Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Routing Protocols and Concepts
Abdelkhali...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Introduction
• EIGRP is a Classless DV “n...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
IGRP to EIGRP
Enhanced Distance Vector
Ro...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Message Format
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Packet Header
• Opcode: specifies t...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
TLV: EIGRP Parameters
• The EIGRP paramet...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
TLV: IP Internal
• The IP Internal messag...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
TLV: IP External
• The IP External messag...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM)
• EIGRP ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
• RTP: ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Packet Types
• Hello packets
Used ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Packet Types
• Update packets
Used...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Packet Types
• Query & Reply packet...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Purpose of Hello Packet
• To discover & e...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Bounded Updates
• EIGRP uses the te...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL: An Introduction
• DUAL: is the conv...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Administrative Distance (AD)
• the trustw...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Authentication
• EIGRP can
Encrypt routi...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Network Topology
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Basic EIGRP configuration: AS & Process I...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Basic EIGRP configuration: AS & Process I...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
The Router EIGRP Command
• router eigrp a...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
The Network Command
• Functions of the ne...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
The Network Command with a Wildcard Mask
...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Verifying EIGRP
• EIGRP routers must esta...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Verifying EIGRP
• The show ip protocols: ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Metric Calculation
• EIGRP uses Ban...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Examining the Metric values
• Bandwidth: ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Examining the Metric values
• Reliability...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Using the Bandwidth Command
• The bandwid...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Calculating the EIGRP metric
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Calculating the EIGRP metric
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL Concepts
• Successor: The next hop i...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL Concepts
• Feasible successor (FS): ...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL Concepts
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Su...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Su...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Su...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL Finite State Machine
• FSMs are used...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
DUAL Finite State Machine
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
The Null0 Summary Route
• By default, EIG...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Disabling Automatic Summarization
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Disabling Automatic Summarization
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Disabling Automatic Summarization
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Manual Summarization
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Manual Summarization
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
EIGRP Default Route
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Fine-tuning EIGRP
• EIGRP Bandwidth Utili...
Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Routing Protocols and Concepts: Ch9 - EIGRP

3,718 views

Published on

IGRP and EIGRP.
Comparison between traditional Distance Vector Routing Protocols and Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocols.
EIGRP Message Format and Packet Header.
EIGRP Parameters (K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, Reserved, and Hold Time).
Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM).
Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP).
EIGRP Packet Types (Hello Packets, Update packets, Acknowledgment packets, Query and Reply packets).
EIGRP Bounded Updates.
Introduction to DUAL Algorithm.
EIGRP Administrative Distance.
The router eigrp Command, the network command with a Wildcard Mask, Verifying EIGRP and using the Bandwidth command
EIGRP Metric Calculation, EIGRP uses Bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load in its metric.
DUAL Concepts, successor, Feasible distance (FD), Feasible successor (FS), Reported distance (RD)/ AD and Feasibility Condition (FC).
DUAL Finite State Machine, Null0 Summary Route, Disabling Automatic Summarization, Manual Summarization and EIGRP default route

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,718
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
146
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Routing Protocols and Concepts: Ch9 - EIGRP

  1. 1. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Routing Protocols and Concepts Abdelkhalik Mosa abdu.elsaid@yahoo.com abdu.elsaid@gmail.com
  2. 2. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Introduction • EIGRP is a Classless DV “not hybrid” routing protocol. • Cisco proprietary, Released in 1992 with IOS 9.21. • The main purpose was to create a classless version of IGRP.  IGRP:1985, overcome RIPv1’s metric and network size.  Classful DV routing protocol uses Bellman-Ford algorithm.  Both IGRP & EIGRP use composite metric  Discontinued support starting with IOS 12.2. • EIGRP new features that are not found in other DV Protocols  RTP Provides reliable & unreliable delivery of EIGRP packets.  Bounded Updates.  DUAL guarantees loop-free paths and backup paths.  Establishing Adjacencies, Neighbor and Topology Tables.
  3. 3. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy IGRP to EIGRP Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol Traditional Distance Vector Routing Protocols 1. DUAL algorithm 2. Route entries doesn’t age out, Uses Hello protocol to monitor connection status. 3. No periodic updates. 1. Bellman-Ford or Ford- Fulkerson algorithm. 2. Age out routing entries. 3. Use periodic updates. Algorithm 1. Topology table contains best path and loop-free backup path. 2. DUAL uses backup path in case of unavailable route. 1. Keep track of only the best routes. 2. The router must wait for a new routing update in case of unavailable route. Path determination Faster convergenceSlower convergence due to hold-down timers. Convergence
  4. 4. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Message Format
  5. 5. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Packet Header • Opcode: specifies the EIGRP packet type:  Update (1).  Query (3).  Reply (4).  Hello (5). • Autonomous System (AS): Number specifies the EIGRP routing process, also called “Global Process ID”.  ID for EIGRP Routing process, Cisco routers can run multiple instances of EIGRP.
  6. 6. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy TLV: EIGRP Parameters • The EIGRP parameters message includes the weights that EIGRP uses for its composite metric. • K1 field for bandwidth and the K3 for delay are both set to 1. • The Hold Time is the maximum time router should wait for the next hello.
  7. 7. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy TLV: IP Internal • The IP Internal message is used to advertise EIGRP routes within an autonomous system. • Delay: sum of delays from source to destination in units of 10 microseconds. • Bandwidth is the lowest configured bandwidth of any interface along the route.
  8. 8. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy TLV: IP External • The IP External message is used when external routes are imported into the EIGRP routing process.
  9. 9. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM) • EIGRP uses PDM to route several different protocols “IP, IPX & AppleTalk”. • PDMs are responsible for the specific routing task for each network layer protocol.
  10. 10. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) • RTP: is the protocol used by EIGRP for the delivery and reception of EIGRP packets. • EIGRP was designed as a Network layer independent routing protocol. • EIGRP replaces TCP with RTP. • Involves both reliable “ack” & unreliable “no ack” delivery of EIGRP packets. • RTP Packets can be sent either Unicast or Multicast “224.0.0.10”.
  11. 11. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Packet Types • Hello packets Used to discover neighbors & form adjacencies with those neighbors.  Multicasts and use unreliable delivery.
  12. 12. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Packet Types • Update packets Used to propagate routing information. Are Triggered, Partial, Bounded and not Periodic. Use reliable delivery. Multicast / Unicast. • Acknowledgement packets Used to acknowledge receipt of update, query & reply packets. Use unreliable delivery.  Always Unicast.
  13. 13. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Packet Types • Query & Reply packets Query Packet: used by DUAL for searching for networks. Reply Packet: automatically sent in response to query. Both use reliable delivery. Query packets are either Unicast or Multicast. Reply packet are only Unicast.
  14. 14. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Purpose of Hello Packet • To discover & establish adjacencies with neighbor routers. • Time interval for sending hello packet 5 seconds: High bandwidth (greater than T1) 60 seconds: Low bandwidth, NBMA networks (T1 or slower ). • Holdtime: the maximum time the router should wait to receive the next Hello before declaring that neighbor as unreachable. • Holdtime = 3 times hello interval.
  15. 15. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Bounded Updates • EIGRP uses the term partial or bounded when referring to its update packets. Partial: update only includes information about route changes “not the full routing table”. Bounded only routers affected by the change will receive the update . • The partial update is automatically "bounded“. • EIGRP minimizes the bandwidth required to send EIGRP packets. ‫به‬ ‫مجازى‬ ‫فإنك‬ ‫شئت‬ ‫ما‬ ‫واعمل‬ ،‫مفارق‬ ‫فإنك‬ ‫شئت‬ ‫من‬ ‫وأحبب‬ ،‫ميت‬ ‫فإنك‬ ‫شئت‬ ‫ما‬ ‫عش‬
  16. 16. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL: An Introduction • DUAL: is the convergence algorithm used by EIGRP. • Provides for fast convergence time by keeping a list of loop- free backup routes. • The decision process for all route computations is done by the DUAL FSM. • FSM: is a model of behavior composed of a finite number of states, transitions between those states, and events or actions that create the transitions.
  17. 17. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Administrative Distance (AD) • the trustworthiness “preference” of the source route.
  18. 18. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Authentication • EIGRP can Encrypt routing information. Authenticate routing information. • Note: Authentication does not encrypt the router's routing table.
  19. 19. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Network Topology
  20. 20. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Basic EIGRP configuration: AS & Process ID • AS is a collection of networks under the control of a single authority that presents a common routing policy to the Internet. (RFC 1930).  AS Numbers are assigned by IANA.  Prior to 2007, AS numbers were 16-bit numbers.  Now 32-bit AS numbers are assigned.  Entities needing AS numbers: ISP
  21. 21. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Basic EIGRP configuration: AS & Process ID • EIGRP AS number actually functions as a Global process ID. • Process ID represents an instance of the routing protocol running on a router.
  22. 22. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Router EIGRP Command • router eigrp autonomous-system • All routers in the EIGRP routing domain must use the same process ID number (AS Number)
  23. 23. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Network Command • Functions of the network command 1. Enables interfaces that belong to the advertised network to send & receive EIGRP updates. 2. Includes network or subnet in EIGRP updates. • Router(config-router)#network classful_network_address.
  24. 24. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Network Command with a Wildcard Mask • Wildcard mask is used when the network administrator does not want to include all interfaces within a network when enabling EIGRP. • Think of a wildcard mask as the inverse of a subnet mask. 255.255.255.255 -255.255.255.252 ----------------------- 0. 0. 0. 3 “Wildcard mask” • Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask]
  25. 25. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Verifying EIGRP • EIGRP routers must establish adjacencies using Hello with their neighbors before any updates can be sent or received. • To view neighbor table use: show ip eigrp neighbors • Common Adjacency problems 1.Different process ID. 2.Incorrect network command. 3.Passive-interface.
  26. 26. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Verifying EIGRP • The show ip protocols: used to verify that EIGRP is enabled.
  27. 27. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Metric Calculation • EIGRP uses Bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load in its metric: • Verifying the K Values
  28. 28. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Examining the Metric values • Bandwidth: The value of the bandwidth may or may not reflect the actual physical bandwidth of the interface. Most serial interfaces use a default bandwidth value of 1.544Mbps (T1) • Delay: a measure of the time it takes for a packet to traverse a route.
  29. 29. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Examining the Metric values • Reliability: how often the link has experienced errors. Reliability is expressed as a fraction of 255. The higher the value, the more reliable the link. • Load: reflects the amount of traffic utilizing the link. Load is expressed as a fraction of 255. A lower load value is more desirable because it indicates less load on the link.
  30. 30. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Using the Bandwidth Command • The bandwidth command only modifies the bandwidth metric used by routing protocols not the physical metric. • Verifying the bandwidth
  31. 31. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Calculating the EIGRP metric
  32. 32. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Calculating the EIGRP metric
  33. 33. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL Concepts • Successor: The next hop in the best path. • Feasible distance (FD): Best Path metric.
  34. 34. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL Concepts • Feasible successor (FS): The next hop in the backup path. • Reported distance (RD)/ AD :The distance (metric) from the next hop to the destination network. • Feasibility Condition (FC): RD<FD.
  35. 35. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL Concepts
  36. 36. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor
  37. 37. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor
  38. 38. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor
  39. 39. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL Finite State Machine • FSMs are used to describe how a device, computer program, or routing algorithm will react to a set of input events.
  40. 40. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy DUAL Finite State Machine
  41. 41. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Null0 Summary Route • By default, EIGRP uses the Null0 interface to discard any packets that match the parent route but do not match any of the child routes • EIGRP automatically includes a null0 summary route as a child route whenever both of the following conditions exist 1. There is at least one subnet that was learned via EIGRP. 2. Automatic summarization is enabled.
  42. 42. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Disabling Automatic Summarization
  43. 43. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Disabling Automatic Summarization
  44. 44. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Disabling Automatic Summarization
  45. 45. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Manual Summarization
  46. 46. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Manual Summarization
  47. 47. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy EIGRP Default Route
  48. 48. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Fine-tuning EIGRP • EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization  By default, EIGRP will use only up to 50 percent of the bandwidth of an interface for EIGRP information. • Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times
  49. 49. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy

×