Frame rate, also known as frame frequency, is the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device displays consecutive images called frames. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate is usually
‘’comic: is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. ‘’
the state of abstaining from marriage and sexual relations.
What are Anime & Manga?
»It may be the American animated films are the most
globally in the twentieth century great for the diversity
of large and highly successful and ability in global
distribution, but that does not negate the attempts by
other countries to enter the industry, is the most
important European countries, including Eastern
Europe, China, India, Iran, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico
states, but the most prominent and the most ferocious
competition in American animation is Japan with it’s
cartoon featured the infamous name of anime.
»The first Japanese animation back to 1917, and then
the industry has continued and flourished in the sixties
on the work of Osamu Tezuka , who has transferred
magazines Japanese comics (manga) to movies
Cartoon (Anime) by his techniques and style.
How It Begin
»Manga first started appearing during the 10th century in
Japan, where it was just simple drawings.
»During the 1600’s, these drawing became known as Edo.
»During WWII, manga drawings were highly censored and
controlled by the Japanese government, and so the styles and
content drastically changed.
»After WWII, manga and anime first started to become
»Osamu Tezuka debuted with a comic book in 1947,
“New Treasure Island”, an Akahon
»Akahon was a niche industry that provided
entertainment to the poor children of post-war Japan.
New Treasure Island sold an unprecedented 400,000
copies, changing the face of manga forever.
»In 1963, Tetsuwan Atomu (the Japanese name for
Astroboy, means “Mighty Atom”) came out as a
television series. This was the first anime.
Astroboy was a robot that wished to be a real boy.
»Next hit anime to come down the pike was Speed
Racer In 1967.
»Hi No Tori (Bird of Fire) was Tezuka’s greatest work,
(not Astroboy) in America known as Phoenix 2772.
»Because Tezuka animated for Disney and was
influenced by their animation and that of Max Fleischer.
»Tezuka’s design was reminiscent of the Disney style
of that era, but the nose was made smaller and the
eyes slightly bigger, to show more emotion.
»After Astroboy’s success, other artists began drawing
anime to suit their own ideas of this up and coming art
»(3 November 1928 – 9 February 1989) was a
Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, animator, film
producer, medical doctor and activist. Born in Osaka
Prefecture, he is best known as the creator of the
manga series Astro Boy, Kimba the White Lion, Black
Jack, and Phoenix. His prolific output, pioneering
techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres
earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the
godfather of manga" . Additionally, he is often
considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney,
who served as a major inspiration during Tezuka's
Shin Takarajima (新宝島), "New Treasure
Island") is a Japanese manga by Osamu
Tezuka that was serialized in 1947. It is the
first of Tezuka's manga to be published in
tankōbon form. The series is based on
Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island.
»The term “manga” came into existence In 1815,
The word "manga" 漫画 consists of 2 kanji or each has
a special meaning:
The first kanji "man" means “in spite of oneself” or
The second, "ga" 画, picture, designates painting,
»Manga, in Japanese, means "flowing words" or
"Undisciplined words". An ancient art has been used for
centuries as a form of entertainment.
»Manga are comics created in Japan or by creators in
the Japanese language, conforming to a style
developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
»Anime is Japanese hand-drawn or computer
animation. The word is the abbreviated pronunciation
of "animation" in Japanese, where this term references
to all animation.
»Outside Japan, anime is used to refer specifically to
animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated
animation style often characterized by colorful
graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes.
»The manga artist or the author of the manga
»is a Japanese term for people with obsessive
interests, commonly the anime and manga fandom.
»Manga have an unique Japanese drawing style.
»Manga come in all types, for all sorts of people.
»Manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size
»Manga are written from top to bottom, and from right
The difference between
Japanese Manga & American comics
American Comics Japanese Manga
Language In English In Japanese
- front to back
- panels left to right
- back to front
- panels right to left
Colors different colors usually black and white
Words a lot of dialogue fewer words
Drawings elaborate/complicated simpler
Stories shorter longer
- not in magazines
- in paperback or hardback
- in magazines
- in paperback
»This word means child.
»This genre of mangas target a young audience from 6
to 11 years old. The main function of the kodomo is
entertain the children (girl and boy). The success of
some of them, like Pokémon, widens their audience.
»Most of the Japanese comics are for boys, about 11 to
17 years old.
»It encourages the adolescent to develop positive
energies: courage, perseverance, friendship or self-
»Most stories highlight a youthful hero to whom the
reader identifies easily, but he also possesses a hidden
talent that will allow him to surpass himself and
accomplish great things. The reader is immediately
immersed in the action. The authors often opt for a
layout that exalts the prowess of their characters.
»This term means girl. The shojo is aimed at
schoolgirls, college students, high school students! It is
somehow equivalent to the shonen but intended for a
female audience. The stories deal with varied subjects
such as music, sports, school, and fashion with often
love stories in the background.
»Most of the time they are made by female authors.
»This genre obviously has its own graphic codes: the
characters have long lines with finely detailed faces. It
offers great creativity in layout.
»It is a subset of manga that is generally targeted at a
20–30 year old male audience, but the audience can be
older with some comics aimed at businessmen well
into their 40s. In Japanese, the word Seinen means
"young man" or "young men"
»Adventure stories, sentimental intrigues, thrillers or
chronicles of everyday life, adult mangas address all
themes and registers imaginable. Subjects, universes,
graphics vary, from the most sober realism to the
outrageous, whether comic or dramatic.
». The narratives are for the most part serious, intimate,
or on the contrary epic.
»If this type of manga takes up the themes covered in
the shonens, the plots are more complex and the
characters more subtle and more difficult to pin down
»It is also called "ladies comic".
»The intrigues there are more complex than in the
shojo. Love relationships, seduction and sexual
relations are often the main subjects of these stories,
as are the concerns of modern young women such as
celibacy , work and the ideal partner.
»The word "mecha" is an abbreviation first used in
Japanese of the word "mechanical". In Japanese,
mecha encompasses all mechanical objects, including
cars, guns, computers, and other devices, and the term
"robot" or "giant robot" to distinguish limbed vehicles
from other mechanical devices.
»Mostly it’s a large armored robot, typically controlled
by a person riding inside the robot itself
“Quotations are commonly
printed as a means of
inspiration and to invoke
from the reader”
»Be Yourself because an
Original is worth more than
»If you don't like your destiny,
don't accept it. Instead, have
the courage to change it the
way you want it to be!
»Ichigo! What’s the difference between a king and
his horse? And I’m not talking about obvious stuff,
like one’s an animal and one’s a person or one has
two legs and one has four, form ability and power;
that’s what’s puzzling, if there form, ability and
power are exactly the same, why is it that one
becomes the king and leads them to battle while the
other becomes the horse and carries the king;
so what’s the characteristics that distinguishes
these two beings?
There’s only one answer INSTINCT!”
»We have seen that there is a lot of variety of manga,
most of these kinds allows following a Japanese
throughout his life and helps him to overcome difficult
tests. There is so much kind of manga (we have
detailed here the most known and most widespread of
them). Thanks to this wide range of choices, you will
certainly find your happiness...
»It only remains to define what type of ANIME or
MANGA you want to start.