Chrome OS


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Chrome OS

  1. 1. Christ University, BangaloreName: Aatman KothariCourse: 2ndBCARegister Number: 1215901Topic: Google Chrome OSGuided By: Monisha Singh 1
  2. 2. IntroductionGoogle Chrome OS is a Linux-based operatingsystem designed by Google to work exclusivelywith web applications. Google announced theoperating system on July 7, 2009 and made it an opensource project, called Chromium OS, in November,2009.Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from thedownloaded source code, Chrome OS only ships onspecific hardware from Googles manufacturingpartners.The user interface takes a minimalist approach,resembling that of the Google Chrome web browser.Since Google Chrome OS is aimed at users whospend most of their computer time on the Web, theonly application on the device is a browserincorporating a media player and a file manager. The launch date for retail hardware featuring ChromeOS slipped after Google first announced the operatingsystem: from an initial forecast date in late 2010 toJune 15, 2011, when "Chrome books" from Samsung(and then Acer in July) actually shipped. Chromium OS 2
  3. 3. Chromium OS is the open source development version of GoogleChrome OS.Chrome OSs source code was released on November 19, 2009under the same BSD license as Chromium OS. User interfaceChromium OS uses the new chrome: //newtab page found in GoogleChrome to open web apps. Compared to prior builds, this replacesthe applications page. Chromium OS provides a clock, batteryindicator and network status indicator. The Ctrl + Alt + / keycombination toggles a keyboard overlay that shows the function ofall the shortcut keys used in Chromium, including task and memorymanagers also found in the Chrome browser, and a command-lineinterface that accepts common Linux commands. 3
  4. 4. New window manager andgraphics engineOn April 10, 2012, a new build of Chrome OS offered achoice between the original full-screen window interface andoverlapping, re-sizable windows, such as found on MicrosoftWindows and Apples Mac OS X. The feature wasimplemented through the Ash window manager, which runsatop the Aura hardware-accelerated graphics engine. TheApril 2012 upgrade also included the ability to displaysmaller, overlapping browser windows, each with its owntranslucent tabs, browser tabs that can be "torn" anddragged to new positions or merged with another tab strip,and a mouse-enabled shortcut list across the bottom of thescreen. One icon on the task bar shows a list of installedapps and bookmarks. Writing in CNET, Stephen Shanklandargued that with overlapping windows, "Google is anchoringitself into the past" as both iOS and Microsofts Metrointerface are largely or entirely full-screen. Even so, "ChromeOS already is different enough that its best to preserve anyfamiliarity that can be preserved”Remote application access andvirtual desktop access 4
  5. 5. In June 2010, Google software engineer Gary Kačmarčíkwrote that Chrome OS will access remote applicationsthrough a technology unofficially called "Chromoting", whichwould resemble Microsofts Remote DesktopConnection. The name has since been changed to "ChromeRemote Desktop", and is "probably closer to running anapplication via Remote Desktop Services or by firstconnecting to a host machine by using RDP or VNC". Initialroll-outs of Chrome-OS laptops (Chromebooks) indicate aninterest in enabling users to access virtual desktops.Hardware supportGoogle Chrome OS is initially intended for secondarydevices like netbooks, not as a users primary PC and willrun on hardware incorporating an x86 or ARM-basedprocessor.While Chrome OS will support hard disk drives,Google has requested that its hardware partners use solid-state drives "for performance and reliability reasonsas wellas the lower capacity requirements inherent in an operatingsystem that accesses applications and most user data onremote servers. In November 2009 Matthew Papakipos,engineering director for the Google Chrome OS claimed thatthe Chrome OS consumes one-sixtieth as much drive spaceas Windows 7. 5
  6. 6. Integrated media player, filemanagerGoogle integrates a media player into both Chrome OS andthe Chrome browser, enabling users to play back MP3s,view JPEGs, and handle other multimedia files while offline.Chrome OS also includes an integrated filemanager resemblingthose found on other operating systems,with the ability to display folders and their associated files, aswell as preview and manage file contents using a variety ofWeb applications, including Google Docs and 6
  7. 7. PrintingGoogle Cloud Print is Googles proposed solution to help anyapplication on any device to print on any printer. While thecloud provides virtually any connected device withinformation access, the task of "developing and maintainingprint subsystems for every combination of hardware andoperating system – from desktops to netbooks to mobiledevices – simply isnt feasible.”] However, the cloud servicewould entail installing a piece of software, called a proxy, aspart of Chrome OS. The proxy would register the printer withthe service, manage the print jobs, provide the printer driverfunctionality, and give status alerts for each job.Link handlingChrome OS was designed with the intention of having userdocuments and files stored on online servers. However, bothChrome OS and the Chrome browser have unresolveddecisions regarding handling specific file type’s offline. Forexample, if a JPEG is opened from a local storage device,should a specific Web application be automatically opened toview it, and if so, which one? Similarly, if a user clicks on a.doc file, which website should open:Microsoft Office Live,Gview, or a previewing utility? The project director at thattime, Matthew Papakipos, noted that Windows developershave faced the same fundamental problem: "QuickTime isfighting with Windows Media Player, which is fighting withChrome." As the number of Web applications increases, thesame problem arises. 7
  8. 8. SecurityIn March 2010, Google software security engineer WillDrewry discussed Chrome OS security. Drewry describedChrome OS as a "hardened" operating system featuringauto-updating andsandbox features that will reduce malwareexposure. He said that Chrome OS netbooks will be shippedwith Trusted Platform Module (TPM), and include both a"trusted bootpath" and a physical switch under the batterycompartment that actuates a developer mode. That modedrops some specialized security functions but increasesdeveloper flexibility. Drewry also emphasized that the opensource nature of the operating system will contribute greatlyto its security by allowing constant developer feedback.At a December 2010 press conference, Google claimed thatChrome OS would be the most secure consumer operatingsystem due in part to a verified boot ability, in which the initialboot code, stored in read-only memory, checks for systemcompromises. ArchitectureIn preliminary design documents, Google describes a three-tierarchitecture: firmware, web browser and window manager, andsystem-level software and userland services. 8
  9. 9.  The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware, such as floppy disk drives, that are no longer common on computers, especially netbooks. The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery.  System-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance. Userland software has been trimmed to essentials, with management by Upstart, which can launch services in parallel, re-spawn crashed jobs, and defer services in the interest of faster booting.  The window manager handles user interaction with multiple client windows much like other X window managers.Version: 1. ChromiumOS Cherry (4 December 2009) → ChromiumOS Flow (15 February 2010) 2. ChromiumOS Zero (9 December 2009) → ChromiumOS Vanilla(15 March 2011) History of Chrome OSGoogle developers began coding the operating system in2009, inspired by the growing popularity and lower powerconsumption ofnetbooks and the focus of these small laptopson Internet access. To ascertain marketing requirements foran operating system focused on netbook Web transactions,the company did not do the usual demographic research 9
  10. 10. generally associated with a large software developmentproject. Instead, engineers relied on more informal metrics,including monitoring the usage patterns of some 200 ChromeOS machines used by Google employees. Developers alsonoted their own usage patterns. Matthew Papakipos,formerengineering director for the Chrome OS project, putthree machines in his house and found himself logging in forbrief sessions: to make a single search query or send a shortemail.On November 19, 2009, Google released ChromeOSs source code as the Chromium OS project.As with otheropen source projects, developers are modifying code fromChromium OS and building their own versions, whereasGoogle Chrome OS code will only be supported by Googleand its partners, and will only run on hardware designed forthe purpose. Unlike Chromium OS, Chrome OS will beautomatically updated to the latestversion. InformationWeek reviewer Serdar Yegulalp wrotethat Chrome OS will be a product, developed to "a level ofpolish and a degree of integration with its host hardware thatChromium OS does not have by default," whereasChromium OS is a project, "a common baseline from whichthe finished work is derived" as well as a pool for derivativeworks. The product and project will be developed in paralleland borrow from each other.At a November 19, 2009 news conference, Sundar Pichai,the Google vice president overseeing Chrome, demonstratedan early version of the operating system. He previewed adesktop which looked very similar to the Chrome browser,and in addition to the regular browser tabs also hadapplication tabs, which take less space and can be pinnedfor easier access. At the conference, the operating 10
  11. 11. system booted up in 7 seconds, a time Google said it wouldwork to reduce.Also on November 19, 2009, Chris Kenyon, vice president ofOEM services at Canonical Ltd announced that Canonical "iscontributing engineering to Google [Chrome OS] undercontract. In our discussions, Sundar Pichai and Linus Upsonmade it clear that they want, wherever feasible, to build onexisting components and tools from the open sourcecommunity without unnecessary re-invention. This clearfocus should benefit a wide variety of existing projects andwe welcome it.”On January 25, 2010, Google posted notes, images and avideo of a conceptual design showing how a Chrome OSuser interface might look on a tablet computer with a 5–10 inch screen. The design would include the same basiclayout as on netbooks, but with a touch interface; anonscreen QWERTY keyboard in different layouts; large,square icons placed above the tabs; and panels placedalong the bottom edge that could be opened with an upwarddragging motion. The posting was made two daysbefore Apple announced the iPad tablet. On March 16, 2011,several changes to Chromium OS were made which indicatethe development of a tablet version of Google Chrome OS.In March 2010, Google indicated that consideration is beinggiven to developing two versions of the operating system, aconsumer version and an enterprise version. 11
  12. 12. ChromebooksGoogle initially named several development partners workingon hardware for the operating system, with others named inthe press, including Acer, Adobe, Asus, Freescale, Hewlett-Packard,Lenovo, Qualcomm, TexasInstruments, Toshiba, Intel, Samsung, and Dell.On May 11, 2011 at its Google I/O developer conference,Google announced that the first two commercially availablelaptops incorporating Chrome OS would be manufactured byAcer Inc. and Samsung Electronics Co., with a retail pricebeginning at $349. The ship date was June 15 for the UnitedStates, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Netherlands,Italy and Spain. TheChromebooks are sold in the UnitedStates through Amazon and Best Buy; internationally through"leading retailers". Google claimed an eight-second bootuptime and eight-hour operation on one battery charge, and 12
  13. 13. said that the Chromebooks would require no virus protection.Models equipped with 3G connectivity receive 100megabytes of wireless data per month, free for two years,with an additional gigabyte at $20 per month. Samsungcreated a Chrome OS desktop machine called a Chromebox.Google also announced a monthly payment scheme forbusiness and education customers at $28 and $20 per user,per month, respectively for a three-year contract, includingreplacements and upgrades.On May 29, 2012, Google and Samsung introduced theSecond-Generation Chromebook and a new compactdesktop Chromebox, which was said to be a clone ofthe Apple Mac Mini. 13
  14. 14. Relationship to AndroidGoogles successive introduction of the popular Android andGoogle Chrome OS has put the company behind two opensource, client-based operatingsystems. Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer accused Google ofnot being able to make up its mind. Google has suggestedthat the two operating systems address different markets,mobile and personal computing, which remain distinctdespite the growing convergence of the devices. Google co- 14
  15. 15. founder Sergey Brin suggested that the two systems "willlikely converge over time."Steven Levy wrote that "the dissonance between the twosystems was apparent" at the 2011 Google I/O developerconference. "Each day of the event featured a keynotedevoted to one system followed by a press briefing whereeach team leader (Androids Andy Rubin and ChromesSundar Pichai) unconvincingly tried to explain why thesystems werent competitive. Co-founder Sergey Brinaddressed the question by saying that owning two promisingOSs was a problem that most companies would love toface". 15
  16. 16. ____________________________THEEND___________________________ 16