<ul><li>PRESENTATION OUTLINE </li></ul><ul><li>PART ONE </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Issues: Property Rights, Land Ownersh...
GROUP MEMBERS <ul><li>MR. PHILEMON KWAME ABAYATEYE </li></ul><ul><li>MR. EMMANUEL S. AGBONU </li></ul><ul><li>MS. NORNOR-Q...
PART ONE: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES <ul><li>PROPERTY RIGHTS (PR) </li></ul><ul><li>-a bundle of decision rights and actions; enabl...
Conceptual issues (cont’d) <ul><li>DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-Development is defined as a  change . It is a multidimen...
ABSTRACT <ul><li>It has been identified that the major cause of unauthorized structures and settlements springing up in Te...
PRIFILE OF THE STUDY AREA <ul><li>One of 170 Assemblies in Ghana established  by LI 1927 (2007 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Land Ma...
A map showing the boundaries of TMA. (Source: TMA, 2009) 10/28/11
Research Problem, Objectives & Methodology <ul><li>PROBLEM:  The system of land ownership and utilization in Tema has chal...
PART TWO, Section A  <ul><li>LAND OWNERSHIP IN TEMA </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition Zone:  Majority of lands in Africa are m...
ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR TEMA HOUSES 10/28/11
Actual Representation of the Design 04-Aug-11
Land Ownership and Development Planning in Tema <ul><li>An effective system of land ownership is a panacea for development...
Negative Externalities at a Glance: (1)Public Spaces as Private Parks 10/28/11
(2) Unauthorized Metal Containers: “remove by order” 10/28/11
(3) Unauthorized Wooden Expansions: “ redefining the beauty” 10/28/11
(4) Closing Up Spaces Between Homes  10/28/11
(5) “Factories”--- Our Way 10/28/11
(6) Trading on Road Pavements 10/28/11
(7) Sanitation: “Let’s Collect the garbage” 10/28/11
(8)Indiscriminate Waste Disposal on Open Spaces 10/28/11
SECTION B: THE ISSUES (NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES IN DISCUSSION) <ul><li>Haphazard Development of structures </li></ul><ul><li...
Haphazard Development of Structures 10/28/11
DEMOLITION AND COST OF DEMOLITION <ul><li>TMA has to demolish structures which do not follow laid down zoning plans </li><...
Use of Public Lands <ul><li>Generally, no one claims ownership over public lands. They include school parks, pavements, lo...
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXTENTIONS OF BUILDINGS 10/28/11
TRADING ON PAVEMENTS <ul><li>Aside hawkers, many trading containers have been put on pavements of roads. For some roads, t...
WASTE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Waste management is a thorny issue in the entire country </li></ul><ul><li>But Tema has a peculia...
WASTE… 10/28/11
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Land is very important in development planning because almost all activities revol...
Conclusions & Recommendations (cont’d) <ul><li>TDC has not matched provision of affordable houses with the increasing immi...
<ul><li>THANK YOU!!! </li></ul>10/28/11
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GROUP PRESENTATION AT THE INSTITUTE OF STATISTICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH- UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

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This was a group presentation which i led into the issue of property rights and its relevance in the Tema Metropolitan Assembly in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. This was presented at a seminar with all senior members of theInstitute and was part of the requirements for the award of a Masters of Arts Degree in Development Studies.

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GROUP PRESENTATION AT THE INSTITUTE OF STATISTICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH- UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

  1. 1. <ul><li>PRESENTATION OUTLINE </li></ul><ul><li>PART ONE </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Issues: Property Rights, Land Ownership, Development, and Development Planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Profile of the study area </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the Research Problem, Objectives and Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>PART TWO </li></ul><ul><li>Section A: </li></ul><ul><li>The systems of Land Ownership in Tema: Acquisition Zone and Non-Acquisition Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Land Acquisition and Development Planning in Tema </li></ul><ul><li>Section B: ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>Haphazard Development of Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition and Cost of Demolition </li></ul><ul><li>The Use of Public Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Illegitimate Expansions in existing Buildings: Vertical and Horizontal Expansions </li></ul><ul><li>Trading on Pavements </li></ul><ul><li>Waste and Waste Management </li></ul><ul><li>Key Conclusions and Recommendations </li></ul>10/28/11
  2. 2. GROUP MEMBERS <ul><li>MR. PHILEMON KWAME ABAYATEYE </li></ul><ul><li>MR. EMMANUEL S. AGBONU </li></ul><ul><li>MS. NORNOR-QUADJIE E. MARGARET </li></ul><ul><li>MS. ANOLIEFO ADAANA CHIOMA </li></ul>10/28/11
  3. 3. PART ONE: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES <ul><li>PROPERTY RIGHTS (PR) </li></ul><ul><li>-a bundle of decision rights and actions; enables one to enjoy profit from the use of assets while restraining others from using that asset (Seagal & Whinston, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Wikipedia, the characteristics of an efficient PR system are: Enforceability , Universality , Exclusivity and Transferability . </li></ul><ul><li>Important issues of PR are negative and positive EXTERNALITIES </li></ul><ul><li>There are also distinctions between PUBLIC and PRIVATE goods </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, PR refers to the legal rights of a person to decide the use of resources or transfer such resources to other users. </li></ul><ul><li>LAND OWNERSHIP AND LAND TENURE </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, Land Ownership implies the incidence of land possession which allows the owner to exercise natural powers over that land within the limits of national policy and law. Land tenure refers to the ways in which rights to land is obtained and distributed amongst people (Kuntu-Mensah, 2003). </li></ul>10/28/11
  4. 4. Conceptual issues (cont’d) <ul><li>DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-Development is defined as a change . It is a multidimensional process involving major changes in the social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and the eradication of poverty (Todaro & Smith, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>It implies an improvement in the conditions of life and in the ways of doing things. For CHANGE to be meaningful, there must be PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>It implies anticipating future challenges and preparing for them. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING therefore, is the process of articulating and putting into practice identified sets of measures with the basic aim of improving the existing socio-economic condition of an area or region. </li></ul>10/28/11
  5. 5. ABSTRACT <ul><li>It has been identified that the major cause of unauthorized structures and settlements springing up in Tema (a planned metropolis) is the lack of clearly defined property rights system. The increasing migrant population and resultant accommodation crises resulted in negative externalities for both residents of Tema and the city authorities. The study was pro-qualitative involving both formal and informal interactions with residents, TDC and TMA officials as well as traditional leaders of Tema. The study concluded that migrants to Tema should consider alternative accommodation spaces in the outskirts of the metropolis while city authorities step up their monitoring and supervisory responsibilities </li></ul>10/28/11
  6. 6. PRIFILE OF THE STUDY AREA <ul><li>One of 170 Assemblies in Ghana established by LI 1927 (2007 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Land Mass is 396 square km and is put under ACQUISITION ZONE and NON-ACQUISITION ZONE </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by AMA (west), DWDA (east), AshMA and Adentan MA (North) and Gulf of Guinea (South) </li></ul><ul><li>Population: Estimated at 348, 815 and is expected to reach 418, 444 by 2013 with an annual population growth rate of 2.6 % (GPRS II, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy: Has both urban and peri-urban settlements and activities (agric-20% of total land, 4.1% covered by commercial activities and 19% of population in fishing). Agric, industry and commerce/services are the backbone of the local economy (industry and commerce employs most) </li></ul><ul><li>Education: Generally better with total of 671 educational institutions and pupil-teacher ratio of 43:1 and 20:1 for public and private schools respectively </li></ul>10/28/11
  7. 7. A map showing the boundaries of TMA. (Source: TMA, 2009) 10/28/11
  8. 8. Research Problem, Objectives & Methodology <ul><li>PROBLEM: The system of land ownership and utilization in Tema has challenges for development planning. TDC manages the Acquisition Zone and the traditional authorities manage the Non-Acquisition Zones. These two bodies require permits from TMA to use lands. Power play and delays in acquiring permits lead to unauthorized erection of structures in Tema. This poses challenges to the development of Tema. </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES: To determine/understand how the concept of PR over lands and space influence development planning in Tema and to make policy recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>METHODOLOGY: Literature Review; both formal and informal interactions with residents of Tema, officials of TMA and TDC and the Tema Mantse- Interview guides were used. Research is largely qualitative </li></ul>10/28/11
  9. 9. PART TWO, Section A <ul><li>LAND OWNERSHIP IN TEMA </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition Zone: Majority of lands in Africa are managed under “customary law” ( Mends and de Meijere, 2006 ). This was the case in Tema before 1952 when the government acquired 166 square km to develop a “New Tema”. </li></ul><ul><li>PR were clearly defined within this zone and individuals had very little chances to make changes to the already-build designs. There are however, deviations to the plans today </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Acquisition Zone: Sale and maintenance of lands in these zones are managed by chiefs and individual heads of extended families. Little attempt is made to ensure that lands are developed according to plan. The is the main cause of slum development and massive erected unauthorized structures in the metropolis </li></ul>10/28/11
  10. 10. ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR TEMA HOUSES 10/28/11
  11. 11. Actual Representation of the Design 04-Aug-11
  12. 12. Land Ownership and Development Planning in Tema <ul><li>An effective system of land ownership is a panacea for development planning. An efficient Land Administration system is equally important (this involves the determination of rights over the use and allocation of rights). Land Registration is the best means for assigning rights over lands </li></ul><ul><li>Where the interplay between the concepts of PR and land ownership are harmonized within an efficient Land Administration System, negative externalities are minimized </li></ul><ul><li>The particular challenge in Tema is the lack of clearly defined PR over land. The next section discuses the negative externalities resulting from this situation </li></ul>10/28/11
  13. 13. Negative Externalities at a Glance: (1)Public Spaces as Private Parks 10/28/11
  14. 14. (2) Unauthorized Metal Containers: “remove by order” 10/28/11
  15. 15. (3) Unauthorized Wooden Expansions: “ redefining the beauty” 10/28/11
  16. 16. (4) Closing Up Spaces Between Homes 10/28/11
  17. 17. (5) “Factories”--- Our Way 10/28/11
  18. 18. (6) Trading on Road Pavements 10/28/11
  19. 19. (7) Sanitation: “Let’s Collect the garbage” 10/28/11
  20. 20. (8)Indiscriminate Waste Disposal on Open Spaces 10/28/11
  21. 21. SECTION B: THE ISSUES (NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES IN DISCUSSION) <ul><li>Haphazard Development of structures </li></ul><ul><li>Homes and structures are developed without due recourse to zoning plans </li></ul><ul><li>New land owners build anywhere irrespective of whether such areas were designated for the purpose to which they intended to put them (flood, cost of demolition) </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in granting permits inhibits following due process. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to distortions in physical development plans </li></ul>10/28/11
  22. 22. Haphazard Development of Structures 10/28/11
  23. 23. DEMOLITION AND COST OF DEMOLITION <ul><li>TMA has to demolish structures which do not follow laid down zoning plans </li></ul><ul><li>This results in constant conflicts between demolition officials and owners of these unauthorized structures </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition poses great social and economic cost to both TMA and the owners </li></ul><ul><li>The Assembly spent GH₵ 8,210.00 on “Demolition Support” in the 2010 fiscal year. (TMA, 2010) </li></ul>10/28/11
  24. 24. Use of Public Lands <ul><li>Generally, no one claims ownership over public lands. They include school parks, pavements, lorry parks and markets. They are the most abused </li></ul><ul><li>They are used as refuse dumps, football fields, and also for social events (with very little maintenance) </li></ul>10/28/11
  25. 25. VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXTENTIONS OF BUILDINGS 10/28/11
  26. 26. TRADING ON PAVEMENTS <ul><li>Aside hawkers, many trading containers have been put on pavements of roads. For some roads, there are no pavements. </li></ul>10/28/11
  27. 27. WASTE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Waste management is a thorny issue in the entire country </li></ul><ul><li>But Tema has a peculiar challenge as it hosts a very large informal distribution trade and Ghana’s major industries </li></ul><ul><li>Many residents dump their domestic waste as well on public lands (esp. when waste contractors delay) and state officials are expected to manage them </li></ul>10/28/11
  28. 28. WASTE… 10/28/11
  29. 29. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Land is very important in development planning because almost all activities revolve around it. TMA should therefore be interested in how it is owned and used </li></ul><ul><li>There is inadequate monitoring and supervision over physical developments in Tema. This partly explains the numerous unauthorized structures. TMA should step up its monitoring and supervisory roles </li></ul>10/28/11
  30. 30. Conclusions & Recommendations (cont’d) <ul><li>TDC has not matched provision of affordable houses with the increasing immigrant population. Many have decided to extend their buildings and build at unauthorized sites to accommodate the population growth. TDC should adopt flat buildings (many storey) </li></ul><ul><li>There is need for education to sensitize people on building rightly and the need to follow laid down plans </li></ul><ul><li>There definitions of PR over lands in Tema should be more clearly done </li></ul>10/28/11
  31. 31. <ul><li>THANK YOU!!! </li></ul>10/28/11

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