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District cooling design & case study

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District cooling design & case study

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District cooling design & case study

  1. 1. District Cooling Power & Cost savings January 2011 Designing for Life District Cooling Power & Cost Saving
  2. 2. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling Power and Cost savings Main Heading Table of Contents 01. District Cooling 02. Case Studies 03. Animation
  3. 3. District Cooling Power & Cost Savings District Cooling 01
  4. 4. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Description Involves the provision of cooling for multiple buildings or facilities from one or more central plant via a pipe network. District Cooling History Large District Cooling applications started in the 1930s for the Rockefeller Center and United States Capitol Complex.
  5. 5. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling Piping Distribution DC Plant Pipes Valve Chamber ETS
  6. 6. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling Pipes in Tunnel Pipes in Trench Pipes in Tunnel Pipes in Tunnel with Branch-out
  7. 7. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling Valve Chamber
  8. 8. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling Energy Transfer Station Heat Exchanger Schematic - Energy Transfer Station with Heat Exchanger to Apartment Block
  9. 9. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling District Plant Chiller Plant at Ground Level Pumps in BasementCooling Tower at Roof Level Vertical Arrangement DC Plant – Verticle Arrangement
  10. 10. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling District Plant Cooling Towers – Horizontal Arrangement Kuwait University
  11. 11. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling District Plant DC Plant– Horizontal Arrangement (Kuwait University)
  12. 12. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Ice Storage Tank District Cooling Thermal Storage 1. Chilled Water 2. Ice 3. Eutectic Salts Pre-stressed Concrete Tank Thermal Energy Storage
  13. 13. District Cooling Power & Cost savings District Cooling District Plant District Cooling Plant – Architecture
  14. 14. District Cooling Power & Cost Savings Case Study 02 • Residential Areas • Inner-City
  15. 15. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Area Case Study based on Jaber Al-Ahmad City (Areas B & A5)
  16. 16. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Area- Design Basis Case Study Cooling Loads – Estimation Basis
  17. 17. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Areas Number of Houses = 1836 Estimated built up area of housing = 1,560,600 m2 (95% of total Built up area) Total Built up area including Mosques, Schools, Clinic, Shopping centre, Bank, Office Buildings etc. = 1,645,438 m2 Chiller plant capacity = 36,790 TR Thermal Storage = 4879.6 TR (11.7% of total) TOTAL DISTRICT COOLING PLANT CAPACITY = 41,670 TR
  18. 18. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Areas Plant Arrangement & Chilled Water Distribution
  19. 19. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Roof Plan Overall Area = 136m x 40m Foot Print = 7.66 M2/TR
  20. 20. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Ground Floor Plan
  21. 21. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Enlarged view Basement Floor Plan
  22. 22. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Enlarged View - Basement Plan
  23. 23. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Site Plan - Chilled Water Distribution Enlarged view
  24. 24. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Site Plan Enlarged view - Chilled Water Distribution
  25. 25. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Chilled Water Network Flow Simulation
  26. 26. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Typical Cross Section of Local Road with Bldg. Connection
  27. 27. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Chilled Water Pipe Network • System Static Pressure - 6 bar • Pressure difference between closest and furthest node is 24m. Residential Areas Case Study
  28. 28. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Chilled Water Temperature Increase • Calculations indicate that water temperature increase over the longest route is 0.3 deg-C • The calculations were based on Supply at 5.0 Deg-C, Return at 14.0 Deg-C • Loss in thermal energy due to pipe-work distribution is approximately 1 % overall Residential Areas Case Study
  29. 29. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Area Power & Energy
  30. 30. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Area- Cooling Load
  31. 31. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Area- Cooling Load
  32. 32. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Discharging Mode Charging Mode Charging / Discharging Mode (TES Tank) Residential Areas
  33. 33. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Area- Cooling Load District Cooling Efficiency With TES = 0.86 KW/TR Without TES = 1.00 KW/TR Based on R-134a Refrigerant Conventional Air Cooled Systems (excluding Indoor Units) Efficiency = 1.6 - 1.8 KW/TR (peak load/peak cooling) Assume Air Distribution Equipment Efficiency = 0.2 KW/TR Based on R22 Refrigerant and equivalent diverse electrical load PEAK POWER SAVING = 50% (on average)
  34. 34. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Area- Cooling Load Annual DCS Energy Demand = 101.9 GWh Annual Air Cooled System Energy Demand = 182.2 GWh Yearly Energy Saving = 40% on average when compared with conventional Air-cooled systems (1.6-1.8 kW/TR) District Cooling vs. Air cooled Energy Demand
  35. 35. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Peak Daily Demand Total Demand = 7048 m3 Yearly Demand Fresh Water Demand = 1,156,000 m3 If TSE is utilized = 1,502,800m3 Sea Water can be utilized for installations near the sea Case Study Residential Area- Water Demand
  36. 36. District Cooling Power & Cost savings CODE OF PRACTICE MEW/R-6 (Revised) • Clause 8.8 District Cooling states "District cooling shall be applied for new townships, university campuses and similar neighborhood, in view of its proven advantage for energy saving and peak load shaving. HVAC design report shall include detailed feasibility study highlighting energy savings potential and cost effectiveness over a 30 year life for plant and equipment” Residential Areas Case Study
  37. 37. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Electicity Cost VS Fuel Cost 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Barrel of Oil Cost ($) ElectricityUnitCost(Fills/KW-Hr) Fuel Cost Transmission Cost Opportunity Costs
  38. 38. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Power Plant Savings SavedPower (50% saving) 39,586 KW Capital Costs Power Generation 400 KD/KW 15,834,400 Distribution Saving 50 KD/KW 1,979,300 Total KD 17,813,700 Annual Energy Saving (40% on average) 73 GW-HR Power Generation & Distribution 60 Fils/Unit 4,138,000 Total KD 4,138,000
  39. 39. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Water Generation Costs Cost (KD) Plant Capital Cost Peak Day Water Requirement 7048 M3 Desalination Cost - RO Plant @ 820 KD/m3 5,779,360 Production & Distribution Annual Water Requirement 1,156,000 M3 Fresh Water Cost @ 768 (3,494) Fils/M3 (1000 Gal) 887,808
  40. 40. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Capital and Running Cost Savings Potential Savings in Capital Cost = KD12,034,340 Potential Savings (Opportunity) = KD 3,250,192/year @ 90$ US/barrel Case Study Case Study Residential Areas
  41. 41. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Residential Areas Extract from MEW R-6 “HVAC design report shall include detailed feasibility study highlighting energy savings potential and cost effectiveness over a 30 year life for plant and equipment” Suggested incentives to achieve cost effectiveness  Passover some of the savings by Government to the DC Provider  Pass over some of the capital savings by:  Covering cost of chilled water pipe installation (same as other piped utilities)  Provide land (as for sub-stations)  Set chilled water generation charges based on ‘unsubsidized rates’ with incentives linked to production efficiencies
  42. 42. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study The Main Environmental Benefits • Smaller Carbon Emission Foot Print • Energy Conservation • Less Noise From Air- Cooled Units • Less Thermal Impact on Local Environment • Better usage of built space (roof garden etc.) • More Efficient Temperature Control
  43. 43. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Residential Areas Case Study Carbon Emission Savings • Every MW-Hr Demand Produces 0.788 Tons of CO2 • 41,700TR DC Plant Reduces CO2 Emission by 65,800 Tons per Year
  44. 44. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Inner-City Area Design Case Study based on Abdullah Al-Ahmed Street
  45. 45. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Perspective – Abdullah Al-Ahmed Street
  46. 46. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study
  47. 47. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Building Type Built Up Area (m2) Residential 124,630 Offices 436,800 Commercial 133,463 Total 694,463 Inner-City Case Study
  48. 48. District Cooling Power & Cost savingsDC Plant integrated in Car Park Building to optimize on Parcel Usage Inner-City Case Study
  49. 49. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Ground Floor Plan – Chiller Plant Layout
  50. 50. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Basement Plan – Pump Room Layout Detail view
  51. 51. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Ice Storage Tank Lay-out Schematic – Detail view Images
  52. 52. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Charging / Discharging Mode (Internal Melt Ice Storage) Charging Mode Discharging Mode
  53. 53. District Cooling Power & Cost savingsSite-Wide Chilled Water Pipe Distribution Network Inner-City Case Study
  54. 54. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Inner-City Power & Energy
  55. 55. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study
  56. 56. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study
  57. 57. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Plant Item Plant Cooling Capacity KWh Ton-hr KW TR Water Cooled Chillers 1,270,880 361,363 54,162 15,400 Glycol Chiller Capacity 419,920 119,387 30,950 8,800 Thermal Ice Storage 144,860 41,189 23,145 6,581 Total DC Plant Capacity 1,835,660 521,939 108,257 30781 Plant Efficiency – KW/TR 0.805 Inner-City Case Study
  58. 58. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Energy Demand Profile (DCS Ice Storage vs. Conventional Water-Cooled System) Inner-City Case Study
  59. 59. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study Energy Demand Profile (DCS Ice Storage vs. A mix of 70% Capacity Conventional Water-Cooled System & 30 % Air Cooled
  60. 60. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study
  61. 61. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Case Study Economical Consideration & Sustainable Design Inner-City
  62. 62. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study EXCERPTS FROM LATEST MEW/R-6 REGULATION (2010) • Clause 8.5 Use of Partial Cool Storage (Chilled Water Storage) “Building with part-day occupancy pattern and chilled water systems serving building peak load of 100 RT or above, partial cool storage is mandatory. Some examples of building with part-day occupancy are: commercial offices, community centers, schools, public offices, banks, games and sports centers, gymnasiums, clubs etc.”
  63. 63. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study why District Cooling? • Larger chiller plant better efficiency (less power) • Better energy management through better qualified staff • Reduces building construction cost by removing central plant and improving building net-to-gross efficiency • Can help improve building aesthetics • Allows End User to better focus on core business. • Less noise generation
  64. 64. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Incentive Factors • Pass over savings in central plant and building costs by the developer to the DC Provider (capacity and connection charges) • Pass over running costs savings (operation, maintenance, consumables) • Introduce Government incentives to offset capital costs –  allow integration of DC plants within multistory car parks or provide land  allow incentive schemes based on DC plant efficiencies (KW/TR) Case Study Inner-City
  65. 65. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Inner-City Case Study • Match capacity of the central chiller plant with the buildings • Select pipe sizes & material based on economical factors • Match Primary & Secondary flow arrangements (variable flow) • Install controls with good response times • Provide thermal storage to help operate plant at optimum condition • Maintain highest Chilled water ΔT possible • Maintain highest chilled water flow temperature possible • Use high efficiency motors • Consider Variable speed cooling tower fans • Use Water conservation and backwash recovery Sustainable Design Considerations
  66. 66. District Cooling Power & Cost Savings Animation 03
  67. 67. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Animation District Cooling
  68. 68. District Cooling Power & Cost savings Thank you

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