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gynaecology.Ovarian tumours.(dr.salama)


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gynaecology.Ovarian tumours.(dr.salama)

  1. 1. ‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬ Ovarian tumours By Dr. Sallama kamel
  2. 2. :The classification of ovarian cysts and tumours:A.Non-neoplastic functional cysts.Follicular cysts-.Leuteal cysts-.Theca- lutein and granulosa lutein cysts-.Endometriotic cysts-:B.Primary ovarian neoplasms:(Epithelial tumours ( benign, borderline or malignant .1.Serous tumour-.Mucinous tumour--.Endometrioid tumour-.Clear cell ( mesonephroid ( tumour-.(Brenner tumour (benign-.Undifferentiated carcinoma-
  3. 3. :Sex cord stromal tumours.2.(Granulosa cell tumour (malignant-.(Theca cell tumour (benign-.(Fibroma (benign-.Androblastoma: sertoli-leydig cell tumour- Germ cell.3:tumour :a. Benign cystic Teratoma (dermoid cyst( and-.solid teratoma-:b.Malignant.Dysgerminoma-.Malignant change in cystic teratoma-.Malignant solid teratoma-.Non-gestational choriocarcinoma-.(Yolk sac tumour (endodermal sinus tumour-:C. Metastatic tumours
  4. 4. Physiological cystThey are simply large versions of the cysts that-forms in the ovary during the normal ovarian.cycleMost are asymptomatic and found incidentally on-.pelvic examination or ultrasound.They are most common in young women-.They may be a complication of ovarian induction-They also occur in women with trophoblastic-.disease
  5. 5. :Follicular cysts.1it result from the non-rupture of a dominant follicle or the failure of atresia in.a non-dominant follicle.2 :Luteal cysts .Less common than follicular cyst .Are more likely to present with intra-peritoneal bleeding .They may also rupture .This is usually happens on day 20-26 of the cycle.Theca-lutein and granulosa lutein cysts.3 These occurs in association with Hydatidiform moles or-.choriocarcinomaSimilar cysts may formed if excessive doses of gonadotrophins or of- clomiphines are given to induce ovulation causing hyperstimulation.syndrome
  6. 6. Simple follicular cyst
  7. 7. :Epithelial tumours.These tumours arise from the ovarian surface epithelium-So they arise from the Coelomic epithelium overlying the-.embryonic gonadal ridge Since the epithelial covering of the ovary and the mullerian duct ( from which the tubal, endometrial and cervical , epithelium are derived ( are both from coelomic epitheliumcomparable metaplastic transformation into different types of.epithelium is possibleSo the cells may differentiate to endocervical cells giving rise-. tomucinous cystadenomaDifferentiation into endometrial cells give rise to-.Endometrioid tumourserous Differentiation to tubal epithelium give rise to-.cystadenomaBrenner Differentiation along uro-epithelium give rise to-.tumour.They are most common in women over 40 years old
  8. 8. :Serous cystadenoma.1These are the most common epithelial tumours-with a range from benign to the highly. malignant.benign serous cyst The benign form are called-It is unilocular cyst with papilliferous processes on-the inner surface and occasionally on the outer.surfaceThe lining epithelium is cuboidal or columnar and-.may be ciliated.The cyst contain thin serous fluid-They are usually smaller than the mucinous-.tumourThey are often bilateral-They occur most commonly in late reproductive-.and early postmenopausal life
  9. 9. The malignant form called Serous:papilliferous carcinoma.This is the commonest primary ovarian carcinoma-.It is bilateral in 50%--The growth often penetrates the capsule and project on the external surface with dissemination of the cells into the peritoneal cavity giving multiple seedling metastases and ascites.-The cyst contains many papillary processes which have proliferated so much that they almost fill the cavity and there may be exophytic papillary growth on the surface.-The lining cells are multilayer and may invade normal tissues.
  10. 10. Ovarian carcinoma
  11. 11. :Mucinous cystadenoma.2nd . most common epithelial tumourThe 2-They are large, unilateral , multilocular cysts with smooth inner-.surface.The lining epithelium is columnar mucous-secreting cells-.The cyst contain thick glutinous fluid- :(Malignant mucinous cyst (Mucinous carcinoma.Constitute 10% of ovarian cancersOn histological examination, 5% of mucinous cysts found to be- .malignant:Epithelial tumours of borderline malignancymean that the tumour carry some of the features of malignancy) e.g. -.)multilayering of cells and nuclear atypia.But there is no stromal invasion-
  12. 12. Mucinous cystadenoma
  13. 13. :Endometrioid cystadenoma.3.These are very similar to ovarian endometriosis-They may be associated with pelvic pain and- dyspareunia.due to adhesionsBrenner tumour Macroscopically:a Brenner tumour resembles afibroma, being a solid tumour with a white cut.surface Histologically:-It consists of islands of roundtransitional-like epithelium in a dense fibrotic stroma giving a solid
  14. 14. :Germ cell tumoursIt is among the commonest ovarian tumours seen in• •.women of less than 30years oldAmongst women under 20 years ,up to 80% of ovarian●.malignancies are due to germ cell tumours. Overall only 2-3 percent are malignant•These tumours arise from a totipotential germ cell•Thus they contain element of all three germ layer( embryonic•.(differentiation Differentiation into embryonic tissues result in teratoma .(dermoid cyst( Differentiation intoextra-embryonic tissues results in•.ovarian choriocharcinoma or endodermal sinus tumourWhen neither embryonic nor extra-embryonic differentiation•. occurs,dysgerminoma results
  15. 15. (Dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma.This is the commonest germ cell tumour and it is benign-.It results from differentiation into embryonic tissues-.It account for about 40% of all ovarian neoplasm-It is most common in young women and the median age of-.presentation is 30 years oldit contain a variety of tissues derived from the two or more of the-..primary germ layers.The dermoid cyst is usually unillocular cyst-Less than 15cm in diameter-It is often lined by epithelium like the epidermis and contain skin-appendages, teeth , sebaceous material , hair and nervous tissues, .cartilage bone and thyroid tissues.The cavity of the cyst contain yellow greasy material-
  16. 16. Dermoid cysts
  17. 17. The majority of dermoid cysts (60%( are-.asymptomatic.However it may undergo torsion- Less commonly it may rupture-spontaneously, either suddenly causing anacute abdomen and chemical peritonitis,or slowly causing chronic granulomatous.peritonitisDuring pregnancy, rupture is more common-due to external pressure from expanding.gravid uterus or to trauma during delivery
  18. 18. :Malignant germ cell tumoursThese are rare tumours accounting for only 3% of.ovarian cancers:Dysgerminoma.1Yolk sac tumour ( endodermal sinus tumour(..2Secret alpha feto protein:Immature Solid teratoma.3.Non gestational choriocarcinoma: secret HCG.4
  19. 19. :sex cord stromal tumours.These account for only 4% of benign ovarian tumours-They occur at any age from prepubertal children to elderly,-.postmenopausal womenThey secrete hormones and present with the results of-.inappropriate hormone effects.Granulosa cell tumours: secret estrogen.1.Theca cell tumours: also secret estrogen.2- :Fibroma.3Meig‘s syndrome ) ascites , pleural effusion in association with a .fibroma of the ovary( is seen in only 1% of casesSertoli- leydig cell tumours: secret androgens.4
  20. 20. Clinical presentation of ovariantumours.Asymptomatic-.Pain-.Abdominal swelling-.Pressure effects-.Menstrual disturbances-.Hormonal effects-
  21. 21. :Asymptomatic.1Many benign ovarian tumours are found incidentally in the course ofinvestigating another unrelated problem or during a routine.examination :Pain.2 Acute pain from an ovarian tumour may result from-.complication e.g. torsion, rupture, haemorrhage or infection give rise to a sharp, constant pain caused byTorsion-.ischaemia of the cyst and areas may become infarctedHaemorrhage into the cyst may cause pain as the capsule is-.stretchedRupture of the cyst causes intraperitoneal bleeding mimicking-.( ectopic pregnancy (this happens mostly with a luteal cyst
  22. 22. Twisted ovarian cyst
  23. 23. :Abdominal swelling.3Patients seldom note abdominal swelling until the tumour is-. very largeA benign mucinous cyst may occasionally fill the entire-.abdominal cavity .pressure effects .4Gastro-intestinal or urinary symptoms may result from-.pressure of large tumourIn extreme cases, oedema of the legs, varicose veins and-.haemorrhoids may result :menstrual disturbances.5 -Occasionally the patient will complain of menstrual -disturbances but this may coincidence rather than due to.the tumour
  24. 24. : hormonal effects.6rarely Sex cord tumours may present with-oestrogens effects such as precocious puberty,menorrhagia and glandular hyperplasia, breast.enlargement and postmenopausal bleedingSecretion of androgens may cause hirsuitism and-acne initially progressing to frank virilism with.deepening of the voice or clitoral hypertrophy
  25. 25. :Diagnosis:Full history.1 Details of the presenting symptoms and a full gynaecological history- should be obtained with particular reference to the date of the last menstrual period , the regularity of the cycle, any previous pregnancies , contraception, medication and family history.( particularly of ovarian, breast and bowel cancer (:(Examination ( abdominal and pelvic examination.2 If the patient presented with acute abdomen look for evidence of-.hypovolaemiaThe neck , axilla and groins should be examined for-.lymphadenopathy.A malignant ovarian tumour may cause a pleural effusion-.This is much less commonly found with benign tumour-.Also some patient may have ankle oedema- The abdomen should be inspected for distension by fluid (ascites( the tumour itself A male distribution of hair may suggest a rare androgen-producing-
  26. 26. :Bimanual examination.This is an essential part of assessment-.To palpate the mass , its mobility, consistency-Presence of nodules in the pouch of Douglas and-.the degree of tenderness ,A cystic mobile mass is mostly benign-while a hard, irregular fixed mass is likely to be.malignant
  27. 27. :InvestigationsUltrasound.1Trans-abdominal and trans-vaginal ultrasound can-demonstrate the presence of an ovarian mass with.reasonable sensitivity and specificityHowever it can not distinguish reliably between benign and-malignant tumours but solid masses are more likely to be.malignant than the purely cystic massThe use of colour- flow Doppler may increase the reliability of-.ultrasound. can be used but are more expensiveCT scan and MRI-
  28. 28. :Radiological investigations.2A chest X- ray is essential to detect metastatic disease in the-. lungs or a pleural effusionOccasionally an abdominal X-ray may show calcification,-.suggesting the possibility of a benign teratomaA barium enema is indicated only if the mass is irregular or-.fixed, or if there are bowel symptoms:Blood test and serum markers.3Elevated WBC. count may indicate infection-Ca 125-Raised serum Ca125 is strongly suggestive of ovarian .carcinoma, especially in postmenopausal women
  29. 29. level is elevated in women withB-HCG -.choriocarcinoma levels may be elevated in some womenOestradiol-with physiological follicular cysts and sex cord.stromal tumours are increased with Sertoli-lydigAndrogens-.tumoursRaised alpha-fetoprotein levels suggest a yolk sac-.tumour
  30. 30. :Management of benign ovarian tumoursThis will depend upon the.Severity of the symptoms-. Age of the patient-.The risk of malignancy-.Her desire for future pregnancy-:The asymptomatic women:The older womenWomen over 50 years of age are more likely-to have a malignancy so surgery is usually.indicated
  31. 31. :In pre-menopausal womenYoung women of less than 35 years are-both more likely to wish to have furtherchildren and are less likely to have.malignant epithelial tumour A clear unilocular cyst of 3-10 cm identified- by ultrasound should be re- examined after. weeks for evidence of diminution in size 12
  32. 32. If the cysts persists, such women may be followed with a -.six-monthly ultrasound and Ca125 estimationsIf the cyst does enlarge , laparoscopy or laparotomy may be-.indicated for removalA cyst of more than 10 cm is unlikely to be physiological or to..resolve spontaneously and operation indicatedThe use of combined oral contraceptive pills is unlikely to-.accelerate the resolution of a functional cyst:The patient with symptoms If the patient present with severe acute pain or signs of intraperitoneal bleeding an emergency laparoscopy or.laparotomy will be required
  33. 33. :The pregnant patientAn ovarian cyst in pregnant women may undergo torsion or may-.bleedThe pregnant women with an ovarian cyst is a special case because of-.the risk of surgery to the fetusThus if the patient present with acute pain due to torsion or-haemorrhage into an ovarian cyst or if appendicitis is a possibility, the correct course is to undertakea laparotomy regardless the.stage of the pregnancyThe operation should be covered with by tocolytic drugs and-.performed in a center with intensive neonatal carest trimester, itIf asymptomatic cyst is discovered during the 1-is prudent to wait until after 14 weeks‘. gestation before removing it
  34. 34. This avoids the risk of removing a corpus luteal cyst upon-.which the pregnancy might still be dependentnd and 3rd trimesters , the management of anIn the 2-asymptomatic ovarian cyst may be either conservative or.surgicalCysts > 10cm , which have simple appearance on U/S , are-unlikely to be malignant or to result in cyst accident and.may therefore be followed by U/S. Many may resolve spontaneously-If the cyst unresolved 6 weeks postpartum , surgery-.indicated
  35. 35. Malignancy is uncommon in pregnancy occurring in less than- .3% of the cysts However a cyst with a features suggestive of malignancy on-.U/S , or one that is growing, should be removed surgically The tumour marker C 125 is not useful in pregnancy since it-.may be elevated in normal pregnancies:Prepupertal girl.Ovarian cysts are uncommon and often benign-.Teratoma and follicular cysts are the most common-Presentation may be abdominal pain, distension or precocious-.puberty :Management depends on- .relief of symptoms- exclusion of malignancy and-conservation of maximum ovarian tissue without depressing-.fertility
  36. 36. Types of surgery for apparently benign ovarian:tumours:For young women less than 35 years.(Cystectomy ( removal of the cyst only.1Oophorectomy( removal of the ovary with the.2cyst( in case of complicated cyst like torsion withgangrenous ovary or very large cyst with no.remaining ovarian tissuesFor woman more than 45 years with ovarian cystmore than 6cm in diameter it is advisable to dototal abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral.salpingo-oophorectomy
  37. 37. Malignant ovarian tumours:Introductionnd most commonOvarian cancer is the 2-gynecological malignancy and the major.cause of death from a gynecological cancerUnfortunately survival from ovarian cancer-remains poor, due in part to the late.presentation of the disease
  38. 38. .Most ovarian tumours are of epithelial origin-They are rare before the age of 35 years, but the-incidence increases with age to a peak in the.(50-70 years (mean age is 64yearsMost epithelial tumours are not discovered until-.they have spread widelySurgery and chemotherapy forms the main stay of-.treatment.The 5 year survival is less than 25%-Only 3 % of ovarian cancers are seen in women-younger than 35 years and most are non-.epithelial cancers such as germ cell tumours
  39. 39. :IncidenceThe lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer on-.(the general population is 1.4 % (one in 70Ovarian cancers are more prevalent in developed-.nationsThere are variations in incidence with ethnicity,-Caucasian women have the highest incidence (14per 100 000( whereas Asian women have a lower.(incidence (10 per 100 000There is a significant genetic aspect to ovarian-.cancer with earlier presentation at 54 years
  40. 40. :Aetiology and risk factors Epithelial ovarian cancer(EOC( is due to malignant .transformation of the ovarian epithelium There are two main theories regarding this :malignant transformation .1Incessant ovulation theory: Continuous ovulation causing repeated trauma to the ovarian epithelium leading to genetic mutation and development of .cancer This theory is supported by an increased incidence of EOC in- nulliparous women, women with early menarche or late menopause and reduced incidence in multiparous women and women used- oral contraceptive pills
  41. 41. .(Etiology and risk factors(cont:Excess gonadotrophin secretion.2This promotes higher levels of oestrogen which inturn leads to epithelial proliferation and malignant.transformation of the ovarian epithelium
  42. 42. :(Aetiology and risk factors (summeryIncreased risk.Nulliparity.1Early menarche and Late menopause , both of these are.2 associated .with long estimated numbers of years of ovulation.increasing age at first birth.3.The prolonged use of drugs for induction of ovulation.4Obesity, endometriosis and the use of IUCD .5:reduced risk.Multiparity.1.Breast feeding reduce the risk.2Oral contraceptive use reduces the risk by 20% after.3 -.5years of useTubal ligation and hysterectomy.4 -
  43. 43. Genetic factors in ovarian cancerIt is estimated that at least 10-15% of ovarian cancer have a-.genetic linkThere are now at least 3 forms of hereditary EOC(BRCA1,.(BRCA2 and Lynch syndromeA woman with one affected close relative has risk of 5%-..With two affected close relatives the risk increase to 40-50%Hereditary cancers usually occur around 10 years before-.sporadic cancers and are associated with other cancersThe most common hereditary cancer is the breast ovarian-cancer syndrome (BRCA( which are two types BRCA1 (80%(.(% and BRCA2 (15And lynch syndrome which is colorectal cancer, endometrial-.cancer and 10% risk of ovarian cancer
  44. 44. Management of women with family historyof ovarian cancerThis depend on the women‘s age, reproductive plane and-.individual riskWomen with strong family history should be referred to-.clinical genetics for assessment of the family treeIf this suggest a hereditary cancer , testing for BRCA1 and-.BRCA2 may be offeredScreening with yearly TVUS and CA 125 is offered to women-.aged 35 and overProphylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy has a role in-patient who are found to be carrying a gene mutation and.have completed her family
  45. 45. :( Staging of ovarian cancer (FIGO stagingThe staging of ovarian cancer is a clinical stagingStage 1 .growth limited to the ovariesIa .growth limited to one ovary.No ascites, no tumour on external surfaces ; capsule intact.Ib tumour limited to both ovaries.No ascites, no tumour on external surfaces; capsule intactIc either stage 1a or 1b with ascites contain malignant cells or.tumour on the surface of one or both ovariesStage II.: growth involving one or both ovaries with pelvic extensionStage III: growth involving one or both ovaries with peritonealimplants outside the pelvis or positive retroperitoneal or inguinallymph nodes or superficial liver metastasisStage IV : growth involving one or both ovaries with distant.metastasis, parenchymal liver metastasis equal stage 1V
  46. 46. Stage III OVARIAN CANCER:Stage III aTumours grossly limited to pelvis with negative nodes but.histologically confirmed peritoneal implants:Stage III b. Abdominal implants ˂ 2cm. In:Stage III c Abdominal implantretroperitoneal or inguinal lymph nodes
  47. 47. :Spread of ovarian malignancies usually to the pelvic peritoneum and otherdirect spread: -.( pelvic organs ( uterus and broad ligament commonly involves the pelvic and the para-Lymphatic spread-.aortic nodesSpread may also involves the nodes of the neck or inguinal .region Haematogenous spread-.usually occurs late and involves mainly the liver, and lung-.Bone and brain metastasis sometimes seen-
  48. 48. :Presentation and diagnosisVague abdominal pain or discomfort is the commonest presenting -.complaint.Distension or feeling a lump is the next most frequent-:The patient may complain of-.Indigestion* .Urinary frequency*.Weight loss*.Or rarely abnormal menses or postmenopausal bleeding-A hard abdominal mass arising from the pelvis is highly suggestive.especially with ascites A fixed, hard, irregular pelvic mass is usually felt best by combined-.vaginal and rectal examination.The neck and groin should also be examined for enlarged nodes
  49. 49. :Investigations.full blood count.1.Urea, electrolyte and liver function test.2.Chest x-ray.3Sometimes, barium enema and colonoscopy is needed to.4differentiate between an ovarian and a colonic tumour or to assess.bowel involvement.(IVP (intravenous urography.5Ultrasonography may help to confirm the presence of a pelvic .mass.6.and detect ascites.Tumour markers e.g. Ca 125.7In most women the diagnosis is uncertain before laparotomy is.8.undertaken
  50. 50. :SurgerySurgery is the mainstay of both the diagnosis and the treatment of-.ovarian cancerA vertical incision is required for an adequate exploration of the-.upper abdomenA sample of ascitic fluid or peritoneal washings with normal saline-.should be taken for cytologyThe pelvis and upper abdomen are explored carefully to identify-.metastatic diseaseThe therapeutic objective of surgery for ovarian cancer is the-.removal of all tumour tissuesThis is usually possible in the majority of stage I and stage II, but-.impossible in advanced cases
  51. 51. To resect all visible tumour requires a totalhysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and.infra-colic omentectomyHowever , in a young , nulliparous woman with unilateral-tumour and no ascites ( stage Ia (, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be done after careful exploration toexclude metastatic disease , and curettage of the uterine.cavity to exclude a synchronous endometrial tumourIf the is subsequently found to be poorly differentiated or if-the washings are positive, a second operation to clear the.pelvis will be necessary
  52. 52. For older women who complete her family a total-hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-.oophorectomy is usually done:Chemotherapy Women with stage Ia or Ib and well or moderately-differentiated tumours will not require further.treatmentAll other patient with invasive ovarian carcinoma- require chemotherapy (stage II-IV–possibly.( stage Ic .Drugs used are Carboplatin, cisplatin and taxol-
  53. 53. :Prognosis:Borderline tumour.Long term prognosis excellent in most cases.Invasive tumours- 5 year survival ratesfor Stage Ia and 1b ) well or moderately 90%- -.) differentiated.for stage III % 30-.overall 25%-
  54. 54. THANK YOU