Module1 historical linguistics-part1

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Module1 historical linguistics-part1

  1. 1. MODULE 1 HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS Part OneHistory of the English Language2nd Semester 1432-1433 AHDr. Abdel-Fattah Adel
  2. 2. HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS The two types of linguistic studies: Synchronic and Diachronic Linguistics The Definition of Historical linguistics The main Concerns of Historical linguistics Studying language change Two axes of the historical study of language Four Myths of Language.
  3. 3. The Definition of Historicallinguistics Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change.
  4. 4. The main Concerns ofHistorical linguisticsHistorical linguistics has five main concerns: to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics) to develop general theories about how and why language changes to describe the history of speech communities: a group of people who share a set of norms and expectations regarding the use of language to study the history of words, i.e. etymology: their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
  5. 5. Three tools for the study oflanguage 1. Articulatory phonetics: 2. Sociolinguistics: 3. Comparative philology:
  6. 6. Four specific areas oflanguage change 1. pronunciation 2. grammar and morphology 3. meaning (semantic change) 4. attitudes toward language change
  7. 7. The evidence for languagechange A. Surviving written evidence B. Knowledge of speech sounds C. writing about language
  8. 8. Language is a form of socialand human behavior No language is inherently better or more grammatical than any other Languages have rules and conventions of successful communication; and yet, throughout history, people have judged language, language performance, and individual linguistic competence.
  9. 9. Two axes of the historicalstudy of language Prescriptive Descriptive
  10. 10. Four Myths of Language. A. The myth of universality: B. The myth of simplicity C. The myth of teleology: D. The myth of gradualism

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