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  1. 1. Oxygen therapyOxygen therapy administered as increased inhaled concentration of oxygen is indicated for a PaO2 lower than 60 mmHg.Supplemental inspired oxygen is often routinely provided in the post operative period regardless of the duration or type of surgery.
  2. 2. In the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with carbon dioxide retention, graded doses of supplemental oxygen administered via an air entrainment (Venturi) mask increase the patient’s PaO2 to acceptable level
  3. 3. Nasal CannulaSupplemental oxygen can be administered through a nasal cannula with minimal patient discomfort.A nasal cannula incorporates two prongs that extend about 1 cm into the patient’s nares and is held in place by an adjustable elastic head strap
  4. 4. Inspired oxygen concentrations achieved with nasal cannula depends on:1. The flow rate of oxygen through the flow meter (L/min)2. Patient’s tidal volume3. breathing frequency4. Volume of nasopharynx
  5. 5. Oxygen flow rate 6L/min gives inhaled oxygen concentrations about 44%Excessive flow rates of oxygen may result in air swallowing and gastric distension without increasing inhaled oxygen concentrationMouth breathing does not decrease the effectiveness of oxygen therapy delivered by nasal cannula because inspiratory airflow through the posterior pharynx entrains oxygen from the nose
  6. 6. Face MaskFace masks used for oxygen therapy are categorised as:• Simple• Partial rebreathing• Nonrebreathing• Air-entrainment
  7. 7. Simple Face mask• It does not include a valve or oxygen reservoir bag• can provide inhaled concentration of oxygen between 35% and 50% with O2 flow rate of 5- 8 L/min• Provides little advantage over nasal cannula in term of delivering constant inhaled concentrations of oxygen
  8. 8. Partial RebreathingIts valveless system that includes an O2 resrvoir bagWith O2 flow10L/min the inhaled concentration of oxygen are between 50-60%
  9. 9. Non rebreathingIt includes a unidirectional valve plus an oxygen reservoir bagInhaled concentration of O2 can reach 100% if the mask was fixed tight on the patient face to completely eliminate entrainment of room airThe flow rate of oxygen into this system should be sufficient to maintain an inflated reservoir bag
  10. 10. Air-Entrainment (Ventimask) Venturi Face maskIt employs the Bernolli principle to entrain large volumes of room air to mix with oxygen flowing through an injector the resultant mixture of gases produces stable inhaled concentrations of oxygen(24-50%) depending on the bore of the O2 injectorThe high flow of gas into the face mask result in constant inhaled concentrations of O2 despite of changes in the patient ventilation

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