Political System Of India
International Islamic University Islamabad
The official name of India is Republic of India. New Delhi is the capital of India. The
Republic of India has three principal short names, in both official and popular English
usage, each of which is historically significant. These names are India, Bharat and
It is the 17th largest country by area, the second largest country with population of 1.2
billion and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by Indian ocean on
the south, Arabian sea on the south-west, and the bay of Bengal on the south-east. It
shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, china, Bhutan and Nepal to the southeast. In the Indian ocean India is in the vicinity of Sri lanka and Maldives.
India is the home of world Four religions- Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity,
Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism are the religions which are originated here.
It remained the colony of Britain from the mid of 19th century till it became an
independent nation in 1947 after struggle for independence that was marked by nonviolent resistance that was led by Mahatma Gandhi.
Federal system of India is governed in terms of the constitution of India.
India is also referred to as the Sovereign, Secular, Democratic and has a
Parliamentary form of Government.
The nation is basically the union of 28 states and 7 Union territories that works
according to the Indian constitution, which was adopted on the 16th of November
President is the head of the Executive union.
The Prime Minister is the head of the council of ministers.
The real political and social power resides in the hands of the Prime Minister.
The president is elected by the members of both houses of parliament and
legislative Assemblies of state.
President term of office is five years.
President has the power of proclaiming emergency in the country if he/she is not
satisfied with the situation of the country.
President can assume any of the functions of the government when there is a
failure of constitutional machinery in the state.
The president also appoints the Prime Minister of the country.
The President of India also holds Executive, Judicial and Legislative powers.
The Vice-President is elected in the same way as the President, and holds office
for five years. The Vice-President is Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Council of Ministers:
The Council of Ministers comprises Cabinet Ministers, Minister of States
(independent charge or otherwise) and Deputy Ministers.
. The Cabinet Secretariat has an important coordinating role in decision making at
highest level and operates under direction of Prime Minister.
The Legislative Arm of the Union, called Parliament, consists of the President,
Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. All legislation requires consent of both houses of
The Rajya Sabha consists of 245 members. Of these, 233 represent states and
union territories and 12 members are nominated by the President.
. Elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect; members are elected by the elected
members of Legislative Assemblies of the concerned states.
The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution, one third of its members retire every
The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct
election on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
the Lok Sabha consists of 545 members with 2 members nominated by the
President to represent the Anglo-Indian Community.
The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are
28 states and seven Union territories in the country.
Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator
appointed by him.
Through a Constitutional amendment in Parliament, the Union Territory of Delhi
is now called the National Capital Territory of Delhi from 1 February 1992.
A recognized political party has been classified as a National Party or a State
If a political party is recognized in four or more states, it is considered as a
Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Janata Dal, Communist Party of India and
Communist Party of India (Marxist) are the prominant National Parties in the
Country. Telugu Desam in Andhra Pradesh, Asom Gana Parishad in
Assam, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha in Bihar, Maharashtrwad Gomantak Party in
Goa, National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, Muslim League in Kerala, Shiv
Sena in Maharashtra, Akali Dal in Punjab, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in Tamil Nadu, Bahujan Samaj Party
and Samajwadi Party in Uttar Pradesh and All India Forward Block in West
Bengal are the prominent state parties.
The Supreme Court is the apex court in the country.
The High Court stands at the head of the state's judicial administration.
Each state is divided into judicial districts presided over by a district and sessions
judge, who is the highest judicial authority in a district.
Below him, there are courts of civil jurisdiction, known in different states as
munsifs, sub-judges, civil judges and the like.
Similarly, criminal judiciary comprises chief judicial magistrate and judicial
magistrates of first and second class.
The Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction.
The Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court to
enforce Fundamental Rights.
The President may consult the Supreme Court on any question of fact or law of
The Supreme Court of India comprises of the Chief Justice and not more than 25
other Judges appointed by the President.
Judges hold office till 65 years of age.
There are 18 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than
The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President in consultation
with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the state.
Each High Court has powers of superintendence over all courts within its
jurisdiction. High Court judges retire at the age of 62.
The jurisdiction as well as the laws administered by a High Court can be altered
both by the Union and State Legislatures.
Most High Courts have only appellate jurisdiction.
Established on 25 jan.1950
1st election was on 1952
1760 lakh people took part in which 85% are illiterate and 15% are literate
Shiv Kumar sen was the 1st chief election commissioner.
V.S Sampath is the current election commissioner of India.
World’s busiest election commission.
Average election per year-5.
It is the only state in India which enjoys special autonomy under the article 370 of
constitution of India.
According to which no law can be enacted by the parliament of India excepts in
field of defense, communication and foreign policy.
Supreme court jurisdiction has been extended over J&K.
Indians from other state can’t purchase property in J&K.
Under armed forces act, Indian armed forces has been enforced.