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DIABETES MELLITUS
By:
Outline
• Introduction
• Causes
• Types
• Diagnosis
• Summary
• References
Introduction
• Is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, protein, and fat
metabolism resulting from insulin deficiency or
abnormality in the use of insulin and characterized by
high levels of sugar(glucose) in the blood
Causes
• Immune system attacks and destroys beta cells in the
pancreas.
• Pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the cells of the
body become resistant to insulin.
Types
• There are 4 major types of diabetes:
• 1) Type 1 Diabetes
• 2)Type 2 Diabetes
• 3) Gestational Diabetes
• 4) Pre-diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
• Usually diagnosed in childhood
• Affected by hereditary
• Sometimes there are no symptoms
• Imperative to inject insulin daily because the body
makes little or no insulin
• frequently called the ‘insulin-dependent’ group
• Patients with type 1 diabetes need insulin daily to
survive
Type 2 Diabetes
• Most common
• Usually occurs in adulthood but diagnosis is increasing in
the younger generation
• Affects many children
• Body is incapable of responding to insulin
• Rates rising due to increased obesity and failure to
exercise and eat healthy
Gestational Diabetes
• Blood sugar levels are high during pregnancy in women
• Women who give birth to children over 9 lbs.
• High risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
Diagnosis
• 1) FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose Test)
• 2) OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)
• 3) Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c)
CPG <200 mg/dL
FPG <100 mg/dL
OGTT <140 mg/dL
HbA1c <5.7%
Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
• Patient must fast for eight hours, this is measured in
mg/dL
• Blood glucose range for pre-diabetics will be in the 100-
125 mg/dL range.
• Type 2 diabetes will have blood sugar results in the
range of 126 mg/dL and above
• These levels can increase the risk of heart disease and
stroke
Glycosylated Hemoglobin
• Measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin in blood.
Glycated hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells
that is formed when blood sugar (glucose) attaches to
hemoglobin.
Summary
• Diabetes can be referred to as a chronic disease
characterized by high levels of sugar(glucose) in the
blood
• Treatable, but not curable.
• Preventable in obesity, adult client.
• Controllable- DIET and EXERCISE
• Diagnostic Tests by Signs and symptoms
• Nursing implications ,monitoring, teaching and assessing
for complications.
References
• Lu H, Hu F, Zeng Y, Zou L, Luo S, Sun Y, et al. Ketosis onset type 2 diabetes had better islet
beta-cell function and more serious insulin resistance. Journal of Diabetes
Research. 2014;2014:510643
• "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". WHO. October 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August
2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
• Gavin III Jr, Alberti KGMM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, Drash A, Gabbe SG, et al. Report of
the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes
Care. 2000;23(1 Suppl):S4–20.
• Levetan C, Want LL, Weyer C, Strobel SA, Crean J, Wang Y, et al. Impact of pramlintide on
glucose fluctuations and postprandial glucose, glucagon, and triglyceride excursions among
patients with type 1 diabetes intensively treated with insulin pumps. Diabetes Care.
2003;26(1):1–8.
• Loveman E, Royle P, Waugh N. Specialist nurses in diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews. 2003;(2) CD003286.
• Lupi I, Raffaelli V, Di CG, Caturegli P, Manetti L, Ciccarone AM, et al. Pituitary autoimmunity
in patients with diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. Journal of
Endocrinological Investigation. 2013;36(2):127–131.
• Lustman PJ, Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, de Groot M, Carney RM, Clouse RE. Depression and
poor glycemic control: a meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes
Care. 2000;23(7):934–942
• Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression
in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(6):1069–1078.
Thank You

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DIABETES MELLITUS.pptx

  • 2. Outline • Introduction • Causes • Types • Diagnosis • Summary • References
  • 3. Introduction • Is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism resulting from insulin deficiency or abnormality in the use of insulin and characterized by high levels of sugar(glucose) in the blood
  • 4. Causes • Immune system attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas. • Pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the cells of the body become resistant to insulin.
  • 5. Types • There are 4 major types of diabetes: • 1) Type 1 Diabetes • 2)Type 2 Diabetes • 3) Gestational Diabetes • 4) Pre-diabetes
  • 6. Type 1 Diabetes • Usually diagnosed in childhood • Affected by hereditary • Sometimes there are no symptoms • Imperative to inject insulin daily because the body makes little or no insulin • frequently called the ‘insulin-dependent’ group • Patients with type 1 diabetes need insulin daily to survive
  • 7. Type 2 Diabetes • Most common • Usually occurs in adulthood but diagnosis is increasing in the younger generation • Affects many children • Body is incapable of responding to insulin • Rates rising due to increased obesity and failure to exercise and eat healthy
  • 8. Gestational Diabetes • Blood sugar levels are high during pregnancy in women • Women who give birth to children over 9 lbs. • High risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • 9. Diagnosis • 1) FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose Test) • 2) OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) • 3) Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) CPG <200 mg/dL FPG <100 mg/dL OGTT <140 mg/dL HbA1c <5.7%
  • 10. Fasting Plasma Glucose Test • Patient must fast for eight hours, this is measured in mg/dL • Blood glucose range for pre-diabetics will be in the 100- 125 mg/dL range. • Type 2 diabetes will have blood sugar results in the range of 126 mg/dL and above • These levels can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke
  • 11. Glycosylated Hemoglobin • Measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin in blood. Glycated hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells that is formed when blood sugar (glucose) attaches to hemoglobin.
  • 12. Summary • Diabetes can be referred to as a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar(glucose) in the blood • Treatable, but not curable. • Preventable in obesity, adult client. • Controllable- DIET and EXERCISE • Diagnostic Tests by Signs and symptoms • Nursing implications ,monitoring, teaching and assessing for complications.
  • 13. References • Lu H, Hu F, Zeng Y, Zou L, Luo S, Sun Y, et al. Ketosis onset type 2 diabetes had better islet beta-cell function and more serious insulin resistance. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2014;2014:510643 • "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". WHO. October 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014. • Gavin III Jr, Alberti KGMM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, Drash A, Gabbe SG, et al. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(1 Suppl):S4–20. • Levetan C, Want LL, Weyer C, Strobel SA, Crean J, Wang Y, et al. Impact of pramlintide on glucose fluctuations and postprandial glucose, glucagon, and triglyceride excursions among patients with type 1 diabetes intensively treated with insulin pumps. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):1–8. • Loveman E, Royle P, Waugh N. Specialist nurses in diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003;(2) CD003286. • Lupi I, Raffaelli V, Di CG, Caturegli P, Manetti L, Ciccarone AM, et al. Pituitary autoimmunity in patients with diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2013;36(2):127–131. • Lustman PJ, Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, de Groot M, Carney RM, Clouse RE. Depression and poor glycemic control: a meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(7):934–942 • Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(6):1069–1078.