1. During the very first international football match between
Scotland and England in 1872, players not only wore
“knickerbockers” or long pants but bobble hats or caps too. The
head dresses were a normal part of the footballing attire at the
time and lasted well into the 20th century.
2. Balls were not exactly round when the first club and country
matches took place. A pig’s bladder was blown up like a balloon,
tied at the ends and placed inside a leather case, affording it an
egg shape. The discovery of Indian rubber in the 1860s gave the
ball greater roundness.
3. While it is true footballs of yesteryear gained weight in wet
conditions, they were in fact lighter than today’s ball. In 1889,
the spherical object used had to be between 12-15 ounces (340 –
425 grams) but this increased to 14-16 ounces (397 -454 grams)
4. In the FA rules of 1863, there was no mention of a crossbar.
As in rugby today, a goal could be scored at any height as long as
the ball went between the sticks or posts. A tape was used to
close the goal during the first internationals before a crossbar
replaced it in 1875.
5. Mob football, a descendant of the
modern game, stormed into England
around the 12th Century and caught
on to such an extent it was banned by
Royal decree by many kings and
queens. It was a violent game in
which “murder and manslaughter”
were allegedly the only barriers to
transporting the ball to village ends.
King Henry VIII, however, is believed
to have been a keen player.
6. Contrary to some beliefs, football
was very much an upper class sport in
England during its infancy. The rules
of the game were largely drafted by
students belonging to public schools
and universities. The working class
adopted the sport during the late 19th
A 450-year-old football, made
from a pig's bladder and
pieces of leather, laced
together and found in the
rafters of Stirling Castle
7. The first meeting of the Football Association on 26 October
1863 in London did not end in total agreement among the 12
attendees. One club walked out, refusing to accept the noninclusion of hacking (kicking below the knee) among the original
8. Penalties or
referees found no
place in the original
rules of the game.
foul, it was assumed.
In fact debating
almost as important
as ball skills in those
days as players could
decisions first to
captains and then to
The ancient Greek "Maradona", playing
"Episkyros" with a pala (National Museum of
referees, named so
Archeology in Athens)
because they had
originally been referred to by umpires, found their place on the
pitch in 1891.
9. It was only in the 20th Century that the penalty spot was
introduced. In the decade before penalties, originally called the
kick of death, could be taken anywhere along a line 12-yards
10. The word soccer does not come from the United States but
was a term used by public school and university students, most
notably at Oxford, in the 19th Century to shorten the new game
“Association Football”. The predilection to shorten words with “er”
extended to Rugby too, known as rugger.
11. The FA’s 1863 rules of the game permitted
the use of handling. Although a player could not handle the ball if
it was on the ground, he was able to catch it in the air and make
a mark to gain a “free” kick, which opposing players were not
allowed to charge down.
12. Goalkeepers, in their own half, could handle the ball both
inside and outside the penalty area before 1912.
13. Before 1913 when a corner was
taken, instead of deciding on an
inswinger, outswinger or taking a
short one, there was nothing to stop
a player dribbling the ball by himself.
The rules were changed after several
players teed themselves up before
14. Referees attempted to catch up with play around the turn of
the century decked in black trousers, blazer and bow tie!
The rules of football are officially referred to as the "Laws of the Game".
The Laws of the Game are described very precisely (approximately 150
pages) on the FIFA website here.
There are 17 laws in total, each one briefly summarised below.
Field of Play. The game can be played on either natural or artificial
surfaces, the surface must be green and rectangular in shape. The two
long sides of the rectangle are called touch lines and the two shorter sides
are called goal lines. The field is divided in half by the halfway line.
Ball. Must be spherical, made of leather (or similar) 68-70 cm in
circumference and of a certain pressure.
Number of Players. Two teams of no more than 11 players (one of which
is the goalkeeper). A game cannot start if either team has less than 7
Equipment. Players must wear a jersey, shorts, stockings, shinguards
Referee. The referee ensures the Laws of the Game are respected and
Assistant Referees. There may be at most 2 assistant referees.
Duration of the Match. The game is played in 2 halves consisting of 45
minutes each. The half time interval must not exceed more than 15
minutes. At the discretion of the referee more time is allowed to
compensate for any stoppage during play e.g. Due to substitutions or care
and attention of injured players.
Start and Restart of Play. A kick-off starts play at the start of the match or
after a goal. A kick-off involves one player kicking the ball, from stationary,
forward from the centre spot. All players must be in their own half prior to
kick-off. A coin is tossed pre-game, the team which loses the toss are
awarded the kick-off to start the game whilst the team that win the toss are
allowed to choose which direction they want to play. After half time the
teams switch direction and the other team will kick-off. After a goal is
scored, the team which conceded the goal will kick-off to restart play.
Ball in and Out of Play. The ball is out of play once a goal has been
scored or when the referee has stopped the game. The ball is in play at all
Method of Scoring. The ball crosses the goal line inside the goal mouth.
Offside. It is an offence for a player to be in contact with the ball when
they are closer to the opponents' goal than both the ball and the secondlast opponent. The offside rule exists to ensure there are always
opponents (generally the goal keeper and a defender) between a player
receiving the ball and the goal. Without the offside rule, play can become
boring with repeated long balls being kicked to a player stood next to the
goalkeeper for an easy goal.
Fouls/Misconduct. These are many and varied, broadly speaking it is an
offence to use excessive force whilst playing the game either deliberately
or undeliberately or to handle the ball (unless you are a goal keeper). The
referee may show the yellow card to caution players for less serious
offences and the red card for more serious offences resulting in the player
being sent off. Two yellow cards are equivalent to one red card.
Free Kicks. Are given by the referee for fouls and misconduct. A free kick
can either be direct or indirect. A goal can be scored directly from a direct
free kick. A goal can only be scored from an indirect free kick if it touches
at least one other player first. The free kick must be taken from a
stationary position with that position varying depending on whether the free
kick was given inside or outside the goal area and whether it's direct or
indirect. The opposing team must be a minimum of 9.15 m from the ball
when the free kick is taken.
Penalty Kicks. Are given against a team when they commit an offence which
would normally be awarded a direct free kick inside their goal area. The ball is
kicked from stationary from the penalty spot. The opposing team must be outside
of the penalty area and at least 9.15 m from the ball.
Throw-in. Used to restart play after the whole of the ball has crossed the touch
Goal kick. Used to restart play after a goal has been scored.
Corner Kick. Is given when the whole of the ball crosses the goal line and was
last touched by a member of the defending team (and no goal was scored). A
corner kick is taken from inside the corner arc closest to the point where the ball
crosses the goal line. The defending team must be at least 9.15 m from the ball
when the corner kick is taken.
The rules of specification outline certain factors relating to the
playing set up of Gaelic Games.
They specify limitations relating to:
The Field of Play
1. FIELD OF PLAY
The field of play for Gaelic Games is rectangular and its
dimensions are as follows:
Length - 130m minimum to 145m maximum
Width - 80m minimum to 90m maximum
At distances of 13m, 20m, 45m (football) and 65m (hurling),
lines are marked parallel to the end lines. The intersection of
these lines and the end lines with the sidelines are marked with
The midline of the field is marked parallel to the end lines and
has a maximum length of 10m (Note: the dimensions may be
reduced by local bye-laws for U15 or younger grades).
Goalmouth and Scoring Space
The scoring space is marked in the centre of each end line by two
goalposts 6.5m apart, with a height of not less than 7m above
ground level. A cross bar is fixed to the goal posts at a height of
2.5m above the ground (Note: goalpost dimensions may be
reduced by local bye-laws for U15 or younger grades).
Two rectangles of the following dimensions are formed in front of
each set of goalposts.
A) Small Rectangle
14m long by 4.5m wide. The distance from the inside of each
goalpost to the beginning of each line of width is 3.75m
B) Large Rectangle
19m long by 13m wide. The distance from the inside of each
goalpost to the beginning of each line of width is 6.25m
Substitution Zone and Semi Circle Arc
A semi circle arc of 13m radius, centred on the mid-spot of the
20m line, is marked outside of each 20m line.
An area of the sideline extending 5m on either side of the centre
line denotes the substitution zone. All substitutions and
temporary replacements occur through this zone, when given
permission by the referee (Note: an injured player may leave the
field at the nearest point to him)
2. THE PLAYERS
A team consists of 15 players. These are made up of one
goalkeeper, six defenders, two midfielders and six attackers.
(Note: the positional line up is as below, but no player is
restricted in his movement around the field). The teams line up
A team may commence a game with 13 players, but must have
fielded 15 players (inclusive of any players ordered off or retired
injured) by the start of the second half. A maximum of five
substitutes are allowed. A substitution is not allowed in the case
of a player ordered off (Note: in the case of extra time, an
additional three substitutes are allowed. A player ordered off, in
any circumstances, during normal time may not play in extratime, but may be replaced).
Substitutions/temporary replacements may only be made during
a break in play. Before all official games, the referee must be
given a list of players. The first 15 names on the list indicate
those players constituting the actual team, unless otherwise
The playing time consists of two periods of 30 minutes each, but
time is added on in each period for incidental or deliberate
In Senior Inter-county Championship and National League
games, the playing time consists of two periods of 35 minutes
Playing time may be reduced for U15 or younger grades.
A team must take the field not later than 10 minutes before the
appointed starting time for Senior Inter-county Championship
and other selected games. In all other cases, a team must take
the field not later than 5 minutes before the appointed starting
A football and a goal post..
1. FIFA cup
2. international Nehru cup
3. Asia cup
4. merdeka cup
5. Durand cup
6. rovers cup
7. i.f.a cup
8. santosh trophy
9. federation cup
women federation cup
air lines cup
Olympic Games: football was included in Olympic Games in
1908 . Since, football competition has become a part of these
Rajiv Gandhi gold cup: it is national level tournament for boys
below 21 years
Subroto cup: it I sinter school level tournament.
Santosh trophy: it is national level football tournament of
Top 10 Sporting Personalities
. Lionel Messi (Argentina & Barcelona)
Four times World Player of the Year, Messi is by some distance the best
player on the planet. His ability to mesmerize defenders with a mix of skill
and pace is unmatched and it often appears as though the ball is glued to his
feet. The Barcelona star is versatile enough to play anywhere across the
frontline, but his country Argentina have so far failed to find a way to get
the maximum out of this extraordinary talent. Already one of the best soccer
players of all time.
2. Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal & Real Madrid)
Ronaldo may have less of an influence on games than Messi, but he is
stronger and taller than the Argentine, and his goals-to-games ratio similar.
Since joining Real Madrid from Manchester United in 2009, Ronaldo has
been a revelation, making the world record outlay of US$131 look less
outrageous with every hat-trick. His famous stepover is imitated in parks
right across the world.
3. Xavi Hernandez (Spain & Barcelona)
Barcelona’s midfield metronome dictates the tempo of a match with his
phenomenal pass completion rate. He works superbly with partner-in-crime
Andres Iniesta, the pair undoubtedly responsible for enhancing Messi’s
game further with the steady stream of passes with which they provide in the
final third. Xavi is now into his 30s, and a chronic Achilles
injury notwithstanding, has the potential to continue for several years yet.
4. Andres Iniesta (Spain & Barcelona)
Iniesta's understanding with club-mate Xavi Hernandez borders on the
telepathic at times. The short, eye of the needle passing the pair produce can
pierce holes in the most stubborn of rearguards. Iniesta is also very modest,
never creating problems for the coaches he works under. Scored the winner
in the World Cup final against the Netherlands.
5. Robin van Persie (Netherlands & Manchester United)
Having put the injury problems that blighted Van Persie throughout his mid20s behind him, the Dutchman is now one of the most feared strikers in
world soccer. Manchester United procured the player from Arsenal in 2012
and it proved a masterful signing as he picked up where he had left off at the
Emirates Stadium with goals galore to fire United to the 2012-13 Premier
League title. A player of immaculate technique, with a left foot to die for.
6. Gareth Bale (Wales & Real Madrid)
The Welsh attacker completed his long-awaited move to Real Madrid on
September 1, 2013 after a summer of protracted negotiations with
Tottenham Hotspur. Bale is a supreme dribbler who boasts the pace and skill
to beat multiple opponents. He is also a great finisher and capable of scoring
consistently from long range.
7. Wayne Rooney (England & Manchester United)
If there were question marks over Rooney's goal scoring abilities, they were
well and truly answered in the 2009/10 season. Now that he has added more
goals to his game, Rooney is the all-round player. Superb awareness, longrange passing, hold-up play and a never-say-die spirit combine to make a
precious asset for club and country.
8. Yaya Toure (Ivory Coast & Manchester City)
The all-round midfielder. The emergence of Sergio Busquets at Barcelona
proved a blessing for Manchester City because it meant that the Catalans
were willing to offload the Ivorian to the Etihad Stadium in 2011. Toure was
one of the linchpins as City won their first league title since 1968. Few
players are capable of switching through the gears so effortlessly and
watching Toure rampage through Premier League midfields is one of the
most spectacular sights in world soccer.
9. Radamel Falcao (Colombia & Monaco)
The Colombian has been a goalscoring phenomenon since moving to Europe
in 2009. A serial Europa League scorer when at Porto and Atletico Madrid,
Falcao also features at the top of the domestic goalscoring charts on a
regular basis and it was little surprise that cash rich Monaco chose the striker
as their marquee signing in 2013 at over 50 million euros.
10. Zlatan Ibrahimovic (Sweden & Paris Saint-Germain)
Expect the unexpected with the mercurial Swede. Ibrahimovic is the
moodiest player in world soccer, but completely unplayable when on his
game. Just witness his stunning overhead kick against England in 2012. Ibra
has won league titles in Holland, Italy, Spain and France with six different
clubs and is something of a lucky charm for those willing to invest in his
The basic techniques
In grassroots football, the basic techniques can be
divided into three categories:
Control of the ball
Running with the ball
Striking the ball
1. Control of the ball
a. Control / b. Keepy-uppy
To control the ball is to master it. Properly controlling
the ball means that a move will be successful. The
control movements to focus on are: directed control and
gathering the ball while moving – these introduce speed
into the play.
If repeated regularly, keepy-uppy develops the skills
ofdexterity, coordination and balance in young
footballers. These skills favour the more rapid
acquisition of othertechniques.
2. Running with the ball
a. Without obstacles / b. With obstacles = dribbling
Running with the ball
This is how an individual moves in free space with the
ball. When a player is running well with the ball, he/she
is in control of it at all times: this requires good balance
and excellent stability. Running with the ball while
keeping the head up allows a continuous flow of
information to be received and allows movement to be
adapted to play.
This is how an individual moves with the ball when
faced by opponents. Dribbling allows the player
in possession of the ball to eliminate one or more
making a manoeuvre and taking individual risks,
setting up a team move,
gaining time to allow support from team-mates,
deceiving an opponent (the concept of the feint).
3. Striking the ball
a. Passes / b. Shots on goal
The action of giving the ball to a team-mate. This is an
essential part of team play. As the core of the game,
passing allows a team to:
keep possession of the ball,
set up attacks,
change the direction of play,
provide a decisive or final pass.
Crosses are a type of short or long pass, usually leading
to a shot. They serve as the last pass.
An action with the objective of dispatching the ball into
the opponent’s goal. It is the logical conclusion, the
culmination of an attack. It is what football is all about.
Shooting requires technical qualities (striking the ball
well, accuracy), physical qualities (power, coordination,
balance) and mental qualities (determination, audacity,
Main individual tactics for defending
Always keep between your opponent and your goal,
Always watch your opponent and the ball,
Try to counter the opponents’ attacking build-up as soon as
possible by marking,
Don’t give your opponent space. Slow your opponent down
when they run with the ball (shutting down),
Try to get to the ball before your opponent, or otherwise hinder
them when they receive the ball. Contest all balls,
Mark your opponent on the side of the ball, in other words the
side where he/she will make the pass,
When a high ball comes in, jump a moment earlier than your
Do not dribble in your penalty area,
Avoid cross-pitch passes from the outside to the inside,
Play on the outside along the touchline,
Don’t hit the ball randomly, build an attack from the back,
If you lose the ball, strive to recover it,
Avoid ineffective tackles, don’t throw yourself at an opponent
who has the ball. Wait until your opponent changes the weight
on his/her feet before challenging them,
Never turn your back on an attacker,
Push your opponents towards the touchline,
Carefully follow play, even if the ball is far away,
A good defender never gives up,
The goalkeeper must command his/her area.
COMMON INJURIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS
Knee injuries in football are the most common, especially those to
the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament (ACL/PCL) and to the
menisci (cartilage of the knee). These knee injuries can adversely
affect a player's longterm involvement in the sport. Football players
also have a higher chance of ankle sprains due to the surfaces
played on and cutting motions.
Shoulder injuries are also quite common and the labrum (cartilage
bumper surrounding the socket part of the shoulder) is particularly
susceptible to injury, especially in offensive and defensive linemen.
In addition, injuries to the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) or shoulder
are seen in football players.
Football players are very susceptible to concussions. A concussion
is a change in mental state due to a traumatic impact. Not all those
who suffer a concussion will lose consciousness. Some signs that
a concussion has been sustained are headache, dizziness,
nausea, loss of balance, drowsiness, numbness/tingling, difficulty
concentrating, and blurry vision. The athlete should return to play
only when clearance is granted by a health care professional.
Low-back pain, or back pain in general, is a fairly common
complaint in football players due to overuse. Overuse can also
lead to overtraining syndrome, when a player trains beyond the
ability for the body to recover. Patellar tendinitis (knee pain) is a
common problem that football players develop and can usually be
treated by a quadriceps strengthening program.
Heat injuries are a major concern for youth football players,
especially at the start of training camp. This usually occurs in
August when some of the highest temperatures and humidity of
the year occur. Intense physical activity can result in excessive
sweating that depletes the body of salt and water.
The earliest symptoms are painful cramping of major muscle
groups. However, if not treated with body cooling and fluid
replacement, this can progress to heat exhaustion and heat stroke
— which can even result in death. It is important for football
players to be aware of the need for fluid replacement and to inform
medical staff of symptoms of heat injury.
HOW CAN FOOTBALL INJURIES BE PREVENTED?
Have a pre-season health and wellness evaluation
Perform proper warm-up and cool-down routines
Consistently incorporate strength training and stretching
Hydrate adequately to maintain health and minimize cramps
Stay active during summer break to prepare for return to sports in
Wear properly fitted protective equipment, such as a helmet, pads,
Tackle with the head up and do not lead with the helmet
Speak with a sports medicine professional or athletic trainer if you
have any concerns about football injuries or football injury