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  • Didn’t even look at 16-20
  • 6 types of synovial joints can be found in the other powerpoint
  • OTHER TYPES OF JOINTS DO NOT HAVE A JOINT CAVITY (referred to picture on slide 9) (went to slide nine after talking about ligaments and how fragile they are… demonstrated that it would take a long time to heal) Talked about bursae on slide 10 Then slide 13
  • Gliding – waving on hand Hinge – elbow Saddle – METACARPAL OF THUMB ONLY ======================== 6 synovial joints Gliding (Plane) joints: articulating surface of bone 1 = slightly flat Articulating surface of bone 2 = slightly flat Movement allowed: gliding/slipping movements Location: example = intercarpals, intertarpals 2) Hinge joints: articulating surface of bone 1 = cylinder Articulating surface of bone 2 = trough Movement allowed: flexion  decreases angle of joint, extension  movement that increases angle of joint 3) Pivot joint: Articulating surface of bone 1 = sleeve or ring of bone or ligament Articulating surface of bone 2 = rounded protrusion Movement allowed: rotation; the atlanto-axial joint  PIVOT JOINT that allows us to motion “No” (skipped to slide 15 to show axis/atlas) 4) Condyloid/Ellipsoidal joint Articulating surface of bone 1 = oval depression Articulating surface of bone 2 = oval protrusion Movement allowed: extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction Abduction – movement of limb away from midline ; adduction – movement of limb toward midline (or median) of body circumduction – movement of the distal part of a limb to describe a cone in space (moving my arms in a circular motion using the shoulder as an axis) ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT between the occipital condyles and the atlas  allows us to motion “YES” by flexing/extending the head 5) Saddle joint Articulating surface of bone 1 – convex/concave Articulating surface of bone 2 – concave and then convex  concave bone receives convex bone side Location: ONLY ONE LOCATION IN THE HUMAN SKELETON… in the THUMB Movement allowed: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction 6) Ball-and-socket joints Articulating surface of bone 1: deep cup-like socket Articulating surface of bone 2: ball-like head Location: shoulder, hip (slide 20, 21) Movement allowed: flexion, extension, rotation (inhibited by muscles)
  • Jointsrev2

    1. 1. Joints = Articulations
    2. 2. Joints = Articulations <ul><li>A joint is a site where two or more bones meet </li></ul><ul><li>Classified based on (a) Function (b) Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Classification of Joints based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint: </li></ul><ul><li>3 Functional Classes: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Synarthroses – immovable joints </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Amphiarthroses- slightly movable joints </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Diarthroses – freely movable joints </li></ul>
    3. 3. 3 Structural classes of Joints <ul><li>Based on the material uniting the bones and the presence or absence of a joint cavity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Fibrous joints – Joint cavity absent. Bones united by fibrous CT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 types of fibrous joints: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sutures – only in the bones in the skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndesmoses – ligaments, cords or bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unite the bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gomphoses - “peg-in-a-socket” joints- located only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between teeth and the bony sockets in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the mandible and maxillae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous Joints – Joint cavity is absent. Bones are united by cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchondroses – Hyaline cartilage unites the bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphyses - Fibrocatrtilage unites the bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial Joints – Joint cavity present. Bones united by ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 types: </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Figure 8.1 : Fibrous joints , p. 253. (a) (b) Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line Fibula Tibia Suture Syndesmosis Ligament
    5. 5. Figure 8.2 : Cartilaginous joints , p. 254. (a) (c) (b) Epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage) Synchondroses Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) Symphyses Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Body of vertebra
    6. 6. General characteristics of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Articular cartilage – caps the ends of the bones </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Cavity – space that contains synovial fluid which acts like a lubricant to reduce friction </li></ul><ul><li>Articular Capsule – double-layered consists of an </li></ul><ul><li>outer fibrous capsule and an inner synovial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments – 3 types of ligaments in relation to the articular capsule : </li></ul><ul><li>Capsular or intrinsic ligaments – part of the fibrous capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Extracapsular ligaments – located outside of the articular capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Intracapsular ligaments – located deep to the articular capsule </li></ul><ul><li>MENISCI – discs of fibrocartilage that improve the fit at a synovial joint to minimize wear and tear </li></ul><ul><li>BURSAE – flattened fibrous bags of synovial fluid associated with synovial joint; they reduce friction as the joint moves </li></ul><ul><li>TENDON SHEATHS – elongated bursae that wrap around tendons to reduce friction </li></ul>
    7. 7. Figure 8.8b: Knee joint, p. 266. (b) Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia
    8. 8. Figure 8.8d: Knee joint, p. 266. (d) Medial femoral condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle
    9. 9. Figure 8.3: General structure of a synovial joint, p. 255. (a) (b) Periosteum Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule
    10. 10. Figure 8.4: Friction-reducing structures: Bursae and tendon sheaths, p. 257. (a) (b) Acromion of scapula Glenoid cavity containing synovial fluid Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle
    11. 11. Figure 8.8a: Knee joint, p. 266. (a) Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia
    12. 12. Figure 8.9: A common knee injury, p. 267. Lateral Medial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate ligament (torn) Hockey puck
    13. 13. 6 Types of Synovial Joints
    14. 14. 6 types of synovial joints <ul><li>1. Plane joint : articulating surfaces are flat </li></ul><ul><li>intercarpals/intertarsals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hinge joint : one articular surface is cylindrical and the other a trough; Elbow joint </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pivot joint : one articular surface is round and the other a sleeve or ring </li></ul><ul><li>atlantoaxial joint = motion “NO” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) joint : one articular surface is oval protrusion and the othe an oval depression </li></ul><ul><li>atlanto-occipital joint = motion “YES” </li></ul><ul><li>5. Saddle joint : one articular bone has convex and concave surfaces and the other articular bone has a concave and convex surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>carpometacarpal joint of the thumb </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ball-and-socket joint : one articular surface is spherical and the other is a cuplike socket. </li></ul><ul><li>hip joint, shoulder joint </li></ul>
    15. 15. ATLANTAXIAL JOINT allows one to motion “NO” Pivot joint ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT allows one to motion “YES” Condyloid joint
    16. 16. Figure 8.10a: The elbow joint, p. 268. (a) Articular capsule Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Tendon of biceps muscle Ulna Humerus Fat pad Tendon of triceps muscle Bursa Trochlea Articular cartilage of the trochlear notch
    17. 17. Figure 8.10c: The elbow joint, p. 268. (c) Anular ligament Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament Ulna Articular capsule Radius Coronoid process
    18. 18. Figure 8.11a: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (a) Acromion Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Coracohumeral ligament Greater tubercle of humerus Transverse humeral ligament Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Articular capsule reinforced by glenohumeral ligaments Subscapular bursa Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Coracoid process
    19. 19. Figure 8.11b: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (b) Acromion Coracoid process Articular capsule Glenoid cavity Glenoid labrum Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Glenohumeral ligaments Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Posterior Anterior
    20. 20. Figure 8.11c: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (c) Head of humerus Muscle of rotator cuff (cut) Acromion (cut) Glenoid cavity of scapula Capsule of shoulder joint (opened)
    21. 21. Figure 8.12a-b: The hip joint, p. 270. (a) (b) Articular cartilage Coxal (hip) bone Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Synovial cavity Articular capsule Acetabular labrum Femur Acetabular labrum Synovial membrane Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Head of femur Articular capsule (cut)
    22. 22. Figure 8.12c-d: The hip joint, p. 270. (c) (d) Anterior inferior iliac spine Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Greater trochanter Ischium Iliofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Greater trochanter of femur