Media Tactics Media Planning and Strategy The Media class, Media vehicles,Media options, Scheduling and timing
Media TerminologyMedia Planning - A series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to audiences.Media Objectives - Goal to be attained by the media strategy and program.Media Strategy - Decisions on how the media objectives can be attained – indicative of the media budget.Media - The various categories of delivery systems, including broadcast and print media.Broadcast Media Electronic Media - Either radio or television network
Media TerminologyPrint Media - Publications such as newspapers and magazines.Media Vehicle - The specific message carrier, such as the Geo Shaan say, KBC, Hamid Mir or Najam Sethi etc shows.Coverage - The potential audience that might receive the message through the vehicle.Reach - The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by the vehicle in a given period of time.Frequency - The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time period.
Problems in Media Planning Lack of information Serious time pressure Measurement problems
Developing the Media PlanSituation Analysis Marketing Strategy Plan Advertising Strategy Plan Setting Media Objectives Determining Media Strategy Selecting Broad Media Classes Selecting Media Within ClassMedia Use Decision Media Use Decision Media Use Decision — Broadcast — Print — Other Media
Developing the Media PlanFollowing areas are strongly interlinked:• Situation / Environment Analysis• Marketing Strategy Plan• Advertising Strategy Plan
Developing the Media Plan Analyze the Market Establish Media Objectives Develop Media Strategy Implement Media Strategy Evaluate Performance
Media Planning Criteria Considerations The media mix Target market coverage Geographic coverage Reach versus frequency Scheduling Creative aspects and mood Budget considerations
Target Audience Coverage Population excluding target market Target market Media coverage Media overexposure Target Full Partial Coverage Market Market Market ExceedingProportion Coverage Coverage Market
Media Class DecisionsDecision is made on quantitative criteria • Target Audience number that can be reached through media class – TV, Radio, Press etc. Territory dependent brands are complicated.Decision is made on qualitative criteria • Fit between medium and creative execution. Examples???? • Production logistics • Competition’s use of media
Television Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Mass coverage Low selectivity High reach Short message life Impact of sight, sound, High absolute cost and motion High production costs Low cost per exposure Clutter Attention getting Favorable image
Radio Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Local coverage Audio only Good for territory brands Clutter Low cost Low attention getting High frequency Fleeting message Low production costs Well-segmented audiences
Magazines Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Segmentation potential Long lead time for ad Quality reproduction placement High information content Visual only Longevity Multiple readers – pass- on-readership
Newspapers Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages High coverage Short life Low cost Clutter Short lead time for Low attention-getting placing ads capabilities Ads can placed in Poor reproduction interest sections quality Timely (current ads) Selective reader Can be used for exposure coupons Low literacy rates harm.
Outdoor Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Location specific Short exposure time High resolution requires short ad Easily noticed Poor image
Internet / Interactive Media Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages User selects product Limited creative capabilities information Web snarl (crowded access) User attention and Technology limitations involvement Interactive relationship Few valid measurement techniques Direct selling potential Limited reach Flexible message platform Compliments print and electronic media.
Direct Mail Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages High selectivity High cost/contact Reader controls exposure Poor image (junk mail) High information content Clutter Opportunities for repeat exposures
Media Vehicle DecisionMedia vehicle choice is based on -– Quantitative considerations of – Cost per exposure • TV – unit of measurement – TRP x no.of exposures = GRP ( gross rating points) / total no of exposures – CPRP unit cost divided by TRP (cost per rating point) • Press – unit of measurement – Readership - total vehicle audience (higher than circulation) – CPT - unit cost divided by readership x 1000= CPT (cost per thousand)– Qualitative considerations of media vehicle choice – Editorial environment suitability – To gather media source effect copy approaches must vary by vehicle
Qualifying ReachReach –no of people / households exposed to theadvertising at least once, over a specified period of timeReach is always Unduplicated Reach – internal andexternal duplicationCumulative reach - additional readers netted throughpass on readershipEffective reach / audience - % of target audiencereached by the vehicleThe audience is usually defined in terms of demographics
Qualifying FrequencyFrequency – the number of times someone sees the adAverage Frequency – the average number of times a person or household is exposed(no. of exposures (OTS) divided by unduplicated reach)Threshold / Effective reach level / effective frequency – level of frequency below which the person would not have been effectively reached - at least 3 exposuresFrequency distribution – The exact number of people to be exposed a specified number of times (to avoid over or under exposure)
Effects of Reach and Frequency1. One exposure of an ad to a target group within a purchase cycle has little or no effect in most circumstances.2. Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the central objective of productive media planning should be to enhance frequency rather than reach.3. The evidence suggests strongly that an exposure frequency of two within a purchase cycle is an effective level.4. Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycle or over a period of four or even eight weeks, increasing frequency continues to build advertising effectiveness at a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline.
Effects of reach and frequency5. Although there are general principles with respect to frequency of exposure and its relationship to advertising effectiveness, differential effects by brand are equally important6. Frequency response principles or generalizations do not vary by medium.7. The data strongly suggest that wearout is not a function of too much frequency. It is more of a creative or copy problem.
Marketing Factors Important to Determining Frequency Brand history Brand age Brand share Brand loyalty Purchase cycles Usage cycle Competitive share of voice Target group
Message or Creative Factors Important to Determining Frequency Message complexity Message uniqueness New vs. continuing campaigns Image versus product sell Message variation
Media Factors Important to Determining Frequency Clutter Editorial environment Attentiveness Scheduling Number of media used Repeat Exposures
The Trade off between Reach & Frequency (OTS)– Reach is more important when gaining awareness for a new product– Frequency is more important when communicating product details or building Brand Attitude (needs more exposures /OPP TO SEE)
Measuring Media Audiences– Measuring Print Vehicles - Readership data • Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) gives certification to publications in Pakistan on their circulations numbers. • GALLUP and other research cos not so reliable data– Measuring Broadcast vehicles – viewership / listnership data • People meter for TV
Media Vehicle Source EffectExposure impact can vary by media vehicle and media class even when audience is the same– The differential impact is caused by – • Editorial environment – unbaisedness, expertness, prestige, mood created • Audience involvement • Physical reproduction– Copy approaches must vary by vehicle to gather media source effect
Media Option DecisionsMedia planner decides the unit of advertising • Advertising size – more impact rather than proportionate increase in readership • Colour – adds 50% more readership • Advertising location – the end or beginning of string of commercial do better on recall Back / inside covers do better than inside mag. pages • Copy execution – In literate societies Ads that resemble editorial are read more. In not so literate societies ads with attractive models, colors scenic beauties attract more audience.
Three Scheduling Methods Continuity Flighting Pulsing Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Scheduling and Timing Decisions– Media schedule are based on and reflect • Advertising Objectives –‘high reach’ or ‘shift in attitude’ • And how quickly Attitude is likely to decay– Scheduling strategies detail the media strategy • Flighting – alternating bursts with periods of inactivity Long purchase cycle products – when wear-in and wear out is slow – high peaks of recall are required • Pulsing – continuous base level advtg. augmented by intermittent bursts Frequently purchased products – when decay is fast – continuous levels of high recall are not needed • Continuous or Even – limited advertising spread out evenly – Frequently purchased services and products – quick decay, high levels of recall are not needed
Media Buying– Buying media units - space / time can be through • The AOR (agency of record) • APNS Accredition • PBA Accredition– Rates are negotiable depending on the supply and demand– Rates vary with specificity of the spot / position