Nonsporing anaerobe-AAA

1,881 views

Published on

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,881
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
128
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nonsporing anaerobe-AAA

  1. 1. Prof. Abdullah Akhtar AhmedProf. Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed Professor of MicrobiologyProfessor of Microbiology Ibrahim Medical CollegeIbrahim Medical College Shahbagh, DhakaShahbagh, Dhaka
  2. 2. A. Gram Positive Cocci  PeptostreptococcusPeptostreptococcus  P. magnusP. magnus  P. asaccharolyticusP. asaccharolyticus  P. prevotiiP. prevotii  P. anaerobiusP. anaerobius  PeptococcusPeptococcus  P. nigerP. niger  Sarcina ventriculiSarcina ventriculi PeptostreptococcusPeptostreptococcus  N flora of mouth, upperN flora of mouth, upper respiratory tract,respiratory tract, intestinal tract, vagina &intestinal tract, vagina & skinskin  20-40% of anaerobic20-40% of anaerobic infectionsinfections  Brain abscessBrain abscess  PleuropulmonaryPleuropulmonary infectionsinfections  Female genital tractFemale genital tract infectioninfection Non Sporing Anaerobe
  3. 3. Non Sporing Anaerobe VeillonellaVeillonella C. Gram Positive BacilliC. Gram Positive Bacilli 1. Lactobacillus1. Lactobacillus 2. Bifidobacterium2. Bifidobacterium 3. Actinomyces3. Actinomyces D. Gram Negative BacilliD. Gram Negative Bacilli 1. Bacteroides1. Bacteroides 2. Fusobacterium2. Fusobacterium 3.3. PrevotellaPrevotella 4. Porphyromonas4. Porphyromonas E. SpirochetesE. Spirochetes 1. Treponema1. Treponema 2. Borrelia2. Borrelia B. Gram negative cocci
  4. 4.  Gram positive bacilli.Gram positive bacilli.  MicroaerophilicMicroaerophilic  Grow in presence of COGrow in presence of CO22 and at pH 3.0and at pH 3.0  Widely distributed as saprophytes in fermentingWidely distributed as saprophytes in fermenting animal and vegetable material (e.g. milk, cheese)animal and vegetable material (e.g. milk, cheese)  Normal flora of man and animal in the mouth, gutNormal flora of man and animal in the mouth, gut and vagina.and vagina.  Older textbooks have used the term “Older textbooks have used the term “DoderleinsDoderleins bacillusbacillus” for a variety of human vaginal strains of” for a variety of human vaginal strains of Lactobacillus.Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus
  5. 5. Gram Stained Vaginal smear
  6. 6. Role  L. acidophilusL. acidophilus synthesize biotin, Vit. Bsynthesize biotin, Vit. B1212 and Vit. K in the intestine.and Vit. K in the intestine.  It ferment glycogen which is deposited inIt ferment glycogen which is deposited in the vaginal epithelial cells and form lacticthe vaginal epithelial cells and form lactic acid. This lactic acid prevent growth ofacid. This lactic acid prevent growth of other bacteria by maintains highly acidic pHother bacteria by maintains highly acidic pH of the vagina.of the vagina.
  7. 7. Bacteroides  B. fragilisB. fragilis is most significant.is most significant.  Pale irregularly stainingPale irregularly staining Gram negative bacilli/Gram negative bacilli/ coccobacilli with polysaccharide capsule.coccobacilli with polysaccharide capsule.  PleomorphicPleomorphic  Normal flora of large intestine & female genitalNormal flora of large intestine & female genital tract. Normal stool contain 11tract. Normal stool contain 111010 B. fragilisB. fragilis organisms per gram.organisms per gram.  Cause abdominal, lung and brain abscesses andCause abdominal, lung and brain abscesses and wound infectionwound infection
  8. 8. Bacteroides
  9. 9. Bacteroides Virulence Factors  Polysaccharide capsulePolysaccharide capsule  LipopolysaccharideLipopolysaccharide  AgglutininAgglutinin  Histolytic enzymeHistolytic enzyme  Oxygen toleranceOxygen tolerance  ββ lactamaselactamase
  10. 10. Fusobacterium  Delicate gram negative rodsDelicate gram negative rods  Tapering endsTapering ends  F. nucleatumF. nucleatum  Mouth, Upper Resp. tract, GI tract,Mouth, Upper Resp. tract, GI tract, Genital tractGenital tract  Head, neck and lower respiratoryHead, neck and lower respiratory tract infectionstract infections  F. necrophorumF. necrophorum  Anaerobic tonsillitis/pharyngitisAnaerobic tonsillitis/pharyngitis  Involve jugular veinInvolve jugular vein  SepsisSepsis  Lemierre's diseaseLemierre's disease
  11. 11.  Lemierre's syndromeLemierre's syndrome (or(or Lemierre's diseaseLemierre's disease) is a disease usually) is a disease usually caused by the bacteriumcaused by the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorumFusobacterium necrophorum, and, and occasionally by other members of the genusoccasionally by other members of the genus FusobacteriumFusobacterium ((F.F. nucleatum, F. mortiferum and F. variumnucleatum, F. mortiferum and F. varium etc.) and usually affectsetc.) and usually affects young, healthy adults. Lemierre's syndrome develops most oftenyoung, healthy adults. Lemierre's syndrome develops most often after a strep sore throat has created a peritonsillar abscess, a craterafter a strep sore throat has created a peritonsillar abscess, a crater filled with pus and bacteria near the tonsils. Deep in the abscess,filled with pus and bacteria near the tonsils. Deep in the abscess, anaerobic bacteria (microbes that do not require oxygen) likeanaerobic bacteria (microbes that do not require oxygen) like Fusobacterium necrophorum can flourish. The bacteria penetrateFusobacterium necrophorum can flourish. The bacteria penetrate from the abscess into the neighboring jugular vein in the neck andfrom the abscess into the neighboring jugular vein in the neck and there they cause an infected clot (there they cause an infected clot (thrombosisthrombosis) to form, from which) to form, from which bacteria are seeded throughout the body by the bloodstreambacteria are seeded throughout the body by the bloodstream (bacteremia). Pieces of the infected clot break off and travel to the(bacteremia). Pieces of the infected clot break off and travel to the lungs as emboli blocking branches of the pulmonary artery bringinglungs as emboli blocking branches of the pulmonary artery bringing the heart's blood to the lungs. This causes shortness of breath, chestthe heart's blood to the lungs. This causes shortness of breath, chest pain and severepain and severe pneumoniapneumonia. Fusobacteria are normal inhabitants of. Fusobacteria are normal inhabitants of the oropharyngeal flora. This is a very rare disease with onlythe oropharyngeal flora. This is a very rare disease with only approximately 160 cases in the last 100 years.approximately 160 cases in the last 100 years.[1][1]
  12. 12. Prevotella & Porphyromonas  Small, pale stainingSmall, pale staining gram negativegram negative coccobacillicoccobacilli  Dental plaque andDental plaque and gingival crevicesgingival crevices  Infections of oral cavityInfections of oral cavity and upper respiratoryand upper respiratory tracttract
  13. 13. Prevotella and Porphyromonas  Some species produce a dark pigmentSome species produce a dark pigment
  14. 14. Pathogenicity  AdherenceAdherence :: agglutinate RBCagglutinate RBC fimbriaefimbriae  CapsuleCapsule :: acidic polysaccharides,acidic polysaccharides, phagocytosis by WBCphagocytosis by WBC  EnzymesEnzymes :: collaginase, protease,collaginase, protease, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, DNAse,hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, DNAse, …, etc.…, etc.  EndotoxinEndotoxin (LPS) :(LPS) : activate C3activate C3 pathway, PMNspathway, PMNs
  15. 15. Pathogenicity • Beta-lactamase productionBeta-lactamase production • B. fragilisB. fragilis – protect themselves and other– protect themselves and other species in mixed infectionsspecies in mixed infections • Superoxide dismutase productionSuperoxide dismutase production • Protects bacteria from toxic OProtects bacteria from toxic O22 radicals asradicals as they move out of usual nichethey move out of usual niche
  16. 16. Anaerobes Commonly Encountered in Infection Hundreds of anaerobes are part of normal human floraHundreds of anaerobes are part of normal human flora  Only few cause significant infectionsOnly few cause significant infections  Account for 2/3 of clinically significant anaerobicAccount for 2/3 of clinically significant anaerobic infections:infections:  Bacteroides fragilisBacteroides fragilis groupgroup  PrevotellaPrevotella andand PorphyromonasPorphyromonas  Fusobacterium nucleatumFusobacterium nucleatum  PeptostreptococcusPeptostreptococcus  Clostridium perfringensClostridium perfringens  Pathogenic species have “virulence factors” that allowPathogenic species have “virulence factors” that allow survival outside their niche and to cause diseasesurvival outside their niche and to cause disease
  17. 17. Importance of nonsporing anaerobes  Opportunistic pathogens cause disease in cases ofOpportunistic pathogens cause disease in cases of lowered host’s immunity:lowered host’s immunity: 1.1. TraumaTrauma 2.2. Tissue necrosisTissue necrosis 3.3. Impaired circulationImpaired circulation 4.4. AIDSAIDS 5.5. Administration of antibiotics, corticosteroids &Administration of antibiotics, corticosteroids & cytotoxic drugs.cytotoxic drugs. 6.6. DiabetesDiabetes 7.7. MalnutritionMalnutrition 8.8. MalignancyMalignancy
  18. 18. “MORE IS MISSED BY NOT LOOKING THAN BY NOT KNOWING” Anonymous Patient examination in the Intensive Care Unit
  19. 19. Thank you Life is the flower for which love is the honey. Victor Hugo
  20. 20. SAQ – Non sporing anaerobe 1. Classify non sporing anaerobic bacteria. 2. Enumerate the medically important non sporing bacteria. 3. Mention important role of Lactobacilli. 4. Write down the biological property and pathogenesis of B. fragilis. 5. Mention important characteristics and pathogenesis of Fusobacterium. 6. Why non sporing anaerobes are medically important?

×