VS.
Abd El-Rahman Hosny Alaa Attyea M.
Agenda
- Previous State of Affairs.
- Introduction to Java
• Compilers vs. Interpreters.
• Platform-Dependency.
• Hybrid C...
 Punched Cards
- Piece of paper, that contains digital information.
- Information is represented by the presence or absen...
Previous State of Affairs ..
 Assembly Programming
- More readable for programmers.
- Consists of machine instructions.
-...
Previous State of Affairs ..
Previous State of Affairs ..
 C/Windows API
- To develop software for Windows operating systems, we use
C programming lan...
Previous State of Affairs ..
 C++/MFC
- Object-oriented layer on top of C.
- Benefits of OOP (Encapsulation, Inheritance,...
Previous State of Affairs ..
 Visual Basic 6.0
- Programmer is now able to build complex user interfaces and
code librari...
Previous State of Affairs ..
 COM
- Stands for Component Object Model.
- Microsoft’s previous application development fra...
The Move ...
What is a program & how it runs ?!
Source code and native bits:
- Source code a series of related commands of specific pr...
Compilers Vs interpreters :
- Compilers and interpreters and some software that acts as
a translator between you (high le...
What is interpreter ?!
- Interpreters doesn’t behave like compilers.
- It do not translate any programming commands, it t...
Platform dependent problem:
- As there are different computer architectures there must exist different
compilers to trans...
Hybrid Compiler-interpreter:
Java solution and the power of Java:
- Java has the same solution about that issue.
- After we have written our source co...
Java components:
- The first step to write a java program and run it is to set up something called
JDK (Java Development ...
- After the programmer have written the source code, he’ll use the javac to
compile the (.java file)
- Then the javac will...
- It is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that java application uses at run time.
Java Class Library
JCL serves three purposes within the Java Platform:
- They provide the programmer a well-known set of useful facilities.
...
 JIT:
- Java uses different ways to generate machine the machine code.
- There is a way to produce efficient machine code...
Java Garbage collector:
- Objects are created in the heap.
- Garbage collector looks for those objects that are not refer...
- Interoperability with existing source code.
- Support for many programming language.
- Common run-time engine shared by ...
.NET Building Blocks
CLR
Common Language
Runtime
CTS
Common Type System
CLS
Common Language
Specification
 CTS (Common Type System)
- CTS Specification fully describes all possible data types and programming
constructs supporte...
 CLS (Common Language Specification)
- CLS is a set of rules that describes, in detail, the minimal and complete set
of f...
 CLR (Common Language Runtime)
- The CLR locate, load and manage .NET types on your behalf.
- Memory Management (Garbage ...
 CLR (Common Language Runtime) .. cont.
- When an assembly is referenced for use, mscore.dll is loaded automatically, whi...
- In addition to CLR and CTS/CLS specifications, the .NET platform provides a base
class library that is available to all ...
- CIL: the same as Java bytecode, it’ not compiled into platform specific instructions
until absolutely necessary.
- You c...
- Metadata
describes, in detail, the characteristics of every type within the
binary.
- Manifest:
The current version of t...
- Applications running in a managed environment tend to require more system resources
than similar applications that acces...
AbdelrahmanHosny.com
AlaaAttya.wordpress.com
A Comparison of .NET Framework vs. Java Virtual Machine
A Comparison of .NET Framework vs. Java Virtual Machine
A Comparison of .NET Framework vs. Java Virtual Machine
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A Comparison of .NET Framework vs. Java Virtual Machine

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For developers who love to code. Compare between .NET folks and Java geeks. We are discussing what each platform present with pros and cons of each.

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A Comparison of .NET Framework vs. Java Virtual Machine

  1. 1. VS. Abd El-Rahman Hosny Alaa Attyea M.
  2. 2. Agenda - Previous State of Affairs. - Introduction to Java • Compilers vs. Interpreters. • Platform-Dependency. • Hybrid Compiler-Interpreter. • Java Components (JDK). • JIT Solution. - The .NET Solution • CLR, CTS and CLS. • Base Class Library. • .NET Sons. - What’s Next?!
  3. 3.  Punched Cards - Piece of paper, that contains digital information. - Information is represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Previous State of Affairs ..
  4. 4. Previous State of Affairs ..  Assembly Programming - More readable for programmers. - Consists of machine instructions. - Each computer architecture has its own assembly commands. - Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC). - Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC). - Using assembler: assembly code => executable machine code. - However, still a low-level programming language. - High-level assembler for assembly languages that have some high-level programming features.
  5. 5. Previous State of Affairs ..
  6. 6. Previous State of Affairs ..  C/Windows API - To develop software for Windows operating systems, we use C programming language with the Windows application programming interface (API). - Large number of applications already created with this approach. - However … Manual memory management. Ugly pointer arithmetic. Spaghetti code (thousands of functions & data types).
  7. 7. Previous State of Affairs ..  C++/MFC - Object-oriented layer on top of C. - Benefits of OOP (Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism) - Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) are set of C++ classes that facilitate building Windows applications. - MFC hade the underlying Windows API and provide classes, macros and code generation tools (wizards). - However … Backward compatibility with C makes it prone to the same problems (memory management, pointers, constructs).
  8. 8. Previous State of Affairs ..  Visual Basic 6.0 - Programmer is now able to build complex user interfaces and code libraries. - Can access databases easily. - Hide Windows API by using code wizards, VB data types, classes and VB-specific functions. - However … Not fully OO (rather it’s object-based). No is-a relationship (No inheritance). No Multi-threaded applications (actually we can use lower level APIs.
  9. 9. Previous State of Affairs ..  COM - Stands for Component Object Model. - Microsoft’s previous application development framework. - “If you build your types in accordance with the rules of COM, you end up with a block of reusable binary code”. - Language-Independent. - ATL ( Active Template Library) provides a set of C++ classes, templates & macros. - However … Complex Data Type representation
  10. 10. The Move ...
  11. 11. What is a program & how it runs ?! Source code and native bits: - Source code a series of related commands of specific programming languages. - Actually source code is not what runs on our machines. - Machines knows only it’s native language (0s&1s). - Source code must be translated in some way to the machine native language.
  12. 12. Compilers Vs interpreters : - Compilers and interpreters and some software that acts as a translator between you (high level language) and the machine (low level language). - Actually compilers and interpreters are totally different in the ways how they treat your code. - Let’s take a look about how they are working.
  13. 13. What is interpreter ?! - Interpreters doesn’t behave like compilers. - It do not translate any programming commands, it takes the code and executes it line by line. - Examples for interpreted languages PHP, haskell, aslo shell command in linux are interpreted.
  14. 14. Platform dependent problem: - As there are different computer architectures there must exist different compilers to translate the code. - Here w have the platform dependent problem. - However … There another solution for that problem called, hybrid compiler- interpreter. - In this case first there will be intermediate code, which will run over the interpreter and we’ll get the result.
  15. 15. Hybrid Compiler-interpreter:
  16. 16. Java solution and the power of Java: - Java has the same solution about that issue. - After we have written our source code, when we compile it using the javac command, it will generate the intermediate code or what is called byte code. - This will be at the form of (.class) file. - JRE can be responsible for running and executing the .class file over the machine.
  17. 17. Java components: - The first step to write a java program and run it is to set up something called JDK (Java Development Kit). - This includes three main component for java • JRE (JVM is a part of it). • Java compiler (javac). • Java debugger. - With the help of these component you can run your code wherever and whatever the architecture or platform of your machine.
  18. 18. - After the programmer have written the source code, he’ll use the javac to compile the (.java file) - Then the javac will create an intermediate code that is known as (.class file) or byte code. - This byte code can run over any JVM regardless of the machine architecture or platform. How the Java Program Runs ?
  19. 19. - It is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that java application uses at run time. Java Class Library
  20. 20. JCL serves three purposes within the Java Platform: - They provide the programmer a well-known set of useful facilities. - Provides an abstract interface to tasks that would normally depend heavily on the hardware and operating system, such as network access and file access. - Some underlying platforms may not support all of the features a Java application expects. In these cases, the library implementation can either emulate those features or provide a consistent way to check for the presence of a specific feature.
  21. 21.  JIT: - Java uses different ways to generate machine the machine code. - There is a way to produce efficient machine code called JIT (Just In Time compilation). - JIT compilers promise to improve the performance of Java applications. - Rather than letting the JVM run bytecode, a JIT compiler translates code into the host machine’s native language. - Thus, applications get the performance enhancement of compiled code while maintaining Java’s portability.
  22. 22. Java Garbage collector: - Objects are created in the heap. - Garbage collector looks for those objects that are not referencing and memory location and reclaim the heap from those objects. - Garbage Collection in Java is carried by a daemon thread called Garbage Collector.
  23. 23. - Interoperability with existing source code. - Support for many programming language. - Common run-time engine shared by all .NET-aware languages. - Complete and total language integration. - Comprehensive base class libraries. - No COM. - Simplified deployment model. The .NET Solution
  24. 24. .NET Building Blocks CLR Common Language Runtime CTS Common Type System CLS Common Language Specification
  25. 25.  CTS (Common Type System) - CTS Specification fully describes all possible data types and programming constructs supported by the run-time. - CTS specifies how these entities can interact with each other and how they are represented in the .NET metadata format. - Some .NET language might not support every feature defined by the CTS.
  26. 26.  CLS (Common Language Specification) - CLS is a set of rules that describes, in detail, the minimal and complete set of features a given .NET-aware compiler must support to produce code that can be hosted by the CLR, while at the same time can be accessed in a uniform manner by all languages that the .NET platform support. - CLS is a subset of the full functionality of CTS.
  27. 27.  CLR (Common Language Runtime) - The CLR locate, load and manage .NET types on your behalf. - Memory Management (Garbage Collector). - Application Hosting. - Handling Threads. - Security Checks.
  28. 28.  CLR (Common Language Runtime) .. cont. - When an assembly is referenced for use, mscore.dll is loaded automatically, which loads the required assembly in turn. (MS Common Object Runtime Execution Engine). - Creating the required custom types. - The key assembly is the mscore.dll, which contains a large number of types, that encapsulate a wide variety of common programming tasks as well as the core data types used by all .NET languages.
  29. 29. - In addition to CLR and CTS/CLS specifications, the .NET platform provides a base class library that is available to all .NET programming languages Base Class Library
  30. 30. - CIL: the same as Java bytecode, it’ not compiled into platform specific instructions until absolutely necessary. - You can view the CIL code of any assembly using either: ildasm.exe or using Reflector.
  31. 31. - Metadata describes, in detail, the characteristics of every type within the binary. - Manifest: The current version of the assembly. Culture information (localizing string & image resources). List of externally referenced assemblies that are required for the proper execution of the program.  Single-File assembly vs. Multi-File assembly.
  32. 32. - Applications running in a managed environment tend to require more system resources than similar applications that access machine resources more directly - Managed byte code can often be easier to reverse-engineer than native code. - The .NET Framework currently does not provide support for calling Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) via managed code. - While the standards that make up .NET are inherently cross-platform, Microsoft's full implementation of .NET is only supported on Windows. Criticism
  33. 33. AbdelrahmanHosny.com AlaaAttya.wordpress.com

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