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ANTISEPTICS & DISINFECTANTS
Disinfection is destruction of all
microbes but not their spores. If spores
are also killed, t...
MECHANISM OF ACTION
• Oxidation of bacterial protoplasm
• De-naturation of bacterial proteins
• Detergent like action
• Co...
CLASSIFICATION
• Acids : boric acid, benzoic acid
• Alcohols : ethanol, isopropyl alcohol
• Aldehydes : formaldehyde, glut...
ACIDS
• Boric acid & benzoic acid have weak
bacteriostatic & fungistatic activity. Aqueous
solution of boric acid are used...
ALDEHYDES
• FORMALDEHYDE: It is a gas at room temperature used
for fumigation, the 40% aqueous solution is
noncorrosive an...
SURFACTANTS
• Surfactants are chemicals that lower surface
tension of solution & are termed as detergents,
They maybe anio...
PHENOL DERIVATIVES
• Phenol is one of the oldest antiseptics introduced by LORD
LISTER IN 1867. It is bactericidal & fungi...
HALOGENS
• It is a powerful bactericidal, sporicidal, fungicidal
and viricidal agent.
• Disadvantages: Irritating, painful...
IODIZING AGENTS
• Hydrogen peroxide : It is a colourless and
odourless liquid. On application there is
effervescence & hel...
DYES
• Gentian violet : effective against gram positive
organisms and fungi. Staining is the only
disadvantage. It is non ...
Metals
• Zinc salts : have astringent & mild antiseptic
properties. Zinc ointment is used as an
ointment or lotion eczema,...
BY – NIHARIKA BSc nursing 2nd year
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Antiseptics & disinfectants

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Antiseptics & disinfectants

  1. 1. ANTISEPTICS & DISINFECTANTS Disinfection is destruction of all microbes but not their spores. If spores are also killed, then this is called sterilization. Antiseptic is the killing of microbes and can be used on living tissues. The word germicide can be used for drugs either.
  2. 2. MECHANISM OF ACTION • Oxidation of bacterial protoplasm • De-naturation of bacterial proteins • Detergent like action • Competition with essential substrates for imp. enzymes in bacterial cell. An ideal germicide should have  wide antibacterial spectrum  Chemically stable  Rapid action  Non irritating to tissues  No interference with wound healing even in presence of pus, exudates and tissue degradation products
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION • Acids : boric acid, benzoic acid • Alcohols : ethanol, isopropyl alcohol • Aldehydes : formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde • Surfactants : Soaps, Cetrimide • Phenol derivatives : phenol, cresol • Halogens : iodine, chlorine • Oxidizing agents : Hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate • Dyes: Gentian violet, brilliant green • Metallic salts : Silver nitrate, zinc compounds
  4. 4. ACIDS • Boric acid & benzoic acid have weak bacteriostatic & fungistatic activity. Aqueous solution of boric acid are used for irrigating eyes, bladder, vagina & large wounds. ALCOHOLS Ethyl alcohol is used to clean the skin before injections & surgeries. Isopropyl alcohol is more potent and more toxic than ethanol. It is used in 68-72% concentration as skin antiseptic
  5. 5. ALDEHYDES • FORMALDEHYDE: It is a gas at room temperature used for fumigation, the 40% aqueous solution is noncorrosive and has a broad antimicrobial spectrum. It has a pungent odour & is highly irritant to respiratory mucosa & eyes. Mechanism of action of formaldehyde : act by alkylation(transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another) of chemical groups in proteins & nucleic acid. Uses : I. Used for fumigation & sterilization of instruments which cannot be moistened with solution II. 40% solution(100% formalin) in h20 is used for disinfection of surgical instruments and gloves.
  6. 6. SURFACTANTS • Surfactants are chemicals that lower surface tension of solution & are termed as detergents, They maybe anionic(-vely charged) cationic(+vely charged ion) ampholytic (type of amino acid that changes its charge depending on the pH of aqueous solution) or polysorbates (any of several emulsifiers used in the preparation of some pharmaceuticals and foods) • Anionic surfactants : eg soaps • Cationic surfactanats: eg. Cetrimide
  7. 7. PHENOL DERIVATIVES • Phenol is one of the oldest antiseptics introduced by LORD LISTER IN 1867. It is bactericidal & fungicidal but has poor action against spores & viruses. It acts by denaturing the bacterial proteins. It also has a mild anaesthetic effect. It is a protoplasmic poison. Protoplasmic poisons are substances that if a healthy living cell is exposed to in significant amounts, the cell will be adversely affected, damaged, or killed. • Uses : A. Disinfection of urine, faeces, sputum of patients B. Antipruritic effect because it is an anaesthetic • Cresol is methylphenol. It is used for disinfecting utensils & excreta
  8. 8. HALOGENS • It is a powerful bactericidal, sporicidal, fungicidal and viricidal agent. • Disadvantages: Irritating, painful, stains the area and may delay wound healing • Uses of iodine : I. As a tincture: used before surgeries to clean the skin II. Mandl’s paint : treatment of tonsilitis & pharyngitis III. Iodine ointment : in ringworm infections
  9. 9. IODIZING AGENTS • Hydrogen peroxide : It is a colourless and odourless liquid. On application there is effervescence & helps in removing tissue debris, ear wax etc. Action of duration is short. It is also a deodrant • Uses : cleansing wounds, abscesses & for irrigation
  10. 10. DYES • Gentian violet : effective against gram positive organisms and fungi. Staining is the only disadvantage. It is non irritant and potent antiseptic. 0.5-1% solution is used topically on burns & boils, eczema(Eczema symptoms include itchy, red, and dry skin caused by inflammation) • Brilliant green : action is similar to gentian violet.
  11. 11. Metals • Zinc salts : have astringent & mild antiseptic properties. Zinc ointment is used as an ointment or lotion eczema, impetigo & psoriasis. • Mercury compounds: act by inhibiting sulphydryl enzymes of bacteria. They are not commonly used.
  12. 12. BY – NIHARIKA BSc nursing 2nd year   

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