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Sanghamitra Patnaik, Ph.D.
AGP-2115
Introduction
 According to David Mitrany , dealing with functional
matters provides the actors in the international
community the opportunity to successfully cooperate
in a non-political context, which might otherwise be
harder to achieve in a political context.
Contd..
 Development would lead to a process called
“autonomous development” towards
multiplication, expansion, and deepening of
functional international organizations.
 Ideally, this would ultimately result in
an International Government.
Contd..
 Functionalists in this manner assume that
cooperation in a non-political context would
bring international peace.
 Eradication of existent non-political, non-
military global problems, which Functionalists
consider to be the very origin of conflict within
the global community, is what they aim to pursue.
Contd..
 The idea of international cooperation was elaborated
by L. T. Hobhouse, and then by L. Woolf and G. D. H.
Cole.
 The main rationale behind it was that peace is more
than the absence of violence.
 On the other hand, Mitrany argued that a world
community was a prerequisite for world government.
Contd..
 Nationalism and international anarchy were seen as
the causes behind the division of the world
community into rival units.
 He believed that the establishment of such a
community would solve the problems plaguing the
international system.
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Functionalism 1.pptx

  • 2. Introduction  According to David Mitrany , dealing with functional matters provides the actors in the international community the opportunity to successfully cooperate in a non-political context, which might otherwise be harder to achieve in a political context.
  • 3. Contd..  Development would lead to a process called “autonomous development” towards multiplication, expansion, and deepening of functional international organizations.  Ideally, this would ultimately result in an International Government.
  • 4. Contd..  Functionalists in this manner assume that cooperation in a non-political context would bring international peace.  Eradication of existent non-political, non- military global problems, which Functionalists consider to be the very origin of conflict within the global community, is what they aim to pursue.
  • 5. Contd..  The idea of international cooperation was elaborated by L. T. Hobhouse, and then by L. Woolf and G. D. H. Cole.  The main rationale behind it was that peace is more than the absence of violence.  On the other hand, Mitrany argued that a world community was a prerequisite for world government.
  • 6. Contd..  Nationalism and international anarchy were seen as the causes behind the division of the world community into rival units.  He believed that the establishment of such a community would solve the problems plaguing the international system.
  • 7. Contd..  Mitrany envisaged a world organized on the basis of functional relations.  He advocated a combination between international organization and national freedom, as obviously all protagonists did not share the same interests and, conversely, all common interests were not equal in all countries.
  • 8. Contd..  There are strong assumptions underpinning functionalism:  1) That the process of integration takes place within a framework of human freedom,  2) That knowledge and expertise are currently available to meet the needs for which the functional agencies are built.  3) That states will not sabotage the process.
  • 9. Contd..  Functionalism proposed to build a form of authority based in functions and needs, which linked authority with needs, scientific knowledge, expertise and technology, i.e. it provided a supraterritorial concept of authority.
  • 10. Contd..  The functionalist approach excludes and refutes the idea of state power and political influence (realist approach) in interpreting the cause for such proliferation of international organizations during the inter-war (which was characterized by nation-state conflict) and the subsequent years.
  • 11. Contd..  According to functionalism, international integration – the collective governance and 'material interdependence' (Mitrany, 1933:101) between states – develops its own internal dynamic as states integrate in limited functional, technical, and/or economic areas.  International agencies would meet human needs, aided by knowledge and expertise.
  • 12. Contd..  The benefits rendered by the functional agencies would attract the loyalty of the populations and stimulate their participation and expand the area of integration.  Substantive functions of functional international organizations include human rights, international communication, health, the law of the sea, the environment, education and information, international relief programs, refugee support, and economic development.
  • 13. Neo-functionalism  Neo-functionalism reintroduced territorialism in the functional theory and downplayed its global dimension. Neo-functionalism is simultaneously a theory and a strategy of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany.
  • 14. Contd..  Neo-functionalists focused their attention solely on the immediate process of integration among states, i.e. regional integration.  Initially, states integrate in limited functional or economic areas.  Thereafter, partially integrated states experience increasing momentum for further rounds of integration in related areas. This “invisible hand" of integration phenomenon was termed "spill-over." by the neo-functionalist school
  • 15. Contd..  According to neo-functionalists, there are two kinds of spillover: functional and political.  Functional Spillover is the interconnection of various economic sectors or issue-areas, and the integration in one policy-area spilling over into others.  Political spillover is the creation of supranational governance models, as far-reaching as the European Union, or as voluntary as the United Nations. One of its protagonist was Ernest B. Hass, a US political scientist.
  • 16. Contd..  Jean Monnet's approach to European integration, which aimed at integrating individual sectors in hopes of achieving spill-over effects to further the process of integration, is said to have followed the neo-functional school's track.
  • 17. Contd..  Neo-functionalism declared to be non-normative and tried to describe and explain the process of regional integration based on empirical data.  Integration was regarded as an inevitable process, rather than a desirable state of affairs that could be introduced by the political or technocratic elites of the involved states' societies.