Wolfram Alpha


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Wolfram Alpha

  1. 1. Christ University, Bangalore Name: Aatman Kothari Course: 4th BCA Register Number: 1215901 Topic: Wolfram Alpha Guided By: Vijayalaxmi Ma’am
  2. 2. Introduction Wolfram Alpha (also styled WolframAlpha and Wolfram|Alpha) is a computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Research. It is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from externally sourced "curated data", rather than providing a list of documents or web pages that might contain the answer as a search engine might. Wolfram Alpha, which was released on May 15, 2009, is based on Wolfram's earlier flagship product Mathematica, a computational platform or toolkit that encompasses computer algebra, symbolic and numerical computation, visualization, and statistics capabilities. Additional data is gathered from both academic and commercial websites such as the CIA's World Factbook, the United States Geological Survey, a Cornell University Library publication called All about Birds, Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Dow Jones, the Catalogue of Life, CrunchBase, Best Buy, the FAA and optionally a user's Facebook account. Users submit queries and computation requests via a text field. Wolfram Alpha then computes answers and relevant visualizations from a knowledge base of curated, structured data that come from other sites. Alpha thus differs from semantic search engines, which index a large number of answers and then try to match the question to one. Using the Mathematica toolkit, Wolfram Alpha can respond to natural language questions and generate a human-readable answer. Wolfram has said of the engine: "All one needs to be able to do is to take questions people ask in natural language, and represent them in a precise form that fits into the computations one can do," Wolfram Alpha can only provide robust query results based on computational facts, not queries on the social sciences, cultural studies or even many questions about history where responses require more subtlety and complexity. It is capable of responding to particularly phrased natural-language fact-based questions such as "Where was Mary Robinson born?" or more complex questions such as "How old was Queen Elizabeth II in 1974?" It displays its "Input interpretation" of such a question, using standardized phrases such as "age | of Queen Elizabeth II (royalty) | in 1974", the answer of which is "Age at start of 1974: 47 years", and a biography link. Wolfram Alpha does not answer queries which require a narrative
  3. 3. response such as "What is the difference between the Julian and the Gregorian calendars?" but will answer factual or computational questions such as "June 1 in Julian calendar". Mathematical symbolism can be parsed by the engine, which typically responds with more than the numerical results. For example, "lim(x->0) sin x/x" yields the expected result, 1, as well as a possible derivation using L'Hôpital's rule, a plot, and the series expansion. It is also able to perform calculations on data using more than one source. For example, "What is the fifty-second smallest country by GDP per capita?" yields Nicaragua, $1160 per year.
  4. 4. Technology Wolfram Alpha is written in 15 million lines of Mathematica code and runs on more than 10,000 CPUs. The database currently includes hundreds of datasets, such as "All Current and Historical Weather". The datasets have been accumulated over several years. The curated (as distinct from autogenerated) datasets are checked for quality either by a scientist or other expert in a relevant field, or someone acting in a clerical capacity who simply verifies that the datasets are "acceptable". One example of a live dataset that Wolfram Alpha can use is the profile of a Facebook user. If the user authorizes Facebook to share his or her account details with the Wolfram site, Alpha can generate a "personal analytics" report containing the age distribution of friends, the frequency of words used in status updates and other detailed information. Within two weeks of launching the Facebook analytics service, 400,000 users had used it.Downloadable query results are behind a pay wall but summaries are accessible to free accounts.
  5. 5. History Launch preparations began on May 15, 2009 at 7 pm CDT and were broadcast live on Justin.tv. The plan was to publicly launch the service a few hours later, with expected issues due to extreme load. The service was officially launched on May 18, 2009. Wolfram Alpha has received mixed reviews. Wolfram Alpha advocates point to its potential, some even stating that how it determines results is more important than current usefulness. On December 3, 2009, an iPhone app was introduced. Some usersconsidered the initial $50 price of the iOS app unnecessarily high, since the same features could be freely accessed by using a web browser instead. They also complained about the simultaneous removal of the mobile formatting option for the site. Wolfram responded by lowering the price to $2, offering a refund to existing customers and re-instating the mobile site. On October 6, 2010 an Android version of the app was released and it is now available for Kindle Fire and Nook. (The Nook version is not available outside the US. The Android Play store states that the Android version is not compatible with the Nook. Thus a Nook version is not available outside the US). A further 71 apps are available which use the Wolfram Alpha engine for specialized tasks.
  6. 6. Wolfram Alpha Pro On February 8, 2012, Wolfram Alpha Pro was released, offering users additional features for a monthly subscription fee. A key feature is the ability to upload many common file types and data—including raw tabular data, images, audio, XML, and dozens of specialized scientific, medical, and mathematical formats—for automatic analysis. Other features include an extended keyboard, interactivity with CDF, data downloads, the ability to customize and save graphical and tabular results and extra computation time. Along with new premium features, Wolfram Alpha Pro has led to some changes in the free version of the site: An increase in advertisements on the free site. Text and PDF export options now require the user to setup a free account even though they existed before the introduction of Wolfram Alpha accounts. The option to request extra time for a long calculation used to be free but is now only available to subscribers. Licensing partners Wolfram Alpha is used to power some searches in the Microsoft Bing and DuckDuckGo search engines. For factual question answering, it is also queried by Apple's Siri, as well as Dexetra's speech recognition software for the Android platform, Iris, and the voice control software on BlackBerry 10.
  7. 7. How Mathematica made Wolfram Alpha possible? Development environment Wolfram|Alpha needs... A large-scale development environment for rapid, efficient, robust development by a large group. ...Mathematica and Wolfram Workbenchdeliver Advanced debugging, refactoring, source control, and unit-test integration. See also: Wolfram Workbench » Software Engineering Solutions » Computational knowledge and intelligence Wolfram|Alpha needs... A wide variety of computational capabilities. ...Mathematica delivers The world's largest web of algorithms, all with built-in intelligence for their applicability and self-checking capabilities for accuracy. See also: Blog: The Secret behind the Computational Engine in Wolfram|Alpha » Highly scalable grid computing
  8. 8. Wolfram|Alpha needs... The ability to compute thousands of results at once, running tasks in parallel over multiple CPUs. ...gridMathematica delivers An efficient and reliable cluster of local and remote computation engines for accessing a multi-terabyte database and performing thousands of calculations in parallel. See also: gridMathematica » High-Performance Computing with Mathematica » High-performance enterprise deployment Wolfram|Alpha needs... Massive scalability for handling thousands of queries per second through the web. ...webMathematica delivers Robust, automatic server-deployment options that scale for high traffic and work seamlessly with modern web standards and services. See also: webMathematica » Web Development Solutions » High-Performance Computing with Mathematica » Built-in, computable data Wolfram|Alpha needs... A wide variety of data that's readily computable, and a coherent way to add more. ...Mathematica delivers A wide range of built-in data sources, fully integrated into its symbolic language and immediately computable—a great base for Wolfram|Alpha's many additional other sources.
  9. 9. See also: Guide: Computable Data » One coherent architecture Wolfram|Alpha needs... One systematic way to load, hold, and work with every imaginable type of information—algorithms, data, and more. ...Mathematica delivers A unique symbolic architecture that holds everything—data, graphics, programs, math—in a unified structure, yet is flexible enough to keep the original form of almost anything. This allows Wolfram|Alpha's programmers to always work from one structure. See also: "Mathematica: The All-in-One System" (Video, 1:37) » Smart method selection Wolfram|Alpha needs... The highest-level base of expertise from which to build linguistic understanding. ...Mathematica delivers A separation of the task from the method so users don't need detailed algorithmic knowledge. The Wolfram|Alpha aim of natural language processing would be practically impossible without this base. See also: "Automatic Algorithm Selection" (Video, 1:10) » Technology: Automatic Algorithm Selection »
  10. 10. Dynamic report generation Wolfram|Alpha needs... Optimized look and feel for any computed result that needs to be delivered. ...Mathematica delivers Document building on the fly with automated layout, aesthetic color choices, sizing and typesetting. Wolfram|Alpha programmers just need to pick the kind of output—Mathematica is smart about how to optimize look and feel. See also: Technology: Automated Computational Aesthetics » Analysis: Report Generation » Database connectivity Wolfram|Alpha needs... Flexible, efficient, easy-to-work-with access to terabytes of data. ...Mathematica delivers Fully integrated, built-in connectivity that imports data as symbolic expressions, ready-integrated into the unified structure ofMathematica. See also: Guide: Database Connectivity » High-level programming language
  11. 11. Wolfram|Alpha needs... An expressive way to program linguistic understanding and other expertise. ...Mathematica delivers High-level functional programming with the world's most advanced pattern matching—making programs highly readable, literate, and efficient. See also: Guide: Language Overview » Analysis: Programming Languages » Efficient text processing and linguistic analysis Wolfram|Alpha needs... High-level and efficient text processing. ...Mathematica delivers A wide range of built-in capabilities with automatic algorithm and method selection that delivers optimized performance. See also: Guide: Processing Textual Data » Guide: Linguistics Data » Wide-ranging, automated visualization capabilities Wolfram|Alpha needs... A way to visualize data, tree structures, graph layouts, and other dynamically generated graphics in the most aesthetically pleasing way. ...Mathematica delivers Precision automatic plotting, scaling, layout, coloring, lighting, and other aesthetic optimization with no need to set methods or parameters. Wolfram|Alpha programmers specify the visualization output type and let Mathematicaautomatically "do its thing".
  12. 12. See also: "Visualize Anything in Mathematica" (Video, 6:01) » Automated importing Wolfram|Alpha needs... An easy way to import the world's structured data and curate it. ...Mathematica delivers Hundreds of import filters that automatically convert incoming data to Mathematica's symbolic functional structure for complete integration. See also: Guide: Importing and Exporting »
  13. 13. What can Wolfram Alpha Do? MATHEMATICS Elementary Math · Numbers ·Plotting · Algebra · Matrices ·Calculus · Geometry ·Trigonometry · Discrete Math ·Number Theory · Applied Math ·Logic · Functions · Definitions · ... STATISTICS & DATA ANALYSIS Descriptive Statistics · Statistical Inference · Regression · Statistical Distributions · Random Variables ·Probability · ... CHEMISTRY Elements · Compounds · Ions ·Quantities · Solutions · Reactions ·Chemical Thermodynamics ·Protecting Groups · ... PHYSICS Mechanics · Statistical Physics ·Thermodynamics · Electricity & Magnetism · Optics · Relativity ·Nuclear Physics · Quantum Physics · Particle Physics ·Astrophysics · Physical Constants ·Physical Principles · ... ASTRONOMY
  14. 14. Star Charts · Astronomical Events ·Planets · Moons · Minor Planets ·Comets · Space Weather · Stars ·Pulsars · Galaxies · Star Clusters ·Nebulae · Astrophysics · ... ENGINEERING Acoustics · Audio Waveforms ·Aeronautics · Control Systems ·Electrical Engineering · Fluid Mechanics · Mechanical Engineering · Steam Tables ·Psychrometrics · Refrigeration ·Structures · ... MATERIALS Alloys · Minerals · Crystallography ·Plastics · Woods · Bulk Materials ·Material Hardness · ... LIFE SCIENCES Animals & Plants · Dinosaurs ·DNA Sequence Lookup · Human Genome · SNPs · Proteins · Mouse Genome · Fruit Fly Genome ·Metabolic Pathways · ... COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES Cellular Automata · Substitution Systems · Turing Machines ·Computational Complexity ·Algebraic Codes · Fractals ·Mathematica Programming · Image Processing · ... WORDS & LINGUISTICS Word Properties · Dictionary Lookup · Word Puzzles ·Anagrams · Languages ·Document Length · Morse Code ·Soundex · Number Names ·Character Encodings · ... PEOPLE & HISTORY
  15. 15. People · Genealogy · Names ·Occupations · Political Leaders ·Historical Events · Historical Periods · Historical Countries ·Historical Numerals · Historical US Money · Inventions · ... CULTURE & MEDIA Personal Analytics · Notable Texts ·Periodicals · Writing · Movies ·Television Programs · Television Networks · Video Games · Songs ·Fictional Characters · Mythology ·Awards · ... ART & DESIGN Colors · Image Processing ·Document Length · Display Formats · Units · Visual Arts ·Photography · Barcodes · Notable Texts · Packing & Covering of Objects · Songs · ... MUSIC Music Acts · Music Albums ·Songs · Music Theory · Audio Waveforms · Musical Instruments ·... PLACES & GEOGRAPHY Political Geography · Physical Geography · Places · Cartography ·Geodesy & Navigation · Countries ·Administrative Divisions · Cities ·Mountains · Islands · Oceans ·Lakes · Buildings · Points of Interest · ... EARTH SCIENCES
  16. 16. Geology · Geochronology ·Geodesy · Earthquakes · Tides ·Atmosphere · Climate · ... WEATHER & METEOROLOGY Current & Historical Weather ·Forecasts · Wind Chill · Tropical Storms · US Tornadoes · Clouds ·Climate · ... TRANSPORTATION Airports · Airlines · Aircraft · Flight Data · Air Transport · Road Transport · Gasoline Prices ·Bridges · Tunnels · Water Transport · Space Transport ·Rockets · Tides · ... UNITS & MEASURES Conversions · Calculations ·Comparisons · Dimensional Analysis · Industrial & Construction · Batteries · Bulk Materials · Paint · Display Formats ·Ring Sizes · Shoe Sizes · ... DATES & TIMES Date Computations · Time Zones ·Calendars · Holidays · Geological Time · Birthstones · Birth Flowers ·Wedding Anniversaries · ... MONEY & FINANCE
  17. 17. Stock Data · Indices · Mutual Funds · Futures · Mortgages ·Present Value · Currency Conversion · Tips · Bonds ·Derivatives Valuation · Wages ·Sales Tax · ... SOCIOECONOMIC DATA Demographics · Countries ·US States · US Counties · Cities ·US Demographics · Economics ·Agriculture · Energy · S alaries ·Unemployment · Cost of Living ·Health Care · Housing · Social Statistics · Crime · Military ·Religion · ... HEALTH & MEDICINE Human Body Measurements ·Growth Charts · Physical Exercise ·Diseases · Mortality Data · Medical Tests · Medical Computations ·Vision · Teeth · Drugs & Prescriptions · Hospitals · ... FOOD & NUTRITION Foods · Dietary References · ... SHOPPING Consumer Products · Electronics ·Office Products · Fitness Equipment · Appliances · Musical Instruments · Movie Tickets · Retail Locations · ... TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD
  18. 18. Communications · Satellites ·Space Probes · Photography ·Barcodes · ... WEB & COMPUTER SYSTEMS Website Data · IP Lookup · Port Numbering · Notable Computers ·Data Transfer · File Formats ·Character Encodings · Computer Keyboards · String Processing ·Hashing · ... STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS Chemistry · Arithmetic · Number Theory · Algebra · Trigonometry ·Calculus · Linear Algebra ·Statistics · ... DATA INPUT Automatic Analysis · Statistical Analysis · Time Series Analysis ·Geographic Data · Data Visualization · ... IMAGE INPUT Image Analysis · Image Filtering ·Feature Detection · Color Processing · Image Effects · ... FILE UPLOAD
  19. 19. Basic Formats · Image Formats ·Vector Graphics Formats ·3D Geometry &Modeling Formats ·Audio Formats · Scientific & Medical Formats · Chemical Formats ·Mathematical Formats · Document Formats · XML · ... CDF INTERACTIVITY 3D Graphics · Plots & Maps ·Physics Demonstrations · Image Processing · Interactive Math Plots ·... EDUCATION International Education ·Universities · School Districts ·US Public Schools · US Private Schools · Libraries · Standardized Tests · ... ORGANIZATIONS Universities · Companies ·Hospitals · Foundations ·International Organizations · ... SPORTS & GAMES Sports · Games · Football ·Basketball · Baseball · Tennis ·Golf · Olympics · Stadiums ·Games of Chance · Board Games ·Lotteries · Roulette · Gambling ·Card Games · ... SURPRISES
  20. 20. Jokes · Fun Curves · Handwritten Style · Warp Factor · Animals ·Aphorisms · Famous Lines ·Tongue Twisters · ... Wolfram|Alpha is continually growing and new areas are added every week. ____________________________THE END_______________________________