NEW Applied sport psychology and sport sociology.ppt
This course is designed to help students to learn and
apply various psychological and sociological theories,
concepts and principles associated with sport.
Specifically, the course aims at discussing how
psychological and sociological factors affect an athletes’
Moreover, students will have a better understanding of
the sociological and psychological techniques applied in
sport settings to enhance the athletes’ performances.
Thus , issues like history and current status of sport
psychology, understanding sport and exercise
psychology as a science, personality and sports
performance, styles and abilities, competitiveness and
competitive anxiety, gender roles and sport behavior,
attitudes and sport behavior, motivation in sport,
aggression in sport, individual and group performance
in sport, interpersonal relationships in sport groups,
psychology of sport and exercise
Understanding sociology in the context of sport,
sport as a social phenomena, culture and society,
Social significance of sport, the family and sport
socialization, Contemporary issues in sport; school and
sport socialization, impact of sport on education, law,
and sport, sport and economy, sport and mass media,
sport is an arena of resistance and conflict:
collective behaviors and social movements.
At the completion of the course, the student will be able
Explain the basic concepts social phenomena related to
Describe the relationship between society and culture
in the light of sport
Identify theories about sport and society
Develop on awareness of the practical method of sport.
1.1Definition, History and the need for sport psychology
1.2 Current status of sport psychology
1.3 Clients of sport psychology
1.4 Issues of sport psychology
2. Personality, Gender and attitude in sport
2.1 Gender role and sport behavior(G-ONE)
2.1.1. The role of gender in sport participation
2.1.2. The contribution of sport for gender equality
2.2 Attitude and sport behavior (G-TWO)
2 2 1 The nature of attitudes
2.2.3.The formation of attitudes to sport
2.2.4.Attitudes to competition
2.2.5. Attitudes to sport and sporting behavior
2.3 personality and sport performance(G-THREE)
2.3.1.Social learning theory
2.3.2.Applying social learning theory to sport
2.3.3. Sources of influence on social development and sport
3.Motivation in sport
3.1 . Defining motivation
3.2 . Theories of motivation
3.3. Strategies to enhance motivation
4 Effects of arousal and anxiety on performance
4.2 . Arousal and athletic performance
4.3 . Anxiety
5 Goal setting
5.1 Goal setting guide lines
5.2 common problem in setting goals
5.3 Psychological skill training
6 Aggression in sport
6.1 Hostile aggression
6.2 Instrumental aggression
7.1 Definition of team cohesion
7.2 Types of team cohesion
7.3 Strategies to develop team cohesion
8. Sport as social phenomena
8.1 Culture and society
8.2. Social significance of sport
8.3 The family and sport organization
9. Contemporary issue in sport
9.1 School and mass media
9.2 Sport as conflict resolution
9.3 Collective b/r and social movement
Mode of delivery
Lecture method, individual assignment, and group
assignment and presentation
IX. Mode of assessment and grading
Individual assignment ………………%
Group assignments and presentation … %
Grading will be as per the university scale
Daniel L.Wann; Sport Psychology (1997) by
prentice Hall. Inc.NewJersey
Richard H.Cox; Sport Psychology; Concepts And
Applications(2007) by McGraw-Hill companies
inc.( 6th .ed )
John Kremer and Deirdre Scully.(2005). Psychology in
Sport, Tylor & Francis group, USA
Matt Jarvis.(1999). Sport Psychology, Routledge, Newyork
Robert S. Weninberg, Daniel Gould.( 1995).
Foundation in sport and exercise psychology, , human
Barry D. Mc Pherson, James E. Curts, and John W. Loy
(1989). The social significance of sport, human
kinetics book champain, Illinois
Moor S. (2001). Sociology alivel 3rd ed. Cheteuham
Definition of psychology
PSYCHE + LOGOS
Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of
behaviors and mental processes.
Definition of sport psychology
A science in which the principles of psychology are
applied in a sport or exercise setting.
It is the study of the effect of psychological and
emotional factors on sport and exercise performance;
also the effect of sport and exercise involvement on
psychological and emotional factors.
The short history of sport
The first recorded study in sport psychology took place
at the close of the nineteenth century.
Norman Triplett (1898) performed what is often cited
as the first experiment in social psychology as well as
the first in sport psychology.
Triplett investigated the phenomenon of social
facilitation, in which performance is affected by the
presence of others.
He demonstrated that cyclists tended to cycle faster
when racing against other cyclists than they did alone.
Triplett did not pursue further sport-related research,
however, and it was not until the 1920s that the
discipline of sport psychology was formally
In 1925, Coleman Griffith set up the Athletic
Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois.
Griffith, who also put sport psychology on the map by
establishing a university course,
He also published two major text books and acting as a
consultant-(gorsa) to professional sports teams, is often
called the ‘father of sport psychology’.
Clients of sport psychologist
The three types of sport psychologist
The work carried out by sport psychologists is quite
The European Federation of Sport Psychology (1996)
recognizes three interrelated tasks for sport psychologists:
Educational: who received their academic training in
sport science, are knowledge base and act as
Counseling/clinical: a person who trained in clinical or
counseling psychology and also has a deep interest in
the sport setting
The role of sport psychologist
To solve the actual problem which can arise during
competition and training.
To assess about social relation ship between the coach
To tackle the development and other testing and
Assessing what problems that athletes are facing and
predicting the relevant solution for those problems.
Assessing the existing relation ship between athlete and
coach and also proposing what kind of r/n s/p should
exist b/n them in future.
Is the stimulus given to athletes to continue with and
improve in their chosen sport.
Can come from a number of sources: coaches,
teammates, supporters, and self help method.
The effective motivation of an athletes is an essential
aspect to success in sport of every kind.
The motivational requirements of every athlete as
unique as the athlete themselves
Factors on assessment of how athlete motivated
The nature of the sport played.
e.g some activities need physical exerted
The motivation of the team often differ from that of
The level of athletic competition is often an important
e.g national Vs international competition.
The skill level of the athletes.
The gender of the athlete.
The age, and
The nature of the training and competitive reasons
Motivation is rarely successful as a one time
Successful motivational technique are built on the r/n s/p
b/n the athlete and a coach.
-you should know the personality of athletes.
-unique nature of the athlete.
One motivational technique may not be implement for
- to motivate athletes you should set- goals.
- each motivational goals is a progression.
Generally, motivation is a key element for the success of
Three general theories on the origin of motivation
1. Instinctual model
3. Expectancy theories
Argue that future out comes pull individuals to in to
Human tend to be multi-motivational( motivation by
several out comes) rather than uni-motivational(
motivation by single out comes).
In some instance, the motivation operating
simultaneously with in an individual come in to
Researchers identified this in to 4 motivational
I. Approach-Approach motivational conflict
occurs when an individual must chose between two or more
positive out comes.
e.g Two scholars
II. Avoidance-Avoidance motivational conflict
Occurs when an individual must chose between two or more
negative out comes.
e.g two negative options
III. Approach -Avoidance motivational conflict
Occur when an individual presents with a single out comes
having positive and negative component.
The conflict resides in the individuals decision to accept or
reject the goal.(scholarship vs family)
Give your own example
IV. Double APP-AVO motivational conflict
Occur when an individual is simultaneously presented with
two or more out comes, each having +ve and –ve components.
Give your own example
The most difficult to resolve
Types of Sport Motivation
1. Intrinsic Motivation
2. Extrinsic motivation
In general, intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an
activity purely for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from
doing the activity.
When a person is intrinsically motivated he or she will perform
the behavior voluntarily, in the absence of material rewards or
external constraints .
IM stems from the innate psychological needs of competence
The kind of motivation that exhibits the highest level of
self determination is referred as being intrinsic in nature.
Is a motivation that comes from with in .
Intrinsically motivated Individuals engaged in freely, with
a full sense of volition(wish) and personal control.
There is no sense of engaging in the activity for a material
Activities that allow individuals to experience feelings of
competence and self-determination will be engaged in because of
2. Extrinsic Motivation
Contrary to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation (EM)
pertains to a wide variety of behaviors that are engaged in as a
means to an end and not for their own sake.
It was originally thought that extrinsic motivation referred to non-
self-determined behavior, behavior that could only be prompted
by external contingencies (e.g., rewards).
Comes in many forms, including awards, trophies, money, praise,
social approval, and fear of punishment.
Motivated individuals do not perceive contingencies between
their actions and the outcomes of their actions.
They experience feelings of incompetence and lack of control
(Deci & Ryan, 1985).
They are neither intrinsically motivated nor extrinsically
When athletes are in such a state, they no longer identify any
good reasons for why they continue to train.
Eventually they may even decide to stop practicing their sport.
He defines self-efficacy as “ beliefs in one’s capability
to organize and execute the causes of action required to
produce given attainment”.
Is a form of situation specific self-confidence.
The athlete is motivated to work hard to ensure success
b/s he/she believes he/she can succeed.
Bandura’s propose four fundamental element effective
in developing self-efficacy
1. Successful performance
The athlete must experience success in order for self-
efficacy to develop.
With a difficult task, success is un realistic expectation, so
the coach must insure success by initially reducing the
difficulty of the task.
Beginning athletes can experience success through the
use of model.
In learning a new skill, the learner needs a template
model to copy.
This can be provided by the instructor, a skilled team
mate, or a film or video of skilled performer.
Usually comes in the form of encouragement from the
coach, parents, or peers.
Helpful verbal statement that suggest that the athlete is
Emotional and physiological arousal are factors that can
influence readiness for learning .
It is important to understand that we must be emotionally
ready and optimally aroused in order to be attentive.
Proper attention is important in helping the athletes to
master a particular skill and develop a feeling of
Arousal can be defined as general
physiological and psychological activation of the
person that varies on a continuum from deep-
sleep to intense excitement.
Arousal is an energizing function that is
responsible for harness (exploit) the body’s
The neurophysiology of arousal involves the autonomic
ANS controls automatic, involuntary bodily function
This includes process people normally do not think
about such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
ANS composed of two divisions:
1. The sympathetic, and
2. parasympathetic division
1. The sympathetic division
is the arousing division and prepare the body for action.
Because of this, it is often called “ the flight or fight”.
2. The parasympathetic division
is the calming division.
return the body to its normal state of arousal.
Each individual has an optimal level of arousal.
When the sympathetic division is highly active, the
individual is above his optimal level.
It is the responsibility of the parasympathetic division to
return the individual to his/her homeostasis level of
Homeostasis: is a state of physiological balance or
Arousal and Athletic Performance
The relationship between physiological arousal and motor
performance has been of interest to psychologists since the
Research led to the development of two rather distinct
1.The inverted –U theory and
is a theory reflecting the belief that the relationship
between arousal and performance is non-linear and that
The highest levels of performance will be found when
individual are moderately aroused , while the lowest
levels of performance will be associated with low
2. Drive – Theory: -
In contrast to the inverted – U – hypothesis, supporters
of drive theory argue that the relationship between
arousal and performance is linear and in the form of a
positive correlation (Hull,1951;Spence,1956).
The lowest levels of performance are expected when the
individual experience low levels of arousal ,
Moderate performance is associated with moderate
High performance is associated with high arousal .
It is the predication that high arousal is associated with
top performance that is odds with the inverted _U-
To date, although studies have been supportive of both
theories, most of research supports the inverted – U-
What is your opinion?
Common physiological indicators of an increase in
1.Increase heart rate
2.Increase blood pressure
3.Increase respiratory rate
4.Increase muscle tone
5.Increase skin response(sweating)
Methods /ways to optimize Arousal level
Controlled breathing system
Is a negative state that can have highly detrimental
effects on an athlete performance.
There two types of anxiety are:
1. state anxiety
2. trait anxiety
Involves a reaction of a current stressful condition.
It involves a temporary reactions.
The anxiety should subside once the stressor has
Involves a long lasting, chronic predisposition to
experience anxiety in stressful environments.
Is directly related to the personality of the individual.
Goal setting in sport
is a theory of motivation that effectively
energizes athletes to become more productive
and effective (Locke & Latham, 1990).
Basic Types of Goals and Their Effectiveness
These three different types of goals are
outcome goals, performance goals, and
1. Outcome goals
Focus on the outcomes of sporting events and usually
involve some sort of interpersonal comparison.
A typical outcome goal might be to win a basketball
game, place first in a volleyball tournament, defeat
an opponent in tennis, or finish the season with a
2. Performance goals
Specify an end product of performance that will be
achieved by the athlete relatively independently of
other performers and the team.
A typical performance goal for an individual athlete
might be score twenty-five points in a basketball
game, serve five aces in a tennis match, or get fifteen
kills in a volleyball game.
Athletes and coaches should prefer performance goals
to outcome goals for two fundamental reasons.
1.First, if performance goals are accomplished, there is a
good possibility that outcome goals will also be
2.Second, personal satisfaction can be realized from the
achievement of performance goals even if outcome
goals remain unfulfilled.
3. Process goals
Process goals focus on specific behaviors
exhibited throughout a performance.
A typical process goal for an athlete might be to
keep the left elbow straight while executing a
golf drive, to keep the elbow down and wrist
firm in the tennis backhand, or to focus on the
spiker and not the ball in volleyball blocking.
Principles of Effective Goal Setting
1.Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
2.Clearly identify time constraints.
3.Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to
either easy or very difficult goals.
4.Write goals down and regularly monitor progress.
5.Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals.
6.Use short-range goals to achieve long-range goals.
7.Set team as well as individual performance goals.
8.Set practice as well as competition goals.
9.Make sure goals are Internalized by the athlete.
10.Consider personality and individual differences in goal
Psychological skill refers to learned or innate characteristics of
the athlete that make it possible or even likely that she /he will
succeed in sport.
Why Psychological Skill Training (PST) is Neglected ?
Scholars have reviewed that psychological skill training is mostly
neglected because of the following fundamental issues/factors:
1.Lack of knowledge
2. Psychological skills are viewing as unchangeable.
3. Lack of Time
4. PST MYTHS(tradition)
PST is only for “problem” athletes .
People think that sport psychologists work with athletes only who
have psychological problems.
PST is only for top athlete – it is suitable for everyone.
PST provides “Quick fix” solution ( I need this by tomorrow).
PST is not useful (reports from athletes and coaches indicate that
psychological skills do in fact enhance performance although
people might think it is not useful)
Implementing PST Program
Think on when to implement? Particularly in off-season.
How-long? It is better to provide 10-15 mins/day; 3-5
Who should administer? Sport psychologists/coach
DESIGNING STEPS TO A PST PROGRAM
Discuss your approach.
Assess your athlete’s mental skills.
Determine psychological skills to include.
Design a PST schedule.
Evaluate the program.
Common problems in implementing a PST program
Lack of conviction-dedication..
Lack of time.
Lack of sport knowledge.
Lack of follow –up/assessment.
Is a sequence of behaviors in which the goal is to injure
Is an intent to physically, verbally, or psychologically
harm some one who is motivated to avoid such treatment
and or the physical destruction of property when
motivated by anger.
There are two basic kinds of aggression have been
1. Hostile aggression
2. Instrumental aggression.
1. Hostile aggression
For individuals engaged in hostile aggression, the primary goal is
the injury of another human being.
The intent is to make the victim suffer, and the reinforcement is
the pain and suffering that is caused.
This sort of aggression is always accompanied by anger on the
part of the aggressor.
2. Instrumental Aggression
For individuals engaged in instrumental aggression, the
intent to harm another individual is present, but the goal
is to realize some external goal such as money, victory,
The aggressor views the aggressive act as instrumental
in obtaining the primary goal.
Cohesion is defined as a dynamic process which is
reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and
remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives
and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs.
Cohesion is multidimensional in nature in that there are
numerous factors that cause a group to remain united, and
these factors can differ from group to group.
In sport teams, the two strongest factors are
1. The task and
2. Social relationships.
Refers to being united in achieving the team’s objectives.
The degree to which members of a team work together to
achieve a specific and identifiable goal.
2. Social cohesion
Refers to the quality of social relationships present.
The degree to which the members of a team like each other and
enjoy personal satisfaction from being members of the team.
Both task cohesion and social cohesion contribute to team
performance (although the former is slightly more important).
Team Cohesion as a Process
Very early, Tuckman (1965) described four basic stages
that a team must pass through in order to emerge as a
These four stages include Forming, Storming,
Norming , and Performing.
1. The forming stage
The athletes experience the excitement of new
relationships and getting together with teammates for a
common goal or cause.
The team members usually come together for the first
time for the season.
Is the learning period for old and new members.
Familiarizing them with how the group functions.
Differentiate their roles within the group.
Generally, in order to facilitate this stage, coaches often
set up time outside of practice for social activities such
as: movies, outing to other sporting events to allow the
group to get to know each other better.
The storming stage
The athletes struggle with the frustrations of trying to
learn a new team system and of getting acquainted with
teammates with whom they may have little in common.
Usually occurs a few weeks in to the season
The honeymoon period is over and now it is time to get
down to work
This phase is characterized by conflict over who has
control and infighting for status position and the
In this phase those athletes with a poor work ethic and bad
Personality and goal conflict among team members
Coach’s need to be vigilant in identifying conflicts when they
emerge and open up communication paths to resolve the conflict
in a timely fashion.
Successful resolution: can lead to increase in team member’s self-
The Norming stage
Is a period after storming where the team has come to a
consensus about what is acceptable and what is not
Goals, objectives, and expectations have been clearly
defined by the coach and the athlete.
The respect they gain from their teammate, unique
contribution to the team, is the most important
realization the athlete come to the norming phase.
The performing stage
Is similar to the peak at the end of the season.
There is a close bond among the team members.
And a general want for one another to succeed.
The team members begin to truly value each individual’s
contribution and the relationships are secure within the team.
The group is finally acting as a confident cohesion unit.
In this final stage, the team should be able to combine effort
towards the group goal.