manage nation’s affairs in a manner that safeguards democracy, human rights, good order and human security, and economy and efficiency are followed in management of country’s resources.
  37. 37. Principles of good governance: • According to the World Bank the principles of good governance are: • 1. Voice and Accountability • 2.Political stability. • 3.Government Effectiveness. • 4.Regulatory Quality • 5.Rule of law. • 6. Control of corruption.
  38. 38. Obstacles of Good governance • a) Ignorance • b) Corruption, • c) Politicization of administration, • d) Weak democratic institutions, • e) Ineffective parliament, • f) Absence of the rule of law and • g) Absence of meritocracy etc. 38
  39. 39. Seminar Questions • 7. “Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of Government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.” Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874–1965). Discuss the other forms of government that are worst then democracy.
  40. 40. Seminar Questions 8.Explain the meaning of democracy as explained by Abraham Lincoln 9. What is so good about good governance? 10. What is your role as a citizen of Tanzania in improving good governance?
  41. 41. CONTACT • 0745322200 (whatsapp) • • Jinsia suza (facebook) • 0777440070 direct call/text • 0715440070