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Sugarcane

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M. Arslan Mahmood
University college of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences
Islamia University Bahawalpur

M. Arslan Mahmood
University college of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences
Islamia University Bahawalpur

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Sugarcane

  1. 1.  Muhammad Arslan Mahmood  Section E  E009  Session: 2015-2019
  2. 2. “SUGARCANE” (PLANT PROTECTION)
  3. 3. SUGARCANE DISEASES List of Sugarcane Diseases; 1) Grassy shoot, 2) Red rot, 3) Pineapple disease, 4) Sugarcane smut. 5) Sereh
  4. 4. 1) Grassy Shoot Causal Agent: The disease is caused by a phytoplasma (specialzed bacteria). These organisms infest the phloem tissues in the sugarcane vascular bundles. Symptoms: 1. Infected plant produces larger number of thin leaved tillers like grass so known as grassy shoot. 2. The tillers are small and yellowish white in colour. Control Measure: Plant only disease-free cuttings.
  5. 5. Grassy shoot:
  6. 6. 2) Sugarcane smut disease: “Also called Culmicolous smut and whip smut.” Casual Organism Ustilago scitaminea Symptoms 1. Two to four months after the fungus has infected the plant, black whip-like structures, instead of a spindle leaf, emerge from the meristem, or growing point, of the plant. 2. The developing whip is a mixture of plant tissue and fungal tissue. The whip reaches
  7. 7. 3. Plants infected with the fungus usually appear to have thin stalks and are often stunted. 4. They end up tillering much more than normal and this results in leaves that are more slender and much weaker.
  8. 8. The black whip produced by sugarcane smut
  9. 9.  Control Measures: 1. Rogue out diseased shoots or stools. 2. Select healthy planting material. 3. Treat Planting stock with a protectant fungicide. 4. Avoid ratooning of affected cane fields. 5. Rotate sugarcane with a resistant crop. 6. Plant resistant varieties.
  10. 10. 3) Red rot Causal Agent: Colletotrichum falcatum Symptoms: a) Longitudinal reddening of the normally white internal tissue of the internodes b) A discoloration, that may extend through many joints of the stalk, c) Poor stands of both plant and ratoon crops, d) Induces inversion of sucrose in mature
  11. 11.  Control Measures 1. Plant resistant cultivars. 2. Plant the crop when conditions are optimal for rapid germination and maintain proper soil moisture. 3. Use only healthy cane for seed pieces. 4. Harvest susceptible cultivars before they have passed the peak of maturity. 5. Practice crop rotation, with an alternate crop at the end of the planting and rotooning cycle.
  12. 12. 4) Pineapple disease Casual Agent: Ceratocystis paradoxa Symptoms: 1. Pineapple disease primarily affects sugarcane setts in the first weeks of planting. The fungus infects the setts mainly through the cut ends and from there spreads rapidly through the parenchyma. Infected tissue first becomes reddened; the parenchyma then breaks down and the interior of the setts become hollow and
  13. 13. 2. In the early stages of the rotting, the strong odour of overripe pineapples is often present and may help in diagnosing the disease. 3. Pineapple disease can result in crops having a patchy, uneven appearance. When severe, the disease may seriously reduce the germination over large areas. 4. Pineapple disease may occur in stalks of the standing cane if the stalks are mechanically or physically damaged, such as by boring insects or rats.
  14. 14. Pineapple disease
  15. 15.  Control Measures 1. A cutting of not less than three nodes should be made to protect the center node. 2. For sets a temperature of 32-38 degree Celsius with normal soil cover is favorable for germination. 3. Protect the end of seed pieces with a fungicide such as tilt or Benlate at 25 mg/ml.
  16. 16. 5) Sereh Sereh Virus is transmitted through cuttings. Symptoms 1. Severe disease transform the cane stool into a bunchy tuft of shoots which cease to grow after reaching a certain height. 2. Usually these stools are of different heights. 3. Secondary shoots arising from the basal buds are similarly affected. 4. In some stools, taller stalks may develop with shortened internodes near the top, and leaves formed in a fanlike arrangement.
  17. 17. Control Measures: 1. Plant resistant cultivars. 2. Plant certified, disease-free seed cane. 3. Avoid ratoon crops.
  18. 18. Insect Pests 1. Termites 2. Pink Sugarcane mealy bug 3. Sugarcane borer 4. Top Borer 5. Root Borer 6. Armyworm 7. Indian sugarcane leaf hopper 8. Sugarcane white fly 9. White wooly aphid 10. Field Cricket
  19. 19. Termites (Odontotermes obesus)
  20. 20. Pink sugarcane mealy bug (Saccharicoccus sacchari)
  21. 21. Sugarcane stem borer (Diatraea saccharalis)
  22. 22. Top borer (Chilotraea infuscatella)
  23. 23. Root borer (Emmalocera depressella)
  24. 24. Armyworm (Cirphis unipuncta)
  25. 25. Indian sugarcane leafhopper (Pyrilla perpusilla)
  26. 26. Sugarcane white fly (Aleurolobus bardodensis)
  27. 27. White wooly aphid (Oregma lanigera)
  28. 28. Field Cricket (Acheta bimaculata)
  29. 29. Vertebral Pests of Sugarcane: 1. Rats 2. Wild pig 3. Porcupine
  30. 30. Rats Rats are the major animal which destroy sugarcane crop very badly. Rats have been reported to partially damage 8.6% - 12.8%. Control: Mechanical method:  use kill trap  snap trap  tanjore bore trap  wooden trap  iron based trap  wonder trap
  31. 31. chemical method:  fumigation of burrows with aluminium phosphide tablets  use of baits of zinc phosphide bromidiolone
  32. 32. Wild Pig Pigs also destroy sugarcane field. They are control by the following ways 1-poisioning 2-trapping
  33. 33. Porcupine Porcupines destroy the stems of sugarcane. To control the porcupine destruction in sugar cane field use two methods 1-bait material 2-trapping
  34. 34. Weeds  Itsit Trianthema spp.  Bathu Chenopodium album  Kandyaree Sonchus spp.  Khabbal grass Cynodon dactylon  Deela Cyperus rotundus
  35. 35. Itsit (Trianthema spp.)
  36. 36. Bathu (Chenopodium album )
  37. 37. Kandyaree (Sonchus spp. )
  38. 38. Khabbal grass (Cynodon dactylon )
  39. 39. Deela (Cyperus rotundus )
  40. 40. Control Measures: 1. Hoeing and weeding operations must start within a month after the planting of the crop. 2. One blind hoeing (hoeing before the crop germinates) and two to four subsequent hoeings are generally necessary depending upon the intensity of weed growth and soil type. 3. The last hoeing is usually done when the crop attains a height of about one meter.
  41. 41. 4. A deep-working hand tool such as a spade or kasola is used. 5. Irrigation should follow immediately. 6. Control of weeds whether done manually or with the help of herbicides, result in an increase in tillering of about 25 percent.

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