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الأمراض النباتية البكتيرية

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الأمراض النباتية البكتيرية

  1. 1. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر‬‫ﻋﺒﺪاﷲ‬‫اﻟﻬﺪﻳﺐ‬ Dr Alhudaib II
  2. 2. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ Dr Alhudaib ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺲ‬ ‫أن‬)Taxonomy(‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬: Classification ‫واﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ Nomenclature ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ )IJSEM(/http://ijs.sgmjournals.org Identification ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
  3. 3. Universal phylogenetic tree as determined from comparative ribosomal RNA sequencing. Dr Alhudaib
  4. 4. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺲ‬: ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺎهﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬)Macroscopic Morphology( ‫اﻟﻘﻮام‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫أﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫واﻟﺼﺒﻐﺎت‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺄﺛﺮاهﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫وﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  5. 5. ‫اﻟﻈﺎهﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻬﺮﻳﺔ‬)Morphology Microscopic( ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ،‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﺻﺒﻐﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺠﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪهﺎ‬‫اﻷﺳﻮاط‬‫واﻷهﺪاب‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪار‬ ،..‫اﻟﺦ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  6. 6. ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﺒﻴﻮآﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫واﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ )Physiological & Biochemical Characters( ‫واﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎدات‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬..‫اﻟﺦ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  7. 7. ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬)Chemical Analysis( ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫اﻟﺒﻴﺒﺘﻴﺪات‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪار‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺪات‬‫اﻟﺨﻠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬. Dr Alhudaib
  8. 8. ‫وﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬)Serological Analysis( ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎدة‬ ‫أﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬DNA‫اﻟﻮراﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫وﻣﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮوف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬.‫اﻟﺘﻬﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫وﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ Hybridization‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. Dr Alhudaib
  9. 9. Dr Alhudaib
  10. 10. ‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫وأﻳﻀﺎ‬‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮوﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬Ribosomal RNA‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬.‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوف‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎت‬‫ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬‫اﻻﻣﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ )‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮوﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬(‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬rRNA.‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫وﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬Species. Dr Alhudaib
  11. 11. ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬rRNA ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوف‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬DNA or RNA‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬ )‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬‫ﺧﻤﺎس‬+‫ﻓﺴﻔﻮر‬+‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‬)‫اﻻدﻧﻴﻦ‬-‫ﺛﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬‫وﺟﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬-‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮزﻳﻦ‬(( ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﻘﻴﺎس‬‫اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬‫واﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮزﻳﻦ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ‬: GC ratios = G+C÷(G+C+A+T) X 100 ‫ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫دل‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫آﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫وآﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎن‬ ‫هﺬان‬: Erwinia GCr = 50-55% Corynebacterium GCr = 70% ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬Pseudomonas GCr = 55-60% ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬Pseudomonas GCr = 59-67% Dr Alhudaib
  12. 12. ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬: Pseudomonas Xanthomonas Xylella Agrobacterium Erwinia Clavibacter Streptomyces Dr Alhudaib
  13. 13. ‫وﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬Phytobacteriology Erwin Smith (1853-1938) ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻣﺮاض‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬‫واﻋﺮاﺿﻬﺎ‬‫وﻋﺰﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬.‫اﻣﺮاض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ Thomas Burrill (1839-1916) ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﺛﺒﺖ‬)‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮة‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫اﻻوﻟﻲ‬( Jan Wakker (1859-1927) ‫ﻓﺮوض‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أول‬ ‫آﺎن‬ ‫آﻮخ‬Dr Alhudaib
  14. 14. ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﺰل‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ Diagnosis of bacterial plant disease •‫اﻟﺘﺒﻘﻌﺎت‬‫واﻟﻠﻔﺤﺎت‬ •‫اﻟﺘﺪرن‬‫واﻷورام‬ •‫اﻟﺬﺑﻮل‬ •‫اﻟﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ •‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮح‬ Bacterial leaf spot & blight disease Bacterial gall & tumor disease Bacterial wilt disease Bacterial rot disease Bacterial canker disease ‫اﻻﻋﺮاض‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺰل‬: ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺰل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫آﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎدات‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺰرﻋﺔ‬: ‫اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫آﻠﻮﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬)Colony(‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮﻧﻰ‬‫اﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺰرﻋﺔ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  17. 17. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬: ‫اهﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫اﻟﺴﻴﺮوﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ immuno-fluorescence and ELISA‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎت‬)105-106 cells/ml(‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫وأﻳﻀﺎ‬. DrAlhudaib
  18. 18. ‫اﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫وهﻨﺎك‬: ‫وﻟﻮﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺰرﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺻﺒﻐﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬–‫او‬+ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬)4-37‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬( ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬‫اﻟﺴﻴﺮوﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎدة‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬)Monoclonal antibodies( PCR Real-time PCR Dr Alhudaib
  19. 19. DrAlhudaib
  20. 20. Dr Alhudaib
  21. 21. Dr Alhudaib
  22. 22. DrAlhudaib
  23. 23. Dr Alhudaib
  24. 24. •‫آﻮخ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوض‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮض‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ •‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻋﺰل‬ ‫أﻋﺎدة‬ •‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫وﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫أﻋﺎدة‬ •‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮض‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫وأﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬ ‫آﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ Dr Alhudaib
  25. 25. www.bacterio.cict.fr/index.htmlhttp:// http://www.isppweb.org/names_bacterial_new2004.asp www.dsmz.de/download/bactnom/bactname.pdfhttp:// =14www.dsmz.de/microorganisms/main.php?contentleft_idhttp:// Dr Alhudaib

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