114-1 Noun clauses: introduction14-2 Noun clauses that begin with a question word14-3 Noun clauses with who, what, whose + be14-4 Noun clauses that begin with if or whether14-5 Noun clauses that begin with that14-6 Other uses of that-clauses14-7 Substituting so for a that-clause in conversational ...14-8 Quoted speech14-9 Quoted speech vs. reported speech14-10 Verb forms in quoted speech14-11 Common reporting verbs: tell, ask, answer/replyCONTENTS
214-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTIONI wonder where my mother is.
314-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION(a) We know her parents.(b) We know where her parents live.(noun phrase)s v oclause(noun clause)s v o• group of related words• group of related wordsphrase • no subject & verb• has a subject & verb
414-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION(c) We know where her parents live.os vnoun clause subject + verbhass v(noun clause)
514-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION(d) We know where her parents live.(noun clause)• question wordnoun clausescan begin with(e) I wonder if they will visit us.(noun clause)(f) I think that they will try to come soon.(noun clause)• if or whether• that
714-1 LET’S PRACTICEphraseclauseHi. I rememberwhen we met.noun _______clause
814-2 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTIONWORDI wonder whathe is thinkingabout.
914-2 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTIONWORDINFORMATION QUESTION(a)Where does she work ?(b) I wonder where she works.(c) When did he call?(d) Do you know when he called?(e) What did they do?(f) Please tell me what they did.(g) Why is she sad?(h) I don’t know why she is sad.usual word order noun clauseNOUN CLAUSEINCORRECT: I don’t know why is she sad.
1014-2 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTIONWORDINFORMATIONQUESTION(i) Who wants to go?no change inword orderNOUN CLAUSEwhen a questionword is the subjectSS(j) I wonder who wants to go.(k) What’s going on? (l) Tell me what’s going on.
1114-2 LET’S PRACTICEwhere the bridge was builtnoun clause question ?OR
12who built the bridgenoun clause question ?OR14-2 LET’S PRACTICEI know who built the bridge.Who built the bridge?noun clause:question:
1314-3 NOUN CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BEWhose suitcase is this?
1414-3 NOUN CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BE(a) Who is that actor ? (b) Tell me who that actor is.QUESTION NOUN CLAUSEv v(c) Whose dog is this ? (d) Tell me whose dog this is.v ss snoun orpronounmain verbbenoun orpronounmain verbbe+ +s v
1514-3 NOUN CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BE(e) Who is out there ? (f) Tell me who is out there.QUESTION NOUN CLAUSEv v(g) Whose dog is in here? (h) Tell me whose dog isin here.s ss smain verbbeprepositionalphrase +v v
1614-3 LET’S PRACTICEWho’s calling?Please tell me ____________.who’s calling
1714-3 LET’S PRACTICEWhose house is that?I wonder _________________.whose house that is
1814-3 LET’S PRACTICEWho will join us for a picnic?I don’t know _______________________.who will join us for a picnic
1914-4 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH IF ORWHETHERI don’t know if Geneva is thecapital of Switzerland or not.
2014-4 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH IF ORWHETHER(a) Is Alice friendly? (b) I wonder if Alice is friendly.(c) Does Al dance? (d) Do you know if Al dances?(e) Did class end early? (f) I wonder if class ended early.yes/no questions noun clauseif introduces the clauseYES/NO QUESTION NOUN CLAUSE
2114-4 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH IF ORWHETHER(g) I don’t know if class ended early or not.if + clause + or not
22if = whether14-4 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH IF ORWHETHER(h) I don’t know whether class ended early or not.(g) I don’t know if class ended early or not.
2314-4 LET’S PRACTICEIs that a good restaurant?NOUN CLAUSE:Do you know _______________________if that is a good restaurant?
24______________14-4 LET’S PRACTICEWill we go to the Gaudi Museum again?NOUN CLAUSE:Do you know _______________________if we will go to the GaudiMuseum again?
25___________14-4 LET’S PRACTICEWill your friend pass his exam?NOUN CLAUSE:I wonder __________________if your friend will passhis exam.
2614-5 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH THATI was sad when I foundout that my friend was ill.
2714-5 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH THAT(a) I know that you are a good friend.(b) She hopes that she can go to college.(c) Jane heard that the exam is difficult.(d) We discovered that our house was robbed.s v othat-clause object of verbmental activity
2814-5 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH THAT(e) I know that you are a good friend.that often omitted(f) I know Ø you are a good friend.samemeaningespecially in speaking
2914-5 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECT ?ORI hope that you can come to dinner tomorrow.
3014-5 LET’S PRACTICEI hope you can come to dinner tomorrow.CORRECT INCORRECT ?OR
3114-6 OTHER USES OF THAT- CLAUSESShe was disappointed that shefailed the test.
3214-6 OTHER USES OF THAT- CLAUSES(a) I’m certain that you will like this class.(b) I’m happy that you joined us.(c) You are fortunate that the weather was good.(d) She was surprised that he proposed.certain expressions:be + adjective ORbe + past participlethat-clause+
3314-6 OTHER USES OF THAT- CLAUSES(e) It is true that cancer is a serious disease.(f) It is a fact that cancer is a serious disease.two commonexpressionsthat-clauseIt is true…It is a fact…+ =
3414-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTor ?I think that you should ask the teacher.
3514-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTI think that you should ask the teacher.
3614-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTor ?I think you should ask that the teacher.
3714-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTI think you should ask that the teacher.
3814-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTor ?It is true the Euro is the currency of the EU.
3914-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTIt is true the Euro is the currency of the EU.
4014-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSESDo you think thisis a goodsolution? I think so.
4114-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(a) Should we dothis test again? I think so.so = that weshould do thetest again
4214-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(b) Do you think youcan learn this newdance? I believe so.so = that I canlearn the dance
4314-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(c) Do you really thinkyou can learn thisnew dance? I hope so.so = that I canlearn the dance
4414-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(c) Do you really thinkyou can learn thisnew dance? I hope so.INCORRECT:I hope so that you can learn it.
4514-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(d) Should wedo this test athird time?I don’t think so. /I don’t believe so.negativeusagedo not think sodo not believe so
4614-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(e) Do youthink Jay willget fired?I hopenot.negative hope hope not
4714-7 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE INCONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES(f) Do youthink Jay shouldget fired?I’m not sure. Iguess so.I guess so. I guess not.I suppose so. I suppose not.common conversationalresponses
48I hope ____________________________________tourists will leavesoon.that the14-7 LET’S PRACTICEI wonder if thetourists will leavesoon. I hope so.restate usinga that-clause
49I don’t think ___________________________________we have time toplay again.that14-7 LET’S PRACTICEDo you thinkwe have timeto play again?I don’tbelieve so.restate usinga that-clause
50I hope ____________________________________won’t be in thisline all day.that we14-7 LET’S PRACTICEDo you thinkwe will be inthis line all day? I hope not.restate usinga that-clauseI hope not.
5214-8 QUOTED SPEECHI agree.I think this agoodsolution.(a) SPEAKERS’ EXACT WORDS
5314-8 QUOTED SPEECHJill said, “I think this is a good solution.”Jack said, “I agree.”(b) QUOTING THE SPEAKERS’ WORDS
54Jill said, “Let’s start working.Jill saidJill said, “Jill said,2. Add quotation marks.14-8 QUOTED SPEECH(c) HOW TO WRITE QUOTATIONS1. Add a comma after said.,“Jill said, “Let’s start working3. Capitalize the first word of the quotation.4. Write the quotation. Add a final period.5. Add quotation marks after the period.let’sLet’s“.
5514-8 QUOTED SPEECH(d) Joshua said, I would like to go. Canwe leave in an hour?“ “quotation marks around entire quote(e) INCORRECT: Joshua said, I would liketo go. Can we leave in an hour?““““
5614-8 QUOTED SPEECH(f) “I would like to go,” said Joshua.end of quoted sentence ,(g) “Are you ready to go?” said Andrea.end of quoted question ?
5714-8 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECT“You should ask the teacher said Erica.,””,or ?
58“Will you do that she asked.14-8 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECT?””,or ?
59Erica said, “Maybe I can help you.I’d be happy to try.”14-8 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT INCORRECTor ?
6014-9 QUOTED SPEECH vs. REPORTED SPEECHHe said, “This is serious.”She said, “I hope not.”
6114-9 QUOTED SPEECH vs. REPORTED SPEECHQUOTED SPEECH:(a) Laurette said, “I want to watch a movie.”(b) LeRoy said, “I want to watch sports.”quoted speech = exact words in quotes
6214-9 QUOTED SPEECH vs. REPORTED SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH:(c) Laurette said (that) she wants to watcha movie.(d) LeRoy said (that) he would rather watchsports.basic idea ofthe speaker’swords=Reportedspeech
6314-9 LET’S PRACTICENazan said, “I wish this class were longer.”QUOTED SPEECH:REPORTED SPEECH:Nazan said ____ he _______ this class werelonger.that wished
6414-9 LET’S PRACTICESu Jin said, “We should study together.”QUOTED SPEECH:REPORTED SPEECH:Su Jin said ____ we should _____ together.that study
6514-9 LET’S PRACTICEAtabe said, “You should visit my village.”QUOTED SPEECH:REPORTED SPEECH:Atabe said ____ we should visit ___ village.that his
6614-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH“I’m angry.” Ben said hewas angry.QUOTED: REPORTED:
6714-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH(a) QUOTED:Mary said, “I enjoy yoga.”(b) REPORTED:Mary said that she enjoyed yoga.(c) QUOTED:David said, “I love tennis.”(d) REPORTED:David said that he loved tennis.reporting verbin pastnoun clause verbin pastoftenFORMAL ENGLISH
68(e) What didJanel say?I’m shocked.She saidshe isshocked.Janel14-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH
6914-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH(e) QUOTED: Janel said, “I am shocked.”REPORTED: Janel said she is shocked.reporting verbin pastno change innoun clause verbsometimesINFORMAL ENGLISH
7014-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH(f) What did Janel tell you when you saw herlast night?REPORTED: Janel said she was shocked.reporting verbin pastnoun clause verbin pastLATER REPORTING
7114-10 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH(g) Janel says (that) she is shocked.reporting verb:present tensenoun clause verb:no change
72They said _____________________14-10 LET’S PRACTICEQUOTED SPEECH: “We love being together.”REPORTED SPEECH (formal or later reporting):they loved being together.REPORTED SPEECH (informal or immediate reporting):They said _____________________they love being together.
73He said _________________________14-10 LET’S PRACTICEQUOTED SPEECH: “I enjoy studying with you.”REPORTED SPEECH (formal or later reporting):he enjoys studying with her.REPORTED SPEECH (informal or immediate reporting):He said _________________________he enjoyed studying with her.
7414-11 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK,ANSWER/REPLYThese plans tellus that we stillhave a lot of workto do.
7514-11 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK,ANSWER/REPLYsay reporting verbsay noun clause(a) Janel said that she was shocked.=+
76INCORRECT: Janel told that she was shocked.INCORRECT: Janel said me that she wasshocked.14-11 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK,ANSWER/REPLY= reporting verb+ object + noun clausetell(b) Janel told me that she was shocked.(c) Janel told Amy that she was shocked.tell
7714-11 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK,ANSWER/REPLY(d) QUOTED: Su Lin said (to me), “Are you sad?”REPORTED: Su Lin asked (me) if I was sad.asked (said) report questions(e) Su Lin wanted to know if I was sad.Su Lin wondered if I was sad.Su Lin inquired whether or not I was sad.want to knowwonderinquirereport questions
7814-11 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK,ANSWER/REPLY(f) QUOTED: Su Lin said (to me), “Are you sad?”REPORTED: I answered/replied that I wasn’t sad.answer, reply report replies
7914-11 LET’S PRACTICEsaytellaskRaj _____ that he might quithis job.said
8014-11 LET’S PRACTICEsaytellaskI don’t know why Raj _____ methat he was thinking of quittinghis job.told
8114-11 LET’S PRACTICEsaytellaskI don’t know why Raj ______ meif he should quit his job.asked