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Introduction to IoT Architectures and Protocols

The slides defines IoT and show the differnce between M2M and IoT vision. It then describes the different layers that depicts the functional architecture of IoT, standard organizations and bodies and other IoT technology alliances, low power IoT protocols, IoT Platform components, and finally gives a short description to one of IoT low power application protocols (MQTT).

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Introduction to IoT Architectures and Protocols

  1. 1. Introduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 1 / 57
  2. 2. Outline 1 IoT overview 2 From M2M to IoT 3 IoT Architecture 4 IoT Ecosystem 5 IoT Standards 6 IoT Protocols 7 IoT Platforms 8 An Example: MQTT Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 2 / 57
  3. 3. IoT overview IoT Overview - Definition The term ”Internet of Things” (IoT) denotes a trend where a large number of embedded devices employ communication services offered by the Internet protocols. Many of these devices, often called ”smart objects, are not directly operated by humans, but exist as components in buildings or vehicles, or are spread out in the environment. (The Internet Architecture Board) A global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies (ITU) The Internet of things (noun): The interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data (Oxford Dictionary) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 3 / 57
  4. 4. IoT overview IoT Overview - Enablers Ubiquitous Connectivity: Low cost, high speed, and pervasive network connectivity Widespread adoption of IPbased networking. Moores law continues to deliver greater computing power at lower price points and lower power consumption. Manufacturing advances allow cutting-edge computing and communications technology to be incorporated into very small objects Rise of Cloud Computing and big data analytics. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 4 / 57
  5. 5. IoT overview IoT Overview - Challenges Security Privacy Interoperability / Standards Legal, Regulatory and Rights Emerging Economy and Development Issues Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 5 / 57
  6. 6. From M2M to IoT From M2M to IoT In the 1990s, advances in wireless technology allowed machinetomachine (M2M) enterprise and industrial solutions to become widespread. Many of these early M2M solutions, however, were based on closed purposebuilt networks and proprietary or industryspecific standards The recent open M2M solutions are usually vertically centric which mean it serves a particular domain application (Health, Home, Industrial , etc.) The concept of IoT is to build a horizontal layer that overlap all domains creating one big platform. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 6 / 57
  7. 7. From M2M to IoT From M2M to IoT The IoT Horizontal Layer Source: Hller, Jan, Vlasios Tsiatsis, Catherine Mulligan, et al. 2014 - Chapter 2 - M2M to IoT The Vision. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 7 / 57
  8. 8. From M2M to IoT From M2M to IoT A use case example: Stress measurement M2M solution Source: Hller, Jan, Vlasios Tsiatsis, Catherine Mulligan, et al. 2014 - Chapter 2 - M2M to IoT The Vision. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 8 / 57
  9. 9. From M2M to IoT From M2M to IoT A use case example: Stress measurement IoT solution Source: Hller, Jan, Vlasios Tsiatsis, Catherine Mulligan, et al. 2014 - Chapter 2 - M2M to IoT The Vision. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and Protocols July 31, 2017 9 / 57
  10. 10. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Source: ITU (redrawn) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  11. 11. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Device Capabilities: Sensing and actuating, sleeping and waking up, ad-hoc networking, communicating directly or indirectly with upper layers Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  12. 12. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Gateway Capabilities: Multiple interfaces support, protocol conversion, some of application logic, execution environment Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  13. 13. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Network Capabilities: Network connectivity, mobility management, AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  14. 14. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Transport Capabilities: Transport services for data and control information Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  15. 15. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Generic Support Capabilities: Data processing, Data storage, etc. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  16. 16. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Specific Support Capabilities: Provide different support functions for different IoT applications Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  17. 17. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities IoT Application: The Internet of things application written by an IoT developer and executed by the user Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  18. 18. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Generic Management Capabilities: Device management such as activation/deactivation and firmware/software upgrades, Network topology and congestion management Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  19. 19. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Specific Management Capabilities: coupled with application-specific requirements Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  20. 20. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Generic Security Capabilities: authorization, authentication, data confidentiality and integrity protection, privacy protection Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  21. 21. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture Device Layer Network Layer Application Support Layer Application Layer ManagementLayer SecurityLayer DC GC NC TC IOTA GSC SSC GMC SMC GSEC SSEC DC: Device Capabilities GC: Gateway Capabilities NC: Network Capabilities TC: Transport Capabilities GSC: Generic Support Capabilities SSC: Specific Support Capabilities IOTA: IOT Applications GMC: Generic Management Capabilities SMC: Specific Management Capabilities GSEC: Generic Security Capabilities SSEC: Specific Security Capabilities Specific Security Capabilities: coupled with application-specific requirements Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 10 / 57
  22. 22. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture - Communication Models 1-Device to Device Model 2-Device to Cloud Model Source: Internet Society Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 11 / 57
  23. 23. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture - Communication Models 3-Device to Gateway Model Source: Internet Society Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 12 / 57
  24. 24. IoT Architecture IoT Architecture - Communication Models 4-Back End Data Sharing Model Source: Internet Society Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 13 / 57
  25. 25. IoT Ecosystem IoT Ecosystem - Overview The IoT ecosystem is composed of a variety of business players. Each business player plays at least one business role, but more roles are possible Application Provider Application Customer Platform Provider Network Provider Device Provider Source: ITU (redrawn) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 14 / 57
  26. 26. IoT Ecosystem IoT Ecosystem - Business Models Platform Provider Device Provider Network Provider Application Provider Application Customer Player A Model-1 Platform Provider Device Provider Network Provider Application Provider Application Customer Player A Model-2 Player B Source: ITU (redrawn) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 15 / 57
  27. 27. IoT Ecosystem IoT Ecosystem - Business Models Platform Provider Device Provider Network Provider Application Provider Application Customer Player A Player BPlayer B Platform Provider Device Provider Network Provider Application Provider Application Customer Player A Player BPlayer B Model-3 Model-4 Source: ITU (redrawn) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 16 / 57
  28. 28. IoT Ecosystem IoT Ecosystem - Business Models Platform Provider Device Provider Network Provider Application Provider Application Customer Player A Player BPlayer C Player C Model-5 Source: ITU (redrawn) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 17 / 57
  29. 29. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Benefits Reduced deployment and operation costs Costeffective products thanks to focused R&D efforts Easier application development Easier integration between solution components Ability to share and reuse infrastructure and field devices Sustainable investments No vendor lockin Ability to benefit from further evolutions of the standard as it grows Improved opportunities Ability to share and reuse data across vertical applications Ability to interconnect with other IoT/M2M systems Fostering of new applications and new business models Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 18 / 57
  30. 30. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Overview Source: Intel Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 19 / 57
  31. 31. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Organizations Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Constrained RESTful Environments Working Group (CoRE) IPv6 over Low power WPAN Working Group (6lowpan) Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks Working Group (ROLL) OneM2M : The purpose and goal of oneM2M is to develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web of thing Community Group Semantic Sensor Net Ontology Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 20 / 57
  32. 32. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Organizations Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) MQTT Technical Committee Eclipse Paho Project: The scope of the Paho project is to provide open source implementations of open and standard messaging protocols that support current and emerging requirements of IoT International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative (IoT-GSI) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 21 / 57
  33. 33. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Alliances Allseen Alliance : The AllSeen Alliance is dedicated to the widespread adoption of products, systems and services that support the Internet of Things AllJoyn Framework: A universal IoT Development Framework Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) The successor to Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) Provides IoTivity Framework and data models based on RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML) Allseen alliance has recently merged in one alliance with OCF Open Mobile Alliance (OMA): OMA is the Leading Industry Forum for Developing Market Driven Interoperable Mobile Service Enablers Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 22 / 57
  34. 34. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Alliances IP Smart Object Alliance (IPSO): A global non-profit organization serving the various communities seeking to establish the Internet Protocol as the network for the connection of Smart Objects by providing coordinated marketing efforts available to the general public Industrial Internet Consortium: Founded in 2014 to further development, adoption and wide-spread use of interconnected machines, intelligent analytics and people at work Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative (IoT-GSI) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 23 / 57
  35. 35. IoT Standards IoT Standards - Semantics Industry specific groups are in best position to define metadata for each vertical. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 24 / 57
  36. 36. IoT Standards IoT Standards - OneM2M Source: OneM2M Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 25 / 57
  37. 37. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Overview Low Power communication protocols : COAP, MQTT, RPL, 6LoWPAN, 802.15.4, Low Power Wide Area Network (3GPP and others) Source: OneM2M Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 26 / 57
  38. 38. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Data Communication Constrained Application Protocol (COAP) RESTful protocol design minimizing the complexity of mapping with HTTP Low header overhead and parsing complexity URI and content-type support Support for the discovery of resources provided by known CoAP services Simple subscription for a resource, and resulting push notifications Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) invented by IBM in 2000 for telemetry applications using low power data rates enables a publish/subscribe messaging model in an extremely lightweight way requires Small Code footprint and low bandwidth Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 27 / 57
  39. 39. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Local Network Communication IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group It is the basis for the ZigBee,ISA100.11a, WirelessHART, and MiWi specifications, each of which further extends the standard by developing the upper layers which are not defined in IEEE 802.15.4 it is used with 6LoWPAN and standard Internet protocols to build a wireless embedded Internet. Zigbee Uses the 802.15.4 standard and operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps The maximum number of nodes in the network is 1024 with a range up to 200 meter. ZigBee can use 128 bit AES encryption. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 28 / 57
  40. 40. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Local Network Communication Bluetooth Low Energy designed and marketed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group Different Profiles for Different applications Provide the same range as classic bluetooth with considerable low energy consumption the technology used in beacons used to send contextual information based on locations (Google beacon platform , Google Physical web, Apple ibeacon) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 29 / 57
  41. 41. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Weightless is a proposed proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data between a base station and thousands of machines around it (using wavelength radio transmissions in unoccupied TV transmission channels) with high levels of security. NB-IoT (Narrow-Band IoT) A technology being standardized by the 3GPP standards body LTE-MTC (LTE-Machine Type Communication) - Standards-based family of technologies supports several technology categories, such as Cat-1 and CatM1, suitable for the IoT. EC-GSM-IoT (Extended Coverage-GSM-IoT) - Enables new capabilities of existing cellular networks for LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) IoT applications. EC-GSM-IoT can be activated through new software deployed over a very large GSM footprint, adding even more coverage to serve IoT devices. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 30 / 57
  42. 42. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Sigfox is a French company that build Low Power wide network for connected devices using its proprietary protocol. LoRaWAN - Network protocol intended for wireless battery operated Things in regional, national or global network. It is managed by Lora Alliance. RPMA (Random phase multiple access) A technology communication system employing direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) with multiple access. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 31 / 57
  43. 43. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Source: indigoo.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 32 / 57
  44. 44. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Source: indigoo.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 33 / 57
  45. 45. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Routing Protocols IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) An adaption layer for IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 links Operates only in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps transfer rate Routing Protocol for low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) Developed by IETF ROLL Working Group Ideal for N to 1 links (meters reading) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 34 / 57
  46. 46. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Discovery Search around me: This category of discovery includes technologies that allow to discover things around me (in a spatial sense) NFC UriBeacon (Formerly known as Physical Web from Google) iBeacon (from Apple) Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 35 / 57
  47. 47. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Discovery Search on my network: It covers technologies enabling discovery of things on the network. mDNS SSDP Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 36 / 57
  48. 48. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Discovery Searching in a directory: A central directory is used for discovery of things and resources Discovery requests are sent to the directory CoRE Resource Directory XMPP IoT Discovery SPARQL Endpoints Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 37 / 57
  49. 49. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Discovery Search Across Peers: In P2P style discovery, the directory is essentially distributed across the peers Distributed hash tables (DHT) is often used to map the search space into a numeric range and then allocates servers to parts of that range Observation: the technique works well for scale free networks Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 38 / 57
  50. 50. IoT Protocols IoT Protocols - Discovery Search for Thing Metadata: Once a thing” has been discovered with mentioned mechanisms next ”resources” (thing metadata) access at thing level needs to be performed Examples CoAP + CoRE Link Format (for thing metadata) Sensor Observation Service (SOS): it is a web service which allows querying sensor metadata. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 39 / 57
  51. 51. IoT Platforms IoT Platforms - Overview IoT platforms are the central piece in the Internet of Things architecture that connect the real and the virtual worlds and enable communication between objects It is The backbone system to manage IoT business cases. The real value of IoT is done there (Analytics) There are hundreds of them and number is growing. Platforms Types: Based on Technological depth: The connectivity Platform, The action Platform, and The scale Platform Based on the segment focus: Smart Home, Connected card, Smart city, Smart retail, Industrial, and other. Based on Integration approach : One stop-shop platform and customizable white-label platforms Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 40 / 57
  52. 52. IoT Platforms IoT Platform - Components Source: IoT Analytics Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 41 / 57
  53. 53. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Overview MQTT was invented by IBM back in 1999. The goal is to create a protocol for minimal battery loss and minimal bandwidth connecting oil pipelines over satellite connection After MQTT had been used by IBM internally for quite some times, version 3.1 was released royalty free in 2010 The protocol hand-overed to OASIS organization for The standardization process which took around 1 year and on October 29th 2014 MQTT was officially approved as OASIS Standard. MQTT 3.1.1 is now the newest version of the protocol. Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 42 / 57
  54. 54. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Features Client Server publish/subscribe messaging transport protocol Simple to implement Lightweight and Bandwidth Efficient small code footprint Provide a Quality of Service Data Delivery Data Agnostic Continuous Session Awareness Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 43 / 57
  55. 55. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Publish and Subscribe Model Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 44 / 57
  56. 56. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Publish and Subscribe Model The Pub/Sub model decouples the sender (Publisher) from the receiver (Subscriber) by a third party called the broker Space decoupling: Publisher and subscriber do not need to know each other (by ip address and port for example) Time decoupling: Publisher and subscriber do not need to run at the same time Synchronization decoupling: Operations on both components are not halted during publish or receiving The broker filters all incoming messages coming from publishers and distributes them to subscribers accordingly Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 45 / 57
  57. 57. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Publish and Subscribe Model Pub/Sub also provides a greater scalability than the traditional client-server approach because operations on the broker can be highly parallelized and processed event-driven To scale publish/subscribe to millions of connections, cluster of brokers are used . The broker filter then forward messages to subscribers based on three criteria : Subject-based filtering Content-based filtering Type-based filtering Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 46 / 57
  58. 58. An Example: MQTT MQTT Connection Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 47 / 57
  59. 59. An Example: MQTT MQTT Publish and Subscribe Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 48 / 57
  60. 60. An Example: MQTT MQTT Topics Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 49 / 57
  61. 61. An Example: MQTT MQTT Quality of Service (QoS) Qos is a major feature of MQTT because it handles retransmission and guarantees the delivery of the message Mostly used for unreliable networks. Three levels: 0, 1, and 2. QoS 0 at most once: A message wont be acknowledged by the receiver or stored and redelivered by the sender. This is often called fire and forget and provides the same guarantee as the underlying TCP protocol. Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 50 / 57
  62. 62. An Example: MQTT MQTT Quality of Service (QoS) QoS 1 at least once When using QoS level 1, it is guaranteed that a message will be delivered at least once to the receiver. But the message can also be delivered more than once. The sender will store the message until it gets an acknowledgement in form of a PUBACK command message from the receiver. If the PUBACK isnt received in a reasonable amount of time the sender will resend the PUBLISH message Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 51 / 57
  63. 63. An Example: MQTT MQTT Quality of Service (QoS) It is the lowest level If a receiver gets a QoS 2 PUBLISH it will process the message and send PUBREC message. When the sender receives the PUBREC it can safely discard the initial publish, then store the PUBREC and respond with a PUBREL. After the receiver gets the PUBREL it can discard every stored state and answer with a PUBCOMP. The same is true when the sender receives the PUBCOMP. Source: HiveMQ.com Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 52 / 57
  64. 64. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Simple Expirment We will use two applications running on your mobile phones. One acts as a publisher and the other as a subscriber. You can also work in pairs. For Android use mymqtt (publisher) and MQTT Dash (subscriber) applications. Download them from Google play and install them in your phone For iphone, go to the website service http://www.hivemq.com/demos/websocket-client/ First configure the clients with the following minimal parameters : Address : iot.eclipse.org Port : 1884 Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 53 / 57
  65. 65. An Example: MQTT MQTT - Simple Expirment Use one client to subscribe to the following topic: kacst/b36/xxxx/temp (xxxx is a random number) Use the other client to publish a message using the same topic Publish a different value and make sure it is received by the subscriber You could also try the wild-card feature Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 54 / 57
  66. 66. An Example: MQTT Summary The IoT vision is to build a horizontal layer across different vertical domains to facilitate data sharing and enable innovative applications The IoT functional architecture includes from top to bottom application, application support, network, and device layers. Management and security span all layers. Four IoT communication models: Device to device , Device to cloud, Device to gateway , and Back end sharing data models The IoT ecosystem has four Business roles : Device provider, Network provider, Platform provider, and application providers. One player could have more than one business roles. The IoT standardization is paramount for cost reduction and interoperability among different devices and applications. The efforts happen everywhere Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 55 / 57
  67. 67. An Example: MQTT Summary New protocols are designed in each functional layer. OneM2M works to standardize the horizontal layer of the IoT Rich metadata is needed to describe things and their actions, events, and relations IoT platform is the back end system where the real work is done. It is composed of different components that facilitate device management, data storage and processing , events handling, data analysis, visualization, and API to connect to devices or other platforms or systems Finally we describe the publish and subscribe communication model and how MQTT protocol and why it is suitable for IoT applications Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 56 / 57
  68. 68. An Example: MQTT Thank you Thank you Q & A Dr. Abdullah Alfadhly KACST National Center for Computer Technology and Applied Mathematics (CTAM) Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction to Internet of Things Architectures and ProtocolsJuly 31, 2017 57 / 57

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