EU programi finansiranja i instrumenti: Koncept i praktična priprema
Modul IIEu Fundingprogrammes AND INSTRUMENTSConcepts and Practical ImplementationEuropäische Akademie Otzenhausen gGmbH66620 Nonnweiler, Germany
sadržaj✴Asocijacija - Širenje - Partnerstvo: EU i države susedi✴EU programi i instrumenti za (potencijalne) državekandidate (IPA) i ENP države (ENPI) - Uvod i mogućnostiEU fondova od 2014 godine✴Tranzicija iz IPA u IPA II - šta smo naučili i šta još treba daprostudiramo;✴Project Cycle Management za EU programe✴Prekogranična saradnja u Evropi: Opšti okviri i najboljiprimeri iz prakse
Association – enlargement –partnership:the European Union and itsneighbouring countriesLecture and discussionProf. Dr. Mathias Jopp,Institut für Europäische Politik(IEP), Berlin
Association – enlargement – partnership:the European Union and its neighbouring countries• Founding members of the EU:France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, Germany• Enlargement rounds before 2004:1973: UK, Ireland, Denmark1981: Greece1986: Portugal, Spain1995: Finland, Sweden, Austria
Zemlje kandidati i potencijalni kandidatiZemlje kandidati:• Iceland, Montenegro, and Turkey (withongoing negotiations), as well asSerbia and Former Yugoslav Republicof MacedoniaReadiness and promise to negotiateAccession negotiationsAgreement on conditions foraccession, adaptation of treaties andinstitutions (Accession treaty subject toratification by all the signatory states)Croatia accession treaty 9/12/2011;member on 1/7/2013Active observer status up to full accessionPotencijalni kandidati:•Albania,•Bosnia and Herzegovina and•Kosovo under UNSC Resolution 1244/99The tensions in the region and the status Kosovo ledto a slow down of the accession process
KVALIFIKOVANOSTArticle 49 TEU: „Any European State whichrespects the values referred to in Article 2 and iscommitted to promoting them” is eligible to join theEuropean Union.
KVALIFIKOVANOSTThe values of Article 2 are: “[The] respect for humandignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule oflaw and respect for human rights, including therights of persons belonging to minorities.”ALI: Šta je to „European State“?
Copenhagen Criteria• Political criteria:democracy, the rule of law, humanrights, respect for and protection ofminorities• Economic criteria:functioning market economy;capacity to cope with competitiveressure• Accession preparedness:Acquis readiness,obligations of full membershipAbsorption capability of EUEMU
PROCESEurope Agreements or Stabilization andAssociation Agreements (SAA)Country’s formal application for membershipAvis of the Commission (Process leader)The Council decision to open negotiationsScreening process beginsCouncil decides on opening and closing ofchapters (30/35)Conditionality Progress reportsAccession PartnershipsPre Accession Aid: PHARE > IPA I > IPA IIAccession treaty(signed and ratified by all partners)
ACQUISThe Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimescalled the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is theaccumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions whichconstitute the body of European Union law. The term isFrench: acquis meaning "that which has been agreedupon", and communautaire meaning "of the community"
COST/BENEFIT ANALIZACosts and benefits of EUEnlargementBetween 2000 and 2003,the EU devoted 12.3 bn Euros aspre-accession expenditures.Between 2004 and 2006,more than 4.1 bn were used forBulgaria and RomaniaThe increase of 15 to 27 member statesalso increased the weight ofthe EULargest single market with500 Mil. consumers• The construction ofEuropean area of peace and stability!
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJAPHARE:first program for economic support(„Pologne Hongrie Aide à lareconstruction économique“)SAPARDwas one of two programs decided in1999 (Special Accession Program forAgricultural and Rural Development
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJAInstrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA)• More general pre-accession instrument aiming at support:in the area through structural policiesin environmental and transport policies
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJACARDScreated in 2000, mainly to assist the Western Balkan countries5,13 bn Euro in total (2000-2006)Croatia, BiH, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo and Albania
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJAAll these four instruments were replacedby the englobing IPA program(first financing period from 2007-2013)
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJAInstruments of EU in accession andEU requirementsAdaptation and implementation of Acquis CommunautaireParticipation in multilateral and supranational decision-makingMultilevel governanceBinding EU lawNational implementation of EU law
INSTRUMENTI U PROCESU PROŠIRENJAInstruments of EU in accessionConditionalityIPAProgress reportAccession partnershipLegal harmonizationRule of law, human rightsDemocratic reformsMarket reformsFunctioning administration and judiciary
Opt-out, Opt-in ili POVLAČENJE?Opcije - za/protiv i povlačenje iz EUAlthough the European acquis has to be taken over by all itsmember states, opt-outs or transitional arrangements aren‘trare.Secession is possible under Article 50 TEU
Jugoistočna Evropa?RekapitulacijaThe Europe Agreements (Special Association Agreements) forstates which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007In the case of the Balkan countries = SAAsDefinition of the pre-accession assistance for which it is eligible35 negotiation chapters, representing the different areas of theEU acquisApproximation of laws
Chapter 1: Free movement of goodsChapter 2: Freedom of movement for workersChapter 3: Right of establishment and freedomto provide servicesChapter 4: Free movement of capitalChapter 5: Public procurementChapter 6: Company lawChapter 7: Intellectual property lawChapter 8: Competition policyChapter 9: Financial servicesChapter 10: Information society and mediaChapter 11: Agriculture and rural developmentChapter 12: Food safety, veterinary andphytosanitary policyChapter 13: FisheriesChapter 14: Transport policyChapter 15: EnergyChapter 16: TaxationChapter 17: Economic and monetary policyChapter 18: StatisticsChapter 19: Social policy and employmentChapter 20: Enterprise and industrial policyChapter 21: Trans-European networksChapter 22: Regional policy and coordination ofstructural instrumentsChapter 23: Judiciary and fundamental rightsChapter 24: Justice, freedom and securityChapter 25: Science and researchChapter 26: Education and cultureChapter 27: EnvironmentChapter 28: Consumer and health protectionChapter 29: Customs unionChapter 30: External relationsChapter 31: Foreign, security and defencepolicyChapter 32: Financial controlChapter 33: Financial and budgetary provisionsChapter 34: InstitutionsChapter 35: Other issues
Balkans enter the EU11.5 Mlrd. EURza period od 2007-2013
I P A - Instrument for Pre-Accession AssistanceIPA consists of five key ‘components’1. Transition Assistance and Institution Building2. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC)3. Regional Development (transport, environment etc.)4. Human Resource Development5. Rural Development for restructuring agriculture and adapting itto EU standards
I P A - IMPLEMENTACIJAOpcije1. Centralized – the Commission manages components2. Decentralized – the Commission delegates the management ofcertain measures to the beneficiary country, while still retainingoverall final responsibility3. Shared management – the implementation tasks are delegated toEU member states (only used for cross–border cooperation with EUcountries)4. Joint management -Implementation tasks are delegated to aninternational organization, such as the UN or the World Bank.5. PiUs, PRAG, PCM
I P A - Monitoring i EvaluacijaCommission monitors through its directories and itsdelegationsJoint monitoring committees are set up for theimplementation of financial assistanceCommission edits annual progress reportsPCM-cycle
HRVATSKARekapitulacijaAccession negotiations opened in Oct. 20059th of December 2012 the accession treaty was signedThe Referendum was held in Croatiaon the 22 January 2012 and the people acceptedthe accession into the EUCroatia will join the EU July 1st of 2013
SRBIJARekapitulacijaNovember 2007, initiation of the SAA negotiationsDecember 2009, application for EU membershipJune 2010, the EU member states started theratification process of the SAA (Special Association Agreement)It still needs to be ratified by Lithuania (envisaged in 2013)In March 2012, European Council formally confirmedSerbia as candidate country
SRBIJASTILL SOME OBSTACLES:The anti-corruption legal frameworkFight against organized crimeImprovement of the relations with Kosovo (15 PointsPlan) could lead to the Council Meeting’s decision toopen Accession Negotiations in June 2013
ŠTAP i ŠARGAREPA:KONDICIONALNOST:EU sets conditions and provides incentives for reformsIf a states adopt the EU acquis, it is rewarded withaccession.
SAARLAND & LUXEMBOURGPRAKTIČNE LEKCIJE:Poseta Parlamentu Saarlanda i razgovor sa 4predstavnika(2 vladajuće i 2 opozicione partije)Ministarstvo privrede SaarlandaEvropska Investiciona banka u Luxemburgu