Tissues

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Tissues

  1. 1. Tissue: The Living Fabric
  2. 2. Tissue: A Group of similar cells that perform a common function <ul><li>4 Primary Tissues in the Human Body: </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial Tissues: covering </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissues: Support </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Tissues: Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous Tissue: Control </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>They e xhibit Polarity – lower/attached basal surface ; upper/free apical surface ; apical surface may have cilia or microvilli </li></ul><ul><li>( Microvilli are minute finger-like projections of the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells) </li></ul><ul><li>. They are Avascular – lack blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Supported directly by a Basement membrane : double-layered -superior basal lamina abutting the epithelial tissue and a deeper reticular lamina abutting the underlying connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue underlies/supports all epithelial tissues – connective tissue is vascular and provides nutrients to the overlying avascular epithelial tissues by diffusing through the basement membrane </li></ul><ul><li>They have a high regenerative capacity ( undergo cell division) so far as they receive nutrients and substances from the underlying connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>They are innervated </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 4.1 : Classification of epithelia , p. 120. Stratified Simple Apical surface Basal surface Apical surface Basal surface Squamous Cuboidal Columnar (a) (b)
  5. 5. 3 Major Types of Epithelial Cells based on shape <ul><li>Squamous cells : flattened scale-like cells with flattened disc-shaped ( spindle-shaped) nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal cells : Cube-like or box-like cells with centrally placed spherical nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar cells: Tall, column-shaped cells with elongated nuclei placed closer to the base of the cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classification of Epithelia
  7. 7. Epithelial Tissues = Epithelia <ul><li>2 main classes of Epithelial Tissues: Membranous epithelia and Glandular epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>1. Membranous epithelia = covering and lining epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types: Simple epithelia and Stratified Epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE EPITHELIA – composed of a single layer of epithelial cells: </li></ul><ul><li>-simple squamous </li></ul><ul><li>-simple cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>-simple columnar </li></ul><ul><li>- Pseudostratified columnar </li></ul><ul><li>STRATIFIED EPITHELIA – composed of at least 2 layers of epithelial cells: named for the epithelial cell type on the apical surface of the epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>-stratified squamous </li></ul><ul><li>-stratified cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>-stratified columnar </li></ul><ul><li>- Transitional epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Glandular Epithelia = form the glands that </li></ul><ul><li>secrete products in the body </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 4.1 : Classification of epithelia , p. 120. Stratified Simple Apical surface Basal surface Apical surface Basal surface Squamous Cuboidal Columnar (a) (b)
  9. 9. Figure 4.2a: Epithelial tissues, p. 121. Description: Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia. Function: Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae . Location: Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs ; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic Vessels( ENDOTHELIUM ); lining of ventral body cavity (serosae) ( MESOTHELIUM ) Photomicrograph: Simple squamous epithelium forming part of the alveolar (air sac) walls (400x). Air sacs of lung tissue Nuclei of squamous epithelial cells (a) Simple squamous epithelium
  10. 10. Figure 4.2b: Epithelial tissues (continued), p. 121. (b) Simple cuboidal epithelium Description: Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei. Function: Secretion and absorption. Location: Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface ( Germinal Epithelium). Photomicrograph: Simple cuboidal epithelium in kidney tubules (400x). Basement membrane Connective tissue Simple cuboidal epithelial cells
  11. 11. Figure 4.2c: Epithelial tissues (continued), p. 122. Description: Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia ; layer may contain mucus- secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells). Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action. Location: Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands ; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus. Photomicrograph: Simple columnar epithelium of the stomach mucosa (1300x). Simple columnar epithelial cell Basement membrane (c) Simple columnar epithelium
  12. 12. Figure 4.2d: Epithelial tissues (continued), p. 122. (d) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Description: Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface ; nuclei seen at different levels but all cells touch the basement membrane ; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia. Function: Secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action. Location: Nonciliated type in male’s sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated ( + mucus-secreting goblet cells) variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract =“RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM ” . Photomicrograph: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lining the human trachea (400x). Trachea Cilia Pseudo- stratified epithelial layer Basement membrane Mucus of goblet cell Connective tissue
  13. 13. Figure 4.2e: Epithelial tissues (continued), pp. 123-124. Description: Thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active ; surface cells are flattened (squamous) ; in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers Function: Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion. Location : Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane. Photomicrograph: Stratified squamous epithelium lining the esophagus (425x). Stratified squamous epithelium Nuclei Basement membrane Connective tissue (e) Stratified squamous epithelium
  14. 14. Stratified Columnar Epithelium Description: at least 2 layers of cells – the apical cells are columnar shaped Location: ducts of glands, pharynx and part of the male urethra Function: Secretion, Protection
  15. 15. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Stratified Cuboidal epithelial tissue: </li></ul><ul><li>Description: at least 2 layers of cuboidal cells – apical cells are cuboidal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Location: lining the ducts of glands such as the salivary and sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Secretion and protection </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 4.2f: Epithelial tissues (continued), pp. 123-124. (f) Transitional epithelium Description: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch Function: Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine. Location: Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra. Photomicrograph: Transitional epithelium lining the bladder, relaxed state (500x); note the bulbous, or rounded, appearance of the cells at the surface; these cells flatten and become elongated when the bladder is filled with urine. Basement membrane Connective tissue Transitional epithelium
  17. 17. Glandular Epithelia <ul><li>2 Classes of Glands: </li></ul><ul><li> (i ) Endocrine glands = secrete their products ( hormones) directly into extracellular fluid </li></ul><ul><li> (ii) Exocrine glands = secrete their product onto body’s surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of Exocrine glands: Unicellular Exocrine glands and Multicellular Exocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>- Unicellular exocrine glands = Goblet cells scattered within membranous epithelia. Goblet cells secrete Mucin </li></ul><ul><li>mucin + water = Mucus </li></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 4.3: Goblet cells (unicellular exocrine glands), p. 125. Secretory vesicles containing mucin Golgi apparatus Rough ER Secretory vesicles Nucleus Nucleus Microvilli (b) (a)
  19. 19. Multicellular Exocrine Glands <ul><li>2 types of Classification – Structural and Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine glands: </li></ul><ul><li>Muticellular exocrine glands – have 2 parts: Secretory portion and a duct system </li></ul><ul><li>Simple glands = unbranched ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Compound glands = branched ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of the secretory portion of the gland: </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular = forms tubes </li></ul><ul><li> Alveolar ( Acinar) = forms flasklike sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Tubuloalveolar = forms both tubes and flasklike sacs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 4.4: Types of multicellular exocrine glands, p. 126. Tubular secretory structure Simple duct structure (duct does not branch) Alveolar secretory structure = Secretory epithelium = Duct = Surface epithelium Key: Compound duct structure (duct branches) (e) Compound tubular Example: duodenal glands of small intestine (f) Compound alveolar Example: mammary glands (g) Compound tubuloalveolar Example: salivary glands (c) Simple alveolar Example: No important example in humans (d) Simple branched alveolar Example: sebaceous (oil) glands (a) Simple tubular Example: intestinal glands (b) Simple branched tubular Example: stomach (gastric) glands
  21. 21. Multicellular Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Functional Classification of Multicellular Exocrine glands = Mode of Secretion </li></ul><ul><li> Apocrine = apex of the secretory cell pinches off to release accumulated products </li></ul><ul><li> Merocrine = the secretory cell undergoes exocytosis to release products </li></ul><ul><li>Holocrine = the secretory cell ruptures to release its accumulated products </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 4.5: Chief modes of secretion in human exocrine glands - (a) Merocrine (b) Holocrine Secretory vesicles Secretory cell fragments (a) (b)
  23. 23. Figure 4.6: Major classes of connective tissue, p. 128. Subclasses: 1. Loose connective tissue Types: Areolar Adipose Reticular 2. Dense connective tissue Types: Regular Irregular Elastic 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. Fibro- cartilage 3. Elastic cartilage 1. Compact bone 2. Spongy (cancellous) bone * Blood cell formation and differentiation are quite complex. Details are provided in Chapter 17. General function: Matrix components: Gel-like ground substance; all three fiber types Gel-like ground substance; collagen fibers, elastin fibers in some Gel-like ground substance hardened with calcium salts; collagen fibers Liquid plasma; no fibers Acts as a binding tissue; resists mechan- ical stress, particularly tension Resists compression; cushions and supports body structures Rigidness that resists compression and tension; support Fluid tissue; transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, wastes Mesenchyme Fibroblast Chondroblast Osteoblast Hematopoietic stem cell Fibrocyte Chondrocyte Osteocyte Blood cells* (and macrophages) Common embryonic origin: Cellular descendants: Class of connective tissue resulting: Connective tissue proper Cartilage Osseous (bone) Blood
  24. 24. Characteristics of Connective Tissues <ul><li>1 . They all have a common origin – all connective tissues are derived from the embryonic tissue called MESENCHYME </li></ul><ul><li>2. They exhibit a degree of vascularity – from being avascular to poorly vascular to highly vascular </li></ul><ul><li>3. Composed of 2 parts: Nonliving portion and the living portion </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Nonliving portion = Extracellular matrix = Ground substance and the fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Ground substance composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion molecules and proteoglycans </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers – 3 types: </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen fibers = “white” fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers = “yellow” fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Living portion = Cells that are derived from mesenchyme and they produce the connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts – produce connective tissue proper </li></ul><ul><li>Chondroblasts = produce cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts = produce bone tissue </li></ul><ul><li>hematopoietic stem cell = produce blood cells </li></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 4.6: Major classes of connective tissue, p. 128. Subclasses: 1. Loose connective tissue Types: Areolar Adipose Reticular 2. Dense connective tissue Types: Regular Irregular Elastic 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. Fibro- cartilage 3. Elastic cartilage 1. Compact bone 2. Spongy (cancellous) bone * Blood cell formation and differentiation are quite complex. Details are provided in Chapter 17. General function: Matrix components: Gel-like ground substance; all three fiber types Gel-like ground substance; collagen fibers, elastin fibers in some Gel-like ground substance hardened with calcium salts; collagen fibers Liquid plasma; no fibers Acts as a binding tissue; resists mechan- ical stress, particularly tension Resists compression; cushions and supports body structures Rigidness that resists compression and tension; support Fluid tissue; transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, wastes Mesenchyme Fibroblast Chondroblast Osteoblast Hematopoietic stem cell Fibrocyte Chondrocyte Osteocyte Blood cells* (and macrophages) Common embryonic origin: Cellular descendants: Class of connective tissue resulting: Connective tissue proper Cartilage Osseous (bone) Blood
  26. 26. Figure 4.7: Proteoglycan aggregate in cartilage, p. 129. Keratan sulfate Chondroitin sulfate Core protein Link protein Hyaluronic acid
  27. 27. Figure 4.8: Areolar connective tissue: A prototype (model) connective tissue, p. 130. Nerve fiber Macrophage Ground substance Fibroblast Mast cell Lymphocyte Collagen fiber Fat cell Reticular fiber Capillary Plasma cell Elastic fiber Neutrophil
  28. 28. Figure 4.9a: Connective tissues, pp. 131-132. (a) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar Description: Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells. Function: Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid. Location: Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g., forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries. Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a soft packaging tissue of the body (400x). Epithelium Lamina propria Fibroblast nuclei Elastic fibers Collagen fibers
  29. 29. Figure 4.9b: Connective tissues (continued), pp. 131-132. (b) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose Description: Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet. Function: Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs. Location: Under skin; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts. Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer under the skin (450x). Vacuole containing fat droplet Nuclei of fat cells
  30. 30. Figure 4.9c: Connective tissues (continued), p. 133. Description: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network. Function: Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages. Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen). Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticular connective tissue fibers forming the internal skeleton of the spleen (350  ). Spleen White blood cell (lymphocyte) Reticular fibers (c) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, reticular
  31. 31. Figure 4.9d: Connective tissues (continued), p. 134. (d) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense regular Description: Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastin fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Function: Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction. Location: Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses. Photomicrograph: Dense regular connective tissue from a tendon (1000x). Shoulder joint Ligament Tendon Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts
  32. 32. Figure 4.9e: Connective tissues (continued), p. 134. (e) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense irregular Description: Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Function: Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength. Location: Dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract; fibrous capsules of organs and of joints. Photomicrograph: Dense irregular connective tissue from the dermis of the skin (400x). Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts Fibrous joint capsule
  33. 33. Elastic CT <ul><li>Location: walls of arteries, walls of bronchioles, ligamenta flava and nuchae </li></ul><ul><li>Function: allows for stretch/recoil </li></ul>
  34. 34. CT derived from Mesenchyme <ul><li>Went through fibroblasts (loose and dense CT) which had gel-like ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Now going to go through 2 nd class of CT – CARTILAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Cell type secreting cartilage: chondroblasts (derived from mesenchyme) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency of the ground substance is semi-solid </li></ul><ul><li>CARTILAGE IS AVASCULAR </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cartilage
  36. 36. Cartilage <ul><li>Produced by Chondroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Has a semi-solid ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of Cartilage: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li> embryonic cartilage </li></ul><ul><li> epiphyseal plates </li></ul><ul><li>articular cartilage </li></ul><ul><li> costal cartilage </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><li> epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>pinna </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li> intervertebral discs </li></ul><ul><li>pubic symphysis </li></ul><ul><li> menisci </li></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 4.9f: Connective tissues (continued), p. 136. Description: Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae. Function: Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress. Location: Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx. Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from the trachea (300x). Costal cartilages Chondrocyte in lacuna Matrix (f) Cartilage: hyaline
  38. 38. Embryonic skeleton
  39. 39. Figure 4.9g: Connective tissues (continued), p. 136. (g) Cartilage: elastic Description: Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix. Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility. Location: Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis. Photomicrograph: Elastic cartilage from the human ear pinna; forms the flexible skeleton of the ear (640x). Chondrocyte in lacuna Matrix
  40. 40. Figure 4.9h: Connective tissues (continued), pp. 137-138. Description: Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate. Function: Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock. Location: Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint. Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc (200x). Special staining produced the blue color seen. Intervertebral discs Chondrocytes in lacunae Collagen fiber (h) Cartilage: fibrocartilage
  41. 41. Bone (osseous) Tissue <ul><li>Living portion = Osteoblasts - produce bone tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Solid matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Nonliving portion = Extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matrix = osteoid – ground substance + fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic matrix = hydroxyapatites= </li></ul><ul><li>calcium phosphate crystals </li></ul>
  42. 42. Figure 4.9i: Connective tissues (continued), pp. 137-138. (i) Others: bone (osseous tissue) Description: Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized Function: Bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis). Location: Bones Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional view of bone (70x). Lacunae Lamella Central canal
  43. 43. Figure 4.9j: Connective tissues (continued), p. 138. Description: Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma). Function: Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances. Location: Contained within blood vessels. Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1500  ); two white blood cells (neutrophil in upper left and lymphocyte in lower right) are seen surrounded by red blood cells. Neutrophil Red blood cells Lymphocyte Plasma (j) Others: blood
  44. 44. Figure 4.10: Nervous tissue, p. 139. Photomicrograph: Neurons (100  ) Function: Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity. Location: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Description: Neurons are branching cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are nonirritable supporting cells (not illustrated). Cell processes Cell body Nuclei of supporting cells Cell body of a neuron Neuron processes Nervous tissue
  45. 45. Figure 4.11a: Muscle tissues, p. 140. Description: Long, cylindrical, m ultinucleate cells ; obvious striations. Function: Voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control. Location: In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin. Photomicrograph: Skeletal muscle (approx. 300x). Notice the obvious banding pattern and the fact that these large cells are multinucleate. Nuclei Part of muscle fiber (a) Skeletal muscle
  46. 46. Figure 4.11b: Muscle tissues (continued), p. 140. (b) Cardiac mus cl e Description: Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs). Function: As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control. Location: The walls of the heart. Photomicrograph: Cardiac muscle (800x); notice the striations, branching of cells, and the intercalated discs. Intercalated discs Nucleus
  47. 47. Figure 4.11c: Muscle tissues (continued), p. 141. Description: Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations ; cells arranged closely to form sheets. Function: Propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control . Location: Mostly in the walls of hollow organs. Photomicrograph: Sheet of smooth muscle (approx. 600  ). Smooth muscle cell Nuclei (c) Smooth muscle
  48. 48. Membranes as simple Organs <ul><li>Cutaneous membrane = </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium/areolar and dense irregular </li></ul><ul><li>connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane = </li></ul><ul><li>Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium /areolar CT </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Simple columnar epithelium / areolar CT </li></ul><ul><li>The areolar CT in mucous membrane is specifically referred to as LAMINA PROPRIA </li></ul><ul><li>Serous membrane = </li></ul><ul><li>Simple squamous epithelium/areolar CT </li></ul><ul><li>simple squamous epithelium in serous membrane is specifically referred to as the MESOTHELIUM </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane = </li></ul><ul><li>dense irregular CT/areolar CT </li></ul>
  49. 49. Figure 4.12a-b: Classes of membranes, p. 142. Cutaneous membrane (skin) Mucosa of nasal cavity Mucosa of lung bronchi Mucosa of mouth Esophagus lining (a) Cutaneous membrane (b) Mucous membranes
  50. 50. Figure 4.12c: Classes of membranes, p. 142. Parietal pericardium Visceral pericardium Parietal peritoneum Visceral peritoneum Parietal pleura Visceral pleura (c) Serous membranes
  51. 51. Synovial membrane
  52. 52. Figure 4.13a-b: Tissue repair of a nonextensive skin wound: regeneration and fibrosis, p. 144. Epidermis Blood clot in incised wound Macrophage Neutrophil Scab Fibroblasts Regenerating epithelium Budding capillary Area of granulation tissue ingrowth (a) (b)
  53. 53. Figure 4.13c: Tissue repair of a nonextensive skin wound: regeneration and fibrosis (continued), p. 144. Fibrosed area Regenerated epithelium (c)
  54. 54. Figure 4.14: Embryonic germ layers and the primary tissue types they produce, p. 145. = Ectoderm = Mesoderm = Endoderm Key: 16-day-old embryo (dorsal surface view) Epithelium Nervous tissue (from ectoderm) Muscle and connective tissue (mostly from mesoderm)

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