Terrorism & nuclear prolifeeration


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Presentationm on Nuclear deterrence

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Terrorism & nuclear prolifeeration

  1. 1. Terrorism & Nuclear Proliferation Presented By Abdelhamied El-Rafie Under the Supervision of Professor Pierfrancesco Moscuzza
  2. 2. What is Terrorism? <ul><li>The calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature; this is done through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn </li></ul><ul><li>Webster's New World Dictionary - Second College Edition :Terrorism -- use of force or threats to demoralize, intimidate, and subjugate, esp. such use as a political weapon or policy </li></ul><ul><li>The UN has failed until now to define terrorism </li></ul>
  3. 3. For The sake of the Presentation I can raise the following elements: <ul><li>Fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Terror. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of force . </li></ul><ul><li>Against civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Political , Ideological, Relegious. </li></ul><ul><li>Against the law but which law basically against the International agreement or consensus about the acts prohibited by law in different countries of the World. </li></ul><ul><li>State’s terror. </li></ul><ul><li>Group terror. </li></ul><ul><li>Note Iam not going to go further than that because of that the target of the presentation is not to discuss the difference between terrorism and freedom fighters. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What I mean is this:
  5. 5. Which would result something like this:
  6. 6. Or this
  7. 7. What are Nuclear weapons? <ul><li>According to the Federation of American scientists these weapons “Since their introduction in 1945, have been the most feared of the weapons of mass destruction, in part because of their ability to cause enormous instantaneous devastation and of the persistent effects of the radiation they emit, unseen and undetectable by unaided human senses”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. I mean it causes something like this:
  9. 9. What are the major Nuclear powers? <ul><li>Official ( The Nuclear Club): </li></ul><ul><li>USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>China. </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>France. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Non official: <ul><li>Israel (never officially admitted acquiring these weapons) </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea . </li></ul><ul><li>Iran (the west says it has started to poses but it denies) </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan (since 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>India (since 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>There are reports mentioning the possibility of the existence of Military Nuclear technology in the former Soviet Republics. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is a Dirty Bomb? <ul><li>According to the Center for Defense Information: “radiological dispersion bomb. This would consist of waste by-products from nuclear reactors wrapped in conventional explosives, which upon detonation would spew deadly radioactive particles into the environment. This is an expedient weapon, in that radioactive waste material is relatively easy to obtain. Radioactive waste is widely found throughout the world, and in general is not as well guarded as actual nuclear weapons.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Obama Initiative: <ul><li>&quot;Together we will strengthen the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a basis for cooperation. The basic bargain is sound: countries with nuclear weapons will move towards disarmament, countries without nuclear weapons will not acquire them, and all countries can access peaceful nuclear energy.&quot;  — President Barack Obama </li></ul>
  13. 13. Is this possible to achieve?!!!!! <ul><li>Are the Nuclear powers ready to leave their guns( weapons)? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we imagine that those countries who are trying to acquire these weapons would stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the balance of power in different regions of the World stable to the extend to abort ambitions of acquiring these weapons? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the possibility of that terrorist groups acquire these weapons? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Are we in stable World? <ul><li>To a certain extend if we answer the previous four questions we will find the answer is </li></ul><ul><li>NO!!!! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lets follow this assumption <ul><li>If some countries or groups acquire this weapons the possibility to achieve Non Proliferation will be reduced to the minimum limit therefore there is a need for more mechanisms and I don’t mean here legal ones only but finding the ways to enforce these legal frameworks but how ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Who are the powers would enforce this? <ul><li>Are they the Super powers? The UN ? Or who? This will lead us to reanalyze The International System </li></ul><ul><li>But This is another story  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>