USER INTERFACE
OVERVIEW
What is Human Computer Interface (User Interface)
principles of user interface design
What makes a good Interf...
GROUP MEMBERS
Abdulsemed Lezin
Habab Sadam
Michael Gebre
Ferhan Hussen
Amente Nigussie
WHAT IS UI?
Visual part of computer application or operating system through which a
user interacts with a computer or a so...
THE USER INTERFACE
System users often judge a system by its interface rather than its
functionality
A poorly designed in...
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
Graphical User interfaces rely much more heavily on the mouse. A
typical example of this ty...
GUI ADVANTAGES
They are easy to learn and use.
Users without experience can learn to use the system
quickly.
The user m...
PROBLEMS
Actions involving logical conjunction (and) or disjunction (or) are
awkward to represent
If there are many choice...
USER INTERFACE EVALUATION
Some evaluation of a user interface design should be carried out to
assess its suitability
Ful...
ELEMENTS OF USER INTERFACE
To perform user interface analysis, the practitioner needs to study and
understand four elemen...
THANK YOU
TYPES OF USER INTERFACE
There are two main types of user interfaces:
1. Text-Based User Interface or Command-Line
Interfac...
TEXT-BASED USER INTERFACE
This method relies primarily on the keyboard. A typical example of this
is UNIX. The main advant...
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
Graphical User interfaces rely much more heavily on the mouse. A
typical example of this ty...
PRINCIPLES OF USER INTERFACE DESIGN
The principles of user interface design are a way to improve
the quality of user inte...
UI DESIGN PRINCIPLE CONT..
The structure principle:- Design should organize the user interface
purposefully, in meaningful...
CONT..
• The simplicity principle: - The design should make simple,
common tasks easy, communicating clearly and simply in...
CONT..
The visibility principle: The design should make all needed options and
materials for a given task visible without ...
CONT..
The tolerance principle: The design should be flexible and tolerant,
reducing the cost of mistakes and misuse by al...
LAWS OF UI DESIGN
According to Jef Raskin in his book The Humane Interface, there are
two laws of user interface design
1...
THANK YOU
WHAT MAKES A GOOD USER INTERFACE?
A good interface makes it easy for users to tell the computer what
they want to do, for ...
Good interfaces are:
Clear
A clear interface helps prevent user errors, makes important information
obvious,
and contribut...
Simple
The best interface designs are simple. Simple designs are easy to learn
and to use and give the interface a consist...
Direct
Users must see the visible cause-and-effect relationship between the actions they
take and the objects on the scree...
Provide feedback
Keep the user informed and provide immediate feedback.
Also, ensure that feedback is appropriate to the t...
THANK YOU
4. WHY YOU SHOULD CARE
4.1 Finance
4.2 Impact
4.3 Ethics
4.1 FINANCE
Cost savings of usability testing.
For commercial organizations, greater usability leads to increased sales
...
FINANCE(CONT..)
• For non-profits, “conversion rates” (e.g. transforming a casual
user to a signed-up and engaged user) ar...
4.2 IMPACT
• Increased user engagement in design This can lead to more
user-focused resources which in turn can increase a...
4.3 ETHICS
• All resources have users or potential users.
• Jef Raskin, The Humane Interface (2000): laws of interface des...
USER INTERFACE (ADVANTAGE AND
DISADVANTAGES)
Graphical User Interface
Menu Driven Interfaces
Command Line Interface App...
ADVANTAGES (GUI)
It can be user-friendly and speed up the user's work.
It can be more attractive for non-technical peopl...
DISADVANTAGES
When it is not properly built, it can be very difficult to work with.
It generally requires more memory re...
MENU DRIVEN INTERFACES
Menu Driven Applications
• ATM
• Mobile Phone
• MP3 Player
• Video recorder
• Household Devices
• D...
ADVANTAGES (MENU DRIVEN INTERFACES)
No need to learn complex commands/language
Easier for a novice to learn/use
Ideal when...
DISADVANTAGES
• Can be frustrating for experienced users i.e. the command
they want to use is buried 5 levels deep!!!!
• U...
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE APPLICATIONS
System administration
Engineering applications
Scientific applications
And for oth...
ADVANTAGES (COMMAND LINE INTERFACES)
Very flexible with the use of “switches” (options)
Good for “expert” users - can qu...
COMMAND LINE INTERFACES(DISADVANTAGE)
Requires the user to learn “complex” commands or language
“Hidden” features i.e. i...
User Interface
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User Interface

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What is User Interface? What are the characters to be called a good User Interface? and what are the main types of the user Interface?

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User Interface

  1. 1. USER INTERFACE
  2. 2. OVERVIEW What is Human Computer Interface (User Interface) principles of user interface design What makes a good Interface Why should we care about UI?
  3. 3. GROUP MEMBERS Abdulsemed Lezin Habab Sadam Michael Gebre Ferhan Hussen Amente Nigussie
  4. 4. WHAT IS UI? Visual part of computer application or operating system through which a user interacts with a computer or a software. It determines how commands are given to the computer or the program and how information is displayed on the screen. Three main types of user interfaces are (1) Command language: the user must know the machine and program- specific instructions or codes. (2) Menus: user chooses the commands from lists displayed on the screen. (3) Graphical user interface (GUI): user gives commands by selecting and clicking on icons displayed on the screen.
  5. 5. THE USER INTERFACE System users often judge a system by its interface rather than its functionality A poorly designed interface can cause a user to make catastrophic errors Poor user interface design is the reason why so many software systems are never used Most users of business systems interact with these systems through graphical user interfaces (GUIs) In some cases, legacy text-based interfaces are still used
  6. 6. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) Graphical User interfaces rely much more heavily on the mouse. A typical example of this type of interface is any version of the Windows Operating System. The main advantages are: 1. Less expert knowledge is required to use it (more user friendly) 2. Easier to navigate.. can look through folders quickly in a guess and check manner. The main disadvantages are: 1. Typically decreased options (less powerful) 2. Typically less customizable. Not easy to use one button for tons of different variations. Graphical User Interfaces are more common than text-based interfaces in modern computing.
  7. 7. GUI ADVANTAGES They are easy to learn and use. Users without experience can learn to use the system quickly. The user may switch quickly from one task to another and can interact with several different applications. Information remains visible in its own window when attention is switched. Fast, full-screen interaction is possible with immediate access to anywhere on the screen
  8. 8. PROBLEMS Actions involving logical conjunction (and) or disjunction (or) are awkward to represent If there are many choices, some menu structuring facility must be used Experienced users find menus slower than command language
  9. 9. USER INTERFACE EVALUATION Some evaluation of a user interface design should be carried out to assess its suitability Full scale evaluation is very expensive and impractical for most systems Ideally, an interface should be evaluated against a usability specification However, it is rare for such specifications to be produced
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF USER INTERFACE To perform user interface analysis, the practitioner needs to study and understand four elements The users who will interact with the system through the interface The tasks that end users must perform to do their work The content that is presented as part of the interface The work environment in which these tasks will be conducted
  11. 11. THANK YOU
  12. 12. TYPES OF USER INTERFACE There are two main types of user interfaces: 1. Text-Based User Interface or Command-Line Interface 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  13. 13. TEXT-BASED USER INTERFACE This method relies primarily on the keyboard. A typical example of this is UNIX. The main advantages of a Text-Based User Interface are: 1. Many and Easier to customization options 2. Typically capable of more powerful tasks The main disadvantages of a Text-Based User Interface are: 1. Relies heavily on recall rather than recognition. 2. Navigation is often more difficult
  14. 14. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) Graphical User interfaces rely much more heavily on the mouse. A typical example of this type of interface is any version of the Windows Operating System. The main advantages are: 1. Less expert knowledge is required to use it (more user friendly) 2. Easier to navigate.. can look through folders quickly in a guess and check manner. The main disadvantages are: 1. Typically decreased options (less powerful) 2. Typically less customizable. Not easy to use one button for tons of different variations. Graphical User Interfaces are more common than text-based interfaces in modern computing.
  15. 15. PRINCIPLES OF USER INTERFACE DESIGN The principles of user interface design are a way to improve the quality of user interface design. According to Larry Constantine and Lucy Lockwood in their usage-centered design, these are principles of User Interface Design
  16. 16. UI DESIGN PRINCIPLE CONT.. The structure principle:- Design should organize the user interface purposefully, in meaningful and useful ways based on clear, consistent models that are apparent and recognizable to users, putting related things together and separating unrelated things, differentiating dissimilar things and making similar things resemble one another. The structure principle is concerned with overall user interface architecture.
  17. 17. CONT.. • The simplicity principle: - The design should make simple, common tasks easy, communicating clearly and simply in the user's own language, and providing good shortcuts that are meaningfully related to longer procedures.
  18. 18. CONT.. The visibility principle: The design should make all needed options and materials for a given task visible without distracting the user with extraneous or redundant information. Good designs don't overwhelm users with alternatives or confuse with unneeded information. The feedback principle: The design should keep users informed of actions or interpretations, changes of state or condition, and errors or exceptions that are relevant and of interest to the user through clear, concise, and unambiguous language familiar to users.
  19. 19. CONT.. The tolerance principle: The design should be flexible and tolerant, reducing the cost of mistakes and misuse by allowing undoing and redoing, while also preventing errors wherever possible by tolerating varied inputs and sequences and by interpreting all reasonable actions. The reuse principle: The design should reuse internal and external components and behaviors, maintaining consistency with purpose rather than merely arbitrary consistency, thus reducing the need for users to rethink and remember.
  20. 20. LAWS OF UI DESIGN According to Jef Raskin in his book The Humane Interface, there are two laws of user interface design 1, First Law: - A computer shall not harm your work or, through inactivity, allow your work to come to harm. 2, Second Law: - A computer shall not waste your time or require you to do more work than is strictly necessary. Jef Raskin also mentions that "users should set the pace of an interaction," meaning that a user should not be kept waiting unnecessarily.
  21. 21. THANK YOU
  22. 22. WHAT MAKES A GOOD USER INTERFACE? A good interface makes it easy for users to tell the computer what they want to do, for the computer to request information from the users, and for the computer to present understandable information. Clear communication between the user and the computer is the working premise of good UI design.
  23. 23. Good interfaces are: Clear A clear interface helps prevent user errors, makes important information obvious, and contributes to ease of learning and use. Consistent A consistent interface allows users to apply previously learned knowledge to new tasks. Effective applications are both consistent within themselves and consistent with one another.
  24. 24. Simple The best interface designs are simple. Simple designs are easy to learn and to use and give the interface a consistent look. A good design requires a good balance between maximizing Functionality and maintaining simplicity through progressive disclosure of information. User-Controlled The user, not the computer, initiates and controls all actions.
  25. 25. Direct Users must see the visible cause-and-effect relationship between the actions they take and the objects on the screen. This allows users to feel that they are in charge of the computer's activities. Forgiving Users make mistakes. User actions should be reversible. A good interface facilitates exploration and trial and error learning.
  26. 26. Provide feedback Keep the user informed and provide immediate feedback. Also, ensure that feedback is appropriate to the task. Aesthetic Every visual element that appears on the screen potentially competes for the user's attention. Provide an environment that is pleasant to work in and contributes to the user's understanding of the information presented.
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  28. 28. 4. WHY YOU SHOULD CARE 4.1 Finance 4.2 Impact 4.3 Ethics
  29. 29. 4.1 FINANCE Cost savings of usability testing. For commercial organizations, greater usability leads to increased sales and greater competitive advantage.
  30. 30. FINANCE(CONT..) • For non-profits, “conversion rates” (e.g. transforming a casual user to a signed-up and engaged user) are still important: a resource that addresses the needs of its users is more likely to lead to greater use and (repeated) engagement. • Reduce support costs.
  31. 31. 4.2 IMPACT • Increased user engagement in design This can lead to more user-focused resources which in turn can increase a resource’s impact. • Impact important consideration when creating funding applications.
  32. 32. 4.3 ETHICS • All resources have users or potential users. • Jef Raskin, The Humane Interface (2000): laws of interface design: • A computer shall not harm your work or, through inactivity, allow your work to come to harm. • A computer shall not waste your time or require you to do more work than is strictly necessary.
  33. 33. USER INTERFACE (ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES) Graphical User Interface Menu Driven Interfaces Command Line Interface Applications
  34. 34. ADVANTAGES (GUI) It can be user-friendly and speed up the user's work. It can be more attractive for non-technical people. In general, it looks more professional (but this does not mean it is always the best solution).
  35. 35. DISADVANTAGES When it is not properly built, it can be very difficult to work with. It generally requires more memory resources than a non-graphical one. It might require the installation of additional software, e.g., the "runtime environment" in the case of java. Depending on the programmer, it might require more time to be implemented.
  36. 36. MENU DRIVEN INTERFACES Menu Driven Applications • ATM • Mobile Phone • MP3 Player • Video recorder • Household Devices • Digital/Cable TV
  37. 37. ADVANTAGES (MENU DRIVEN INTERFACES) No need to learn complex commands/language Easier for a novice to learn/use Ideal when there are a limited number of options (efficient)
  38. 38. DISADVANTAGES • Can be frustrating for experienced users i.e. the command they want to use is buried 5 levels deep!!!! • User interface may be limited by screen space and number of options available
  39. 39. COMMAND LINE INTERFACE APPLICATIONS System administration Engineering applications Scientific applications And for other specific application
  40. 40. ADVANTAGES (COMMAND LINE INTERFACES) Very flexible with the use of “switches” (options) Good for “expert” users - can quickly access commands Uses the fewest system resources
  41. 41. COMMAND LINE INTERFACES(DISADVANTAGE) Requires the user to learn “complex” commands or language “Hidden” features i.e. if you don’t know the commands you wont know the features are there! Not very good for novice users

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