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  1. 1. Project Management: A controlled process of initiating, plannig, executing, and closingdown the project. 1. Initiating the Project:: The 1st phase of project management process in which activities are performed to assess the size, scope and complexity of the project and to establish procedures to support later project activities. The types of ctivities you wil perform when initiating a project are: a. Establishing the project initiation team – the activity involves organizing an initial core of project team members to assist in accomplishing the project initiationactivities. b. Establishing a relationship with the customer – A thorough understanding of your customer buids stronger partnerships and higher level of trust. To foster strong working relationships between business units (like purchasing) and the I.S department group by assigning a specific individual to work as liaison between both groups. Same strategy used for establishing relationships with customers in many organizations. c. Establishing the project initiation plan – This step defines the activities required to organize the initiation team while it is working to define the goals and scope of the project. This required the collection, analysis, organization and transformation of a lot of information. They also needed to define when and how they would communicate, define deliverables and project steps, and set deadlines. Their initiation plan included agendas for several meetings. d. Establishing management procedures – successful projects require the development of effective management procedures. Each project may have unique procedures tailored to its needs. Yet, in general when establishing procedures, you are concerned with developing team communication and reporting procedures, job assignments and roles, project change procedures, and determining how project funding and billing will be handled. e. Establishing ther project management environment and project workbook – the focus of this activity is to collect and organize the tools thatyou will use while managing the project and to construct the project workbook. Project workbook is an on-line or hard copy repository for all project corerspondence, inputs, outputs, deliverables, rocedures, and standards that is used for performing project audits, orientating new team members, communicating with management and customers, identifying future projects, and performing post-project reviews. The establishment and diligent recording of all project information in the workbook are two of the most important activitires you will perform as project manager. 2. Planning the Project: The 2nd phase of project management process, which focuses on defining clear, discrete activities and the work neede to complete each activity within a single project. a. Describing project scope, alternatives and feasibility – the purpose of this activity is to understand the content & complexity of the project. During this activity, you should reach agreement on the following questions: 1
  2. 2. i. What problem or opportunity does the project address? ii. What are the quantifiable results to be achieved? iii. What needs to be done? iv. How will success be measured? v. How will we know when we are finished? After defining scope of the project, next objective is to identify and document general alaternative solutions for the curernt business problem or opportunity. You must then assess the feasibility of each alternative solution and choose which to consider during SDLC phases. b. Dividing the project into manageable tasks – this is the critical activity. In which you must divide the entire project into manageable tasks and then logically order them to ensure a smooth evolution between tasks. The definition of tasks and their sequence is referred to as the ‘work breakdown structure’. Some tasks may be erformed in parallel whereas others must follow one another sequentially. c. Estimating resources and creating a resource plan – to estimate resource requirements for each project activity and use this information to create a project resource plan. The resource plan helpsassemble and deploy resources in the most effective manner. d. Developing a preliminary schedule – during this activity, use the information on tasks and resource availability to assign time estimates to each activity in the work breakdown structure. These time estimates will allow you to create target starting and ending dates for the project. Target dates can be revisited and modified until a schedule produced is acceptable to the customer. The schedule may be represented as a Gantt chart or as a PERT (program evaluation review technique) chart. e. Developing a communication plan – to outline the communication procedures among the management, project team members, and the customer. The communication plan includes when and how written and oral reports will be provided by the team, how team members will coordinate work, what messages will be sent to announce the project to interersted parties, and what kinds of information will be shared with vendors external contractors involved with the project. It is important that free & open communication occur among all parties, with respect for proprietary information and confidentiality with the customers. f. Determining project standards and procedures – During this activity, you will specify how various deliverables are produced and tetsed by your project team. g. Identifying & assessing risk – the goal of this activity is to identify sources of project risk and to estimate the consequences of those risks. Risk might arise from the use f new technology, prospective users resistance to change, availability of critical resources, or team member inexperience with new technology etc.2
  3. 3. h. Creating a preliminary budget – you need to create a preliminary budget that outlines the planned expenses and revenues associated with your project. i. Develop a statement of work – this document outlines works that will bw done & clearly describes what the project will deliver. The statement of work is useful to make sure that you, the customer, and other project team members have a clear understanding of the intended project size, duration and outcomes. j. Setting a baseline project plan – at the end you will be abe to develop a baseline project plan. This plan provides an estimate of the project’s tasks & resource requirements and is used to guide the next project phase i.e. execution.3. Project Execution: The 3rd phase of project management process in which the plans created in the prior phases (project initiation & planning) are put into action. a. Executing the baseline project plan – as project manger, you oversee the execution of the base line project plan. This means that you initiate the execution of the project activities, acquire and assign resources, orient and train new team members, keep the project on schedule, and assure the quality of project deliverables. b. Monitoring project progressagainst the baseline project plan – whilw you excute the base-line project plan, you should monitor your progress. If the project gets ahead of (or behind) schedule, you may have to adjust resources, activities and budgets. Monitoring project activities can result in modifications to the current plan. Measuring the time and effort expanded on each activitywill help you improve the accuracy of estimations for future projects. Monitoring projects also means that the team leader must evaluate & appraise each team member, occasionally chage work assignments or request changesin personnel, and provide feedback to the employee’s supervisor. c. Managing changes to the baseline project plan – you will encounter pressure to make changes to the base-line plan. Only approved changes to the project specification can be made and all changes must be reflected in the base-line project plan and project workbook, including all charts. In additiont to changes occuring through formal request, changes may also occur from events outside your control. In fact, many events may initiate a change to the base-ne project plan, including the following possibilities:  A slipped completion date for an activity  The identification of the new activity that becomes evident later in the project  An unforseen change in personnel due to sickness, resignation or termination. d. Maintaining the project workbook – maintaining complete records of all project events is necessary. The workbook provides the documentation new team members require to assimilate project tsaks quickly. It explains why deign decisions were made and is primary source of information for producing all project reports. e. Communicating the project status – the project manager is responsibe for keeping all the team mebers, system developers, managers and customers abreast of the project status. Clear communication is required to create a3
  4. 4. shared understanding of the activities and goalsof the project. Thismeans that the entire project paln should be communicated to all interested parties so that every one understands ho the plan is evolving.4. Project Closedown: The final phase of the project management process that focuses on bringing a project to an end. a. Closing down the project – during closedown, you perform several diverse activities e.g. to assess each team member and provide an appraisal for personnel files & salary determination. You may also provide career advice to team members, write letetrs to superior praising secial accomplishements of team members, and send thankyou letters to those who helped but not team members. As project manager, you must be prepared to handle possible negative personnel issues such as job termination. When closing down the project, it is also important to notify all interested parties that the project has been completed and to finalize all project documentation b. Conducting postproject reviews c. Closing the customer contract Customers & Management Expectations Documentation & Technological Communication Change Time & Resource SDLC Constraints Organizational Methodologies & Change & Tools Complexity Contractors & Managing People Vendors The Art of Project Management Common Activities and Skills of Project Manager4
  5. 5. Activity Description SkillLeadership Influences the activities of others Communication; liaison towards the attainment of a between management, users, common goal through the use of and developers; assigning intelligence, personality and activities, monitoring progress. abilities.Management getting projects completed Defining and sequencing through the effective utilization activities; communicating of resources expectations; assigning resources to the activities; monitoring outcomesCustomer Relations Working closely with customers Interpreting system requests to assure project deliverables and specifications; site meet expectations preparation and user training; contact point for customersTechnical Problem Designing and sequencing Interpreting system requestsSolving activities to attain project goals and specifications; defining activities and their sequence; making trade-offs between alternative solutions; designing solutions to problemsConflict Management Managing conflict within a Problem solving; smoothing out project team to assure that personality differences; conflict is not too high or too compromising; goal setting lowTeam Management Managing the project team for Communication within and effective team performance between teams; peer evaluations; conflict resolution; team building; self managementRisk & Change Identifying, assessing, and Environmental scanning, riskManagement managing the risks and day-to- and opportunity identification day changes that occur during a and assessment; forecasting; project resource redeployment. 5