The physical features of india


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The physical features of india

  1. 1. Kendriya vidyalaya Smt. R.P Behra Mam Aniket Sahu Bhagyaraj Pandab G.Santosh Bibhas Ch. Mahato
  2. 2. acKnowledgement We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to our teacher “SMT. R.P. BEHRA” who gave us the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “ THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA” which also helped us in doing a lot of Research and We came to know about so many new things We are really thankful to them. We are making this project not only for marks but to also increase our knowledge. THANK YOU
  3. 3. The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions: (i) The Himalayan Mountains (ii) The Northern Plains (iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) The Indian Desert (v) The Coastal Plains (vi) The Islands
  4. 4. (i) tHe Himalayan moUntain:• The Himalayan ranges contain several high peaks. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world. • The Himalayan Mountains stretch in a long curve from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. • Their length is about 2000 kilometers and width between 230 and 400 kilometers.
  5. 5. tHe HimalayaS Have tHree main rangeS tHat are: (i)The greater Himalayas (ii) The lesser Himalayas (iii) The Shivalik hill ranges
  6. 6. The Himalayas
  7. 7. The Greater Himalayas: The highest range of the Himalayas is known as the greater Himalayas. It is also called the Himadri.  The great Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, extend along the northern frontiers of Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Burma. They were formed geologically as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia.  The Greater Himalayas, or northern range, average approximately 6,000 meters in height and contain the three highest mountains on earth: Mount Everest (8,796 meters) on the China-Nepal border; K2 (8,611 meters, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, and in China as Qogir Feng in an area claimed by India, Pakistan, and China; and Kanchenjunga (8,598 meters) on the India-Nepal border.
  8. 8. The lesser himalayas :The range lying to the south of the Himadri forms the most rugged mountain system & known as Himachal or the lesser Himalayas. The ranges are mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. The altitude varies between 3700 & 4500 meters And Average width is of 50 km. The most important & longest range is the Pir Panjal range. The Dhaula Dhar & the Mahabharat Ranges consists of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and the Kullu valley in Himachal Pradesh. This region is well known for its hill station.
  9. 9. The Lesser Himalayas Darjeeling - Tea field in Lesser Himalaya. A view of Lesser Himalayas.
  10. 10. (iii) The Shivalik rang e s • The Shivalik Hills or Range are the southernmost and geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas. • The Shivalik form a belt, which runs continuously from Jammu, Kangra valley, Sirmur district to Dehradun and finally ending up in the Bhabar tracts of Garhwal and Kumaon. The Shivalik extends about 1,689 km from southwest Kashmir through northern India into southern Nepal. The hills consists of 6000 meters of layered rocks • The Shivalik crest at 600 to 1,200 meters and have many sub-ranges. They extend 1,600 km from the Teesta River in Sikkim, westward through Nepal and Uttarkhand, continuing into Kashmir and Northern Pakistan, and are cut through at wide intervals by large rivers flowing south from the Himalayas.
  11. 11. Importance of Shivalik hills •The physical features and the climatic conditions of this region have played an important role in shaping and making it an important part from the rest of the country. •The physical features and the climatic conditions of this region have played an important role in shaping and making it an important part from the rest of the country.
  12. 12. The Shivalik Ranges Shivalik Hills A view of Shivalik Range Kedarnath (Shivalik)
  13. 13.  The narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of shiwalik are called Bhabar.  The streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet ,swampy and marshy region known as terai.  The flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace like feature is known as bhangar.  The soil in this region contains calcareous deposits known as khadar.
  14. 14. The Peninsular Plateau
  15. 15.    The peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is formed due to the breaking and drifting of the gondwana land. It has a broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills
  16. 16. This plate au co nsists o f two bro ad divisio ns are : Central highlands Deccan plateau
  17. 17. the Central highlands  The part o f pe ninsular plate au lying to the no rth o f the N armada rive r co ve ring a majo r are a o f the malwa plate au is kno wn as the ce ntral hig hlands.  The e xte nd o f ce ntral hig hlands is fro m vindhya to aravalli hills.  The slo pe o f ce ntral hig hlands is fro m so uthwe st to no rth-e ast
  18. 18.  The rive rs Chambal, Sind, be twa and ke n flo w are acco rding to the slo pe o f the plate au.  The ce ntral hig hlands are wide r in the we st and are narro we r in the e ast.  The cho tanag pur plate au is the e astward e xte nsio n o f ce ntral hig hlands.  The cho tanag pur plate au is draine d fro m Damo dar rive r.
  19. 19. deCCan Plateau  The deccan plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river narmada.  The deccan plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.  It is separated by fault from the chotanagpur plateau.
  20. 20. The western ghats and the eastern ghats mark the western and the eastern edges of the deccan plateau respectively. Three passes from western ghats are: 1.Thal ghats 2.Bhor ghats 3. Pal ghats
  21. 21.  The western ghats are higher than the eastern ghats.  Their average elevation is 900 to 1600m as against 600m of the eastern ghats.  The eastern ghats stretches mahanadi valley to the nilgiri hills in the south.  The eastern ghats are discontinuous and are cut by the rivers.
  22. 22. 1) The western Ghats cause pornographic rain by facing the rain bearing winds to rise along the western slopes of the Ghats. 2)The heights of western Ghats increases gradually. 3)The highest peaks include: We) Anai mudi (2,695m) ii) Doda betta(2,637m) 4) Mahendragiri (1,501m) is the highest peak in eastern Ghats.
  23. 23. Western Ghats
  24. 24. eastern ghats
  25. 25. A place that receives less than 10 inches (25 centimeters) of rain per year is considered a desert. Deserts cover more than one fifth of the Earth's land, and they are found on every continent. Deserts are. part of a wider classification of regions called "dry lands . These areas exist under a moisture deficit, which means they can frequently lose more moisture through evaporation than they receive from annual precipitation.
  26. 26. The Costal P lains
  27. 27. The CosTal Plains Coastal plains is a geologic feature found around the world and on both the eastern and western coasts of India. Coastal plains are characterized by an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent to a Water body often a sea or ocean. It is also of note that coastal plains are separated from the interior of the larger Land mass by other unique features. Coastal plains have limited vegetation. However grasses and trees are not uncommon. The coastal plains of India are relatively expansive regions which contribute significantly to the geography of the region.
  28. 28. The islanDs
  29. 29. An island  is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by Water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or Holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal, it is generally not considered an island.