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Asthma DR.pptx

  1. 1. Asthma By:Reel Esmat
  2. 2. Objactive • Defintion • Type of asthma • Etiology • Pathophyology • Snig and symptom • Clinical manifestaion • Diagnostic studies • Complication • Mangmant • Nursing diagnosis
  3. 3. • A chronic disease in which the bronchial airways in the lungs become narrowed and swollen, making it difficult to breathe
  4. 4. • • The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness
  5. 5. Type of asthma
  6. 6. 'Seasonal' asthma. Occupational asthma Non-allergic asthma 'Exercise-induced' asthma sever asthma
  7. 7. • Allergic asthma Allergic asthma, sometimes called atopic asthma, is asthma triggered by allergens like pollen, pets, and dust mites. About 80% of people with asthma have allergies.
  8. 8. • Seasonal’ asthma Some people have asthma that only flares up at certain times of the year, such as during hay fever season, or when it’s cold.
  9. 9. • Occupational asthma Occupational asthma is asthma caused directly by the work you do. You might have occupational asthma if: your asthma symptoms started as an adult and your asthma symptoms improve on the days you’re not at work.
  10. 10. • Non-allergic asthma Non-allergic asthma, also known as non-atopic asthma, is asthma that isn’t related to an allergy trigger like pollen or dust. It’s less common than allergic asthma. Non-allergic asthma often develops later in life.
  11. 11. • Exercise-induced’ asthma About 90% of people with asthma have tightening of the airways caused by exercise. However, this can also occur in people without asthma.
  12. 12. • Severe asthma About 4% of people with asthma have what’s known as severe asthma. Severe asthma is usually diagnosed and treated in a specialist asthma clinic.
  13. 13. • • Tobacco Smoke. • Dust Mites. • Outdoor Air Pollution. • Pests (e.g., cockroaches, mice) • Pets. • Mold. • Cleaning and Disinfection. • Other Triggers. •
  14. 14. Risk Factors • Age Children >. Adults • • Gender Overall Females> males • Race African American > Caucasian • Ethnicity Hispanic > Non-Hispanic
  15. 15. Snig and symptom
  16. 16. • • wheezing, coughing and chest tightness becoming severe and constant. • • breathless to eat, speak or sleep • • breathing faster. • • fast heartbeat. • • drowsiness, confusion, exhaustion or dizziness. • blue lips or fingers. • fainting
  17. 17. Clinical mainfistation
  18. 18. • The clinical manifestations of asthma include recurrent episodes of wheezing, chest tightness, cough and shortness of breath. The symptoms are often worse at night or on waking from sleep. Usually, they resolve spontaneously or with the inhalation of a reliever medication
  19. 19. Prevention
  20. 20. • How to avoid common asthma triggers • Asthma triggers may be different for everyone. Learning how to avoid them can prevent asthma attacks. • • Here are some things you can do to avoid the most common triggers of asthma:
  21. 21. • Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke • Wear a mask when painting, doing construction work or yard work • Get your flu shot • Use HEPA filters in your vacuum, furnace and air conditioner • Use protective bedding and pillow cases to reduce allergies •
  22. 22. • Keep pets out of your home • Manage stress levels to avoid panic attacks • See a specialist to identify allergies and learn how to avoid them • Stay on your prescribed maintenance medicine
  23. 23. Diagnostic stuides
  24. 24. • FeNO test – you breathe into a machine that measures the level of nitric oxide in your breath, which is a sign of inflammation in your lungs • spirometry – you blow into a machine that measures how fast you can breathe out and how much air you can hold in your lungs
  25. 25. • After you're diagnosed with asthma, you may also have a chest X-ray or allergy tests to see if your symptoms might be triggered by an allergy.
  26. 26. Compelication
  27. 27. • Asthma complications include: Signs and symptoms that interfere with sleep, work and other activities. Sick days from work or school during asthma flare- ups • . A permanent narrowing of the tubes that carry air to and from your lungs (bronchial tubes), which affects how well you can breathe
  28. 28. Mangmant
  29. 29. • • Identify and minimize contact with asthma triggers. • Understand and take medications as prescribed. • Monitor asthma to recognize signs when it is getting worse. • Know what to do when asthma gets worse
  30. 30. Treatment
  31. 31. Long-term asthma control medications • Inhaled corticosteroids • Leukotriene modifiers • Long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) • Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) • Combination inhalers • Theophylline
  32. 32. Quick-relief medications (rescue medications) • Short-acting beta agonists such as albuterol • Ipratropium (Atrovent HFA) • Oral corticosteroids (for severe asthma attacks)
  33. 33. Medications for allergy-induced asthma • Allergy shots (immunotherapy) • Under-the-tongue (sublingual) immunotherapy tablets • Allergy medications
  34. 34. Nursing diagnosis
  35. 35. Ineffective Breathing Pattern • Encourage the client to use breathing exercises • Promote weight reduction for the client experiencing obesity. • Educate about environmental control and allergen avoidance • Avoid smoking and secondhand smoke. • Administer medications for asthma
  36. 36. Anxiety • Provide comfort measures. • Explain every procedure to the client simply and concisely. • Encourage the use of relaxation techniques