5 Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategies


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5 Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategies

  1. 1. GE6533 Language Learning Strategies Instruction 5 Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategies Abdul Jalil Bin Abdul Rahim (P69843)
  2. 2. Motivation • Motivation is a significant factor affecting the choice and the use of LLSs (Khamkien, 2010) • Students who are highly motivated used more LLSs and more often than less motivated students. (Okada et al. 1996) • Oxford et al. (1993) found that high motivation and the frequent use of LLSs significantly predicted success on a language achievement test.
  3. 3. • With Japanese students in England, instrumental and integrative motivation had significant effect on choice of LLs (Tamada, 1996)
  4. 4. Proficiency level • Park’s (1997) study on 332 Korean students showed a significant relationship between language (English) proficiency and LLSs. • Students from all level of proficiency incorporated LLSs in their learning, but what differentiated effective learners from less effective learners are the range and the way in which strategies were used (Chamot & Kupper, 1989; Van & Abraham, 1990) • high-proficiency learners tended to use a wider range of strategies more frequently than low-proficiency learners (Khamkien, 2010)
  5. 5. • Higher proficiency level students used more metacognitive strategies (Nisbett et al. 2005) • Lower proficiency level students used more phonetic decoding strategies (Chamot et al. 1999)
  6. 6. Sex • Females were reported to use wider range of LLSs than males (Taguchi, 2002; Razak et al. 2012) • However, in some studies, it was found that males used more language learning strategies than females (Tercanlioglu, 2004) • Cultural context play a role in determining the use of LLSs between gender. • Females in conservative society may not be able to socialize with native speakers, but the males can which make them to select naturalistic strategies (El-Dib, 2004)
  7. 7. Learning style • Learning styles influence the LLSs choice of a learner (Oxford, 1989) • (Cheng and Banya, 1998, p. 82) • Students who preferred kinesthetic learning have more confidence as well as more positive attitudes and beliefs about foreign language learning than students with other perceptual learning style preferences. • Students with the individual preference style use more language learning strategies, and they are less tolerant of ambiguity.
  8. 8. • Students who identified themselves as Tactile learners seemed to be more anxious about learning English. • Students with an Auditory preference like to make friends with and speak with foreign language speakers (in this case, English speakers).
  9. 9. Degree of awareness • Better learners have more metacognitive awareness, which helps them to select suitable strategies for learning (Goh, 1997). • Students who have learned how and when to use learning strategies become more self-reliant and better able to learn independently. • Self-knowledge can be either an important facilitator or a constraint in learning (Pintrich, 2002)
  10. 10. • Grenfell & Harris’ (1999) statement that • “Methodology alone can never be a solution to language learning. Rather it is an aid and suggestion”
  11. 11. References Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P. B., Robbins, J. 1999. The learning strategies handbook., NY: Longman. Chamot, A. U. & Kupper, L. 1989. Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annual, 22: 13-24. Cheng, M. H., & Banya, K. 1998. Bridging the gap between teaching and learning styles. In J. Reid (Ed.). Understanding learning styles in the second language classroom (pp. 80-84). USA: Prentice Hall Regents. El-Dib, M.A.B. 2004. Language learning strategies in Kuwait: Links to gender, language level, and culture in a hybrid context. Foreign Language Annals, 37: 85-95.
  12. 12. Goh, C. 1997. Metacognitive awareness and second language listeners. ELT journal, 51(4): 361-369. Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. 1999. Modern languages and learning strategies in theory and practice. London: Routledge Khamkhien, A. 2010. Factors affecting language learning strategy reported usage by Thai and Vietnamese EFL learners. Electronic Journal of foreign Language teaching, 7(1): 66-85. Nisbet, D. L., Tindall, E. R., & Arroyo, A. A. 2005. Language learning strategies and English proficiency of Chinese university students. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 100-107. Okada, M., Oxford, R. L., & Abo, S. 1996. Not all alike: Motivation and learning strategies among students of Japanese and Spanish in an exploratory study. In R. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning Oxford, R., Young, P. O., Ito, S., & Sumrall, M. (1993). Japanese by satellite: Effects of motivation, language learning styles and strategies, gender, course level, and previous language learning experience on Japanese language achievement. Foreign Language Annals, 26: 359- 71.
  13. 13. Park G.P. 1997. Language learning strategies and English proficiency in Korean university students. Foreign Language Annals, 30(2): 211–221 Pintrich, P. R. 2002. The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into practice, 41(4): 219-225. Razak, N.Z.A., Ismail, F., Aziz, A.A., & Babikkoi, M.A. 2012. Assessing the use of English language learning strategies among secondary school students in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66: 240-246 Tamada, Y. 1996. The relationship between Japanese learners’ personal factors and their choices of language learning strategies. Modern Language Journal, 80: 120–131 Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Exploring gender effect on adult foreign language learning strategies. Issues in educational research, 14(2), 181-193. Vann, R. & Abraham, R. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24(2):223-234. motivation: Pathways to the new century (Technical Report #11) (pp. 105-119). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.