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Lucerne animal fodder Aamir Ali

All about lucerne

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Lucerne animal fodder Aamir Ali

  1. 1. LUCERNE (Animal fodder) AAMIR ALI Roll no.12 1
  2. 2. Introduction  Scientific name: Medicago sativa  Common name: In Arab known as alfalfa In Europe called as Lucerne  Belongs to Leguminosae family  Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region  It is called as “Queen of forage crops” WHILE “King of fodder crops” is berseem 2 Lucerne
  3. 3. General Characteristics  Perennial forage  Nitrogen-fixer  Highly palatable  Digestible and nutritious  Lucerne probably the world’s best fodder  Extremely drought tolerant  Fast growing (can be cut after 30 days of 1st cutting)  Frost tolerant  Susceptible to a range of pests and diseases  Rabi fodder crop(sown in winter, October to November) 3
  4. 4. Morphological description:  Long softly-hairy/serrated leaves (saw tooth)  Leafy branches  Leaves dull Leaves are trifoliate, with obovate leaflets, 10-45 mm long and 3-10 mm broad.  Petiole up to 2 cm long  Stipules minute 4
  5. 5. 5 Trifoliate Petiole
  6. 6. Plants –  An erect  2-3 ft tall  Multi-branched perennial plant with a very deep tap root  Plants develop a woody crown at ground level  Stems rising from the crown to around 1 m height. Flowers –  Flower blue but can purple or yellow  Flowers are a typical pea shape 12 – 15 mm long  Develop in dense clusters of 20 – 30 flowers at the tips of the branches 6
  7. 7. Distribution:7  Alfalfa originated from the Mediterranean basin and southwest Asia (Iran, Afghanistan) and was one of the first forage crops to be domesticated  Due to its variable genetic base, alfalfa has good adaptability to different environmental conditions.  Optimal growth conditions are 25°C average day-temperatures and 600 to 1200 mm annual rainfall.  It grows best on deep, well-drained, sandy to fertile loamy soils, with 6.5- 7.5 soil pH.  Deep loamy soils rich in phosphorus, calcium and potash are very good for Lucerne crop.  It tolerates short spell of drought.
  8. 8. Alfalfa has a deep root that reaches down to 4 m, but can reach 7-9 m in well drained soils.. Hence this plant tends to bring up the minerals from the soil that is not usually available at the surface. 8
  9. 9. Sowing  Sowing the seeds at proper time, rate and method increases the yield 1. Time of sowing:  The optimum time of sowing of Lucerne is from 1st week , of October to middle of November  However, middle of October is the best time for sowing Lucerne. 2. Seed rate:  In case of broadcasting, 20-25 kg per hectare of seed should be sown  while for line sowing 12-15 kg per hectare is sufficient. 3. Sowing method:  Sowing of Lucerne can be done either by broadcast or by line sowing. 9
  10. 10. FlowerTrifoliate Lucerne Field 10
  11. 11. Varieties:  Vernal (cultivars) used in past a variety of a plant developed from a natural species and maintained under cultivation  There are now more than 30 varieties of Lucerne available.  These varieties have a wide range of pest and disease resistances and growth patterns Two types are used 1) Dormant (growth reduced in winter due to low temp/shorter days) 2) Non-dormant (grow through the winter, named as Winter active)  M. falcata a wild variety of alfalfa that naturally hybridizes with M. sativa to produce Sand Lucerne  This species may bear either the purple flowers or yellow 11
  12. 12. Yield:  Perennial forage and lasts for many years  In Pakistan, (total production) 3978601 t/144984 h (2010)NARC  On average ,in six cuts per year,  Punjab 35-40t/h  Sindh 15-20t/h  NWFP 15-20t/h  Balochistan 25-30t/h 12 First cut after 3 month of sowing.(March) Later cuts after interval of 5-6 weeks.
  13. 13. Top Producing Areas:  The world wide production was around 500+ million tonnes in 2010  Produced in Punjab,Balochistan  US, Canada, Argentina,  Australia, South africa and in Middle east  Upper Midwestern states account for about;  50% production in US  10% Northeastern  40%in Western states 13
  14. 14. (On DM basis)14 CP 19% DM 23-35% Ca+ 1.3 g/Kg P+ 0.3g/Kg CHO 11% TDN 65.8% Ash 8% CF 29.6% Fat 8.5% NDF < 42% Minerals 8% Fiber 30%
  15. 15. Effect of cut number & harvesting conditions:15
  16. 16. Alfalfa hay  The high content of structural fiber in alfalfa hay fiber that is rapidly digested by rumen microbia is particularly valuable in ruminants because it enhances DM intake.  Alfalfa fiber helps to prevent acidosis due to its intrinsic buffering effect and to the stimulation of ruminative chewing and salivation which results in rumen buffering. Alfalfa hay may be finely chopped, or coarse with long fiber. 16
  17. 17. Silage  Silage is a good conservation method even in harsh conditions. Since alfalfa has a low carbohydrate content it has to be supplemented with carbon sources, such as ground cereal grains like wheat or barley, and inoculated to start fermentation.  Alfalfa silages can be made using fresh alfalfa or pre-wilted alfalfa. The crop should be at 50-70 % moisture before ensiling to prevent nutrient leaching 17
  18. 18. With regards to the nutritional properties and information of Alfalfa this plant is rich in such as A, C, B1, B6, E and K It is also rich in proteins, calcium, carotene, zinc, iron and potassium. 18 The sun-dried hay of alfalfa (also known as Lucerne) has been found to be a source of vitamin D.
  19. 19. Uses/applications: As a multi-purpose fodder;  As a high quality fodder  Palatable fodder  Lucerne meal is used for livestock and poultry As an ornamental Windbreak Fuel-wood Biogas 19
  20. 20. Called the "Queen of forages" in the USA, alfalfa has an outstanding protein content and a well-balanced amino acids profile for ruminants that compares favourably that of soybean. Alfalfa yields more protein per unit area than soybean. Alfalfa provides higher amounts of minerals (mainly calcium, but also magnesium, potassium, sulfur, iron, cobalt, manganese, and zinc) and vitamins (beta-carotene) than other fodders. Beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, plays a major role in animal reproductive performances and it is also important for vision, growth and skin health . The energy content of alfalfa, though slightly lower than that of certain grasses, should not underestimated 20
  21. 21. Precautions/ Side Effects/ Warnings Bloat: • Grazed or fresh alfalfa at vegetative or mid-bud stage may cause bloat sheep and cattle. This problem may be alleviated by restricting access alfalfa or by feeding sheep and cattle before they come into the sward Photosensitization: • Cases of photosensitization have been reported in cattle and sheep. In male sheep, it can result in pizzle rot and enterotoxaemia. 21
  22. 22. Side effects • Saponins • Phytoestrogens 22
  23. 23. Cont…. Saponins: • Saponin content in alfalfa forage may have adverse haemolytic effects on livestock and reduce growth and egg-production in poultry. However, it also gives the plant resistance to pests 23 Phytoestrogens: • Alfalfa contains phytoestrogens that are reported to reduce conception rates in cattle and sheep fed alfalfa prior to mating. The estrogen content varies among genotypes, but may increase in leaves due to attacks of parasites and fungi that are often prevalent in the autumn.
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  • AamirAli129

    Dec. 24, 2016
  • MatthewNair

    Dec. 25, 2016
  • AdulRandhawa

    Apr. 2, 2017

All about lucerne

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