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Skeletalmuscles.pptx

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Skeletalmuscles.pptx

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Human hehehrhjjdjyldyodyldyodtisydgxgxtddydtskstdoydoydotdoydkydlyddydydylyoyddkrs is a good twits do d d sytkyxx up with a different one who is really well and has an easy to use for her and a very well done and a very useful one and a good friend of mine who is very keen to help me in a better way in the meantime I will have her own a home and will home next weekend with her and her husband in the afternoon and Sunday afternoon for a dinner few days back and y a few beers and some of the other people we had were a bit more relaxed than we were and the fact we had a birthday party on Friday evening at least a few couple drinks with the kids but we did a few friends with her friends last night as they all were friends with her friends and family who friends and friends who were friends and loved friends with their parents who are in really great good school with their children in school who are in school now with their children so we can get a little bit out of her right away from but she has

Human hehehrhjjdjyldyodyldyodtisydgxgxtddydtskstdoydoydotdoydkydlyddydydylyoyddkrs is a good twits do d d sytkyxx up with a different one who is really well and has an easy to use for her and a very well done and a very useful one and a good friend of mine who is very keen to help me in a better way in the meantime I will have her own a home and will home next weekend with her and her husband in the afternoon and Sunday afternoon for a dinner few days back and y a few beers and some of the other people we had were a bit more relaxed than we were and the fact we had a birthday party on Friday evening at least a few couple drinks with the kids but we did a few friends with her friends last night as they all were friends with her friends and family who friends and friends who were friends and loved friends with their parents who are in really great good school with their children in school who are in school now with their children so we can get a little bit out of her right away from but she has

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Skeletalmuscles.pptx

  1. 1. 1) Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different muscle tissues 2) Discuss the organization of skeletal muscle 3) Explain the micro-anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber 4) Describe the fascicle arrangement in different types of muscle 5) Review general muscle terminology Ch 9: Skeletal Muscle Tissue and Organization main objectives:
  2. 2. Muscle tissue vs. Muscle as an organ One of the 4 primary tissue types How many subtypes? Made up of _____ tissue types. > 700 skeletal muscles Word roots: sarco mys
  3. 3. Function of Skeletal Muscles 1. Skeletal movement 2. Posture and body position 3. Support of soft tissues 4. Guarding of entrances & exits 5. Maintenance of body temperature
  4. 4. Gross Anatomy Each skeletal muscle is wrapped by 3 concentric layers of connective tissue.
  5. 5. Epi-, Peri-, and Endomysium Are interwoven - Go over into tendon Distinguish between: Tendon Aponeurosis Ligament Function: Protection Blood supply Innervation Fig 9-1
  6. 6. Nerve and Blood Vessel Supply Skeletal muscles are rich in nerves and blood vessels Chemical communication at Synapsis (neuromuscular junction) Synaptic terminal of axon meets motor end plate of muscle cell Coiled capillaries are able to adapt to changes in length of muscle fiber Fig 9-2
  7. 7. Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Some vocabulary: Skeletal muscle fiber or myofiber Sarcolemma Sarcoplasm Sarcoplasmic reticulum Myofibril Myofilaments Fig 9-3
  8. 8. Myofiber ( 100µm) Myofibrils ( 1-2 µm) Myofilaments Actin & Myosin Myofilaments
  9. 9. Sarcomeres Thick and Thin Filaments are organized in repeating functional units = ______ Each myofibril has linear arrangement of ~ 10,000 sarcomers Banded appearance (striation) due to arrangement of thick and thin filaments Interaction of thick and thin filaments responsible for skeletal muscle fiber contraction
  10. 10. Sarcomere Structure Z - line A- band = dArk band I - band = LIght band
  11. 11. Thin Filament: Actin F-actin G-actin
  12. 12. Thick Filament: Myosin
  13. 13. Some Myoblasts do not fuse satelite cells in endomysium regeneration of muscle Development of Myofibers from Myoblasts
  14. 14. Motor Units = All muscle fibers that are controlled by a single motor neuron The lower the ratio of muscle fibers to neurons, the more precise the movement can be! Few cases 1: 1 relationship. Where? Most cases: many muscle fibers (up to 2,000) : 1 motor neuron. Where? Fig 9-12
  15. 15. Muscle Control Muscle tone = Resting tension of skeletal muscles (continuous contraction of some motor units to maintain some muscle tension) Recruitment or Multiple motor unit summation Maximal tension production: ?
  16. 16. Muscle Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy Hypertrophy due to anaerobic exercise Leads to increased muscle size - how? Atrophy if supply of myofilaments exceeds demand. Muscle fibers become smaller and weaker. Eventual death of muscle fibers is irreversible! Importance of Physical Therapy
  17. 17. Three Types of Muscle Fibers 1) Fast (or White) Fibers Fast contraction after nervous stimulation Large diameter large glycogen reserve few mitochondria densely packed myofibrils Fatigue fast due to mainly anaerobic respiration
  18. 18. 2) Slow (or Red) Fibers Slower but continuous contraction for extended periods Smaller diameter (~ half) contain myoglobin more capillaries more mitochondria Do not fatigue as fast due to ? Fig 9-13
  19. 19. 3) Intermediate Fibers Have attributes inbetween fast and slow types Most skeletal muscles contain mixture of fiber types. Proportion of fast to slow depends on ___________? One motor unit only contains one fiber type Eye, hand: ____ fibers dominate Back, calf: ____ fibers dominate
  20. 20. Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Effect of individual muscle contraction determined by: 1. arrangement of muscle fibers 2. way of attachment to skeletal system Bundles of muscle fibers = Muscle fibers within 1 fascicle are parallel 4 types of fascicle organization
  21. 21. Parallel Muscels Majority Spindle shaped with cord-like tendons Some flat bands with broad _____ on each end Examples: ?
  22. 22. Convergent muscels Broad origin, pointed insertion Direction of pull can be varied: versatility!! Example
  23. 23. Pennate Muscles: Unipennate One or more tendons run though muscle body Fascicles in oblique angle to tendon Can generate more tension Example
  24. 24. Pennate Muscles: Bipennate & Multipennate Example Example
  25. 25. Circular Muscles = Sphincters Concentric fibers adjust opening Examples: orbicularis occuli and oris
  26. 26. Muscle Terminology Origin stationary Insertion moves Possible: multiple origins
  27. 27. Types of Actions  flexion, extension  adduction, abduction  elevation, depression  rotation, circumduction  pronation, supination etc. . . . .
  28. 28. Grouping of Muscles according to Primary Action Agonist = Prime Mover Antagonist (action opposes agonist) Synergists = Assistants of prime mover
  29. 29. Naming of skeletal Muscles Orientation of fibers Size & shape Location Action Origin & / or insertion Specific features Use muscle name to help identify its location, appearance and function!

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