Federal Government IT Strategy Michael Lang January 8, 2007
Background <ul><li>I founded Metamatrix eight years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government became our largest cu...
Agenda <ul><li>Federal IT Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Net Centric Enterpr...
Federal IT Investment <ul><li>Your Federal Government is doing billions of dollars of R&D in the IT area </li></ul><ul><ul...
Federal IT Communities <ul><li>There are three distinct communities in the Federal IT space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellig...
Intelligence <ul><li>Pre 9-11 systems were all secure silos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing was avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Intelligence <ul><li>An Executive Order mandating information sharing across the intelligence community was issued right a...
Department of Defense <ul><li>Mission changed with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the arrival of Don Rumsfeld </li><...
Department of Defense <ul><li>Move to SOA is well under way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data being exposed as services </li></ul...
Civilian <ul><li>Mission changed with the arrival of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive order creates eGov initi...
FEA and NCES Federal Enterprise Architecture And Net Centric Enterprise Services
Overarching Programs <ul><li>There are two long running, overarching IT initiatives whose goal is to re-engineer the feder...
FEA <ul><li>This program began in 2002 as a result of an executive order from the White House that created the eGov initia...
Architecture Principles FEAPMO <ul><li>Motherhood and Apple Pie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government focuses on ci...
FEA Reference Models
FEA Current State <ul><li>Even though there are budgetary enforcement procedures mandating agencies to begin implementatio...
Data Reference Model <ul><li>I spent two years working on the DRM, it is the most troublesome layer of the stack </li></ul...
NCES <ul><li>Net Centric Enterprise Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCES started at about the same time as FEA, but is an i...
NCES Mission <ul><li>NCES will enable the secure, agile, robust, dependable, interoperable data-sharing environment for DO...
NCES Mission <ul><li>NCES represents a different approach to building and fielding DOD Information Systems </li></ul><ul><...
NCES Current State <ul><li>Service Oriented Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the infrastructure is in place </li></...
NCES Current Bottleneck <ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as the number of services proliferate </li>...
Domain Vocabularies <ul><li>Early efforts used XML Schema and ER diagrams to define the domain “data model” </li></ul><ul>...
Communities of Interest <ul><li>Communities of Interest form to create domain vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of th...
Use of Vocabularies <ul><li>Permit humans express their concepts in a machine readable language </li></ul><ul><li>Enable m...
Semantics <ul><li>Most programs have moved to OWL for defining domain vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.opengr...
Semantic Technology Standards OWL   Ontology W3C Semantic Technology Standards
Solving Data Relationships  (Related) <ul><li>Why Ontologies are so important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An ontology is an ab...
MBI’s SOA-Enabled DoDIIS Data Layer   <ul><li>Use Ontology to semantically match elements across disparate sources </li></...
Government Leads the Way <ul><li>Semantic technology </li></ul><ul><li>The government last led the charge with relational ...
Conclusions <ul><li>Bottom up architectural approach works better than top down </li></ul><ul><li>Communities will form an...
Conclusions <ul><li>For transactional systems, data is being represented by XML and exposed as services (WSDL) in an SOA <...
Thank You Michael Lang [email_address]
Discovering and Binding Services Mapping Vocabularies A & B Vocabulary A Vocabulary B “ same as” or “ same class as” Mappi...
Using Service Responses KNOWN FACTS RDF Content RDF Content RDF Content RDF Content from all Responses XML Messages (in RD...
Vocabularies (OWL) Composed at design-time “ Semantic Interpreter” or “ Semantic Message Translator” Small wrapper around ...
Single Vocabulary/Dictionary Composite(s) Fields Valid Entries Unit Identification Code Sequential Location Number Nationa...
Enterprise Vocabulary/Dictionary USMTF  Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries Link 16  Vocabulary VMF  Vocabulary Fie...
Logical (Relationship) View <ul><li>Reference Model for naming conventions, data-typing conventions, and business componen...
Info Exchanges/Use Cases USMTF  Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries Link 16  Vocabulary VMF  Vocabulary Enterprise ...
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  • The FEA, through its support of the Presidential E-Government initiatives, Lines of Business (LoBs) and other cross-agency efforts, is a key component of the citizen-focused transformation of government. It’s a strategic model to improve federal investment management and facilitate government-wide information sharing. Development of five (5) FEA reference models established a common language for diverse agencies to use while seeking to collaborate on common solutions for services. They define the terminology and identify the relationships. Going down the “line of sight” through the reference models: Determine the performance level to be achieved Identify the business processes and functions required to achieve the desired level of performance Identify the information and services required to support the business processes and functions required to achieve the desired performance. Implement the technology to enable the services to provide the information to support the business processes and function to achieve the desired level of performance.
  • Actual data is for example purposes only (from USMTF ATO) Note that enumeration values are integral to the vocabulary sources (i.e., transformations will need to address enumeration comparisons) Still haven’t defined all of the other Metadata, although USMTF has schema set WITH DOCUMENTATION which adds many descriptions and definitions. What are the valid transformation options? Just SQL or can functions such as multiply, add, etc. be included? What is the best method for capturing/viewing/maintaining/reporting these vocabulary sources?
  • Transformations &amp; Relationships between vocabularies must be configuration manageable and easily maintained. Transformations must also be traceable into the virtual views (use cases) How can MetaMatrix capture this view/information -- Can this be maintained within a logical view? If so, can logical views be used to generate the virtual model use cases? Is this best captured via Mapping Classes? Will mapping classes contain all of the other metadata properties?
  • Slide words are derived from MetaMatrix Intro training slide 15. Slide 7 from MetaMatrix Intro training says logical model can come from XML Schemas Example diagram is from TST COI – considered a Entity Relationship Logical Model How is this done in MetaMatrix???? – Green Models??
  • Harmonized Standard Views: Able to draw information from across all communities Previous transformations must track back to virtual models Will require web service, server, and physical sources to implement (horizontal integration option 2 – web services pilot)
  • Presentation

    1. 1. Federal Government IT Strategy Michael Lang January 8, 2007
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>I founded Metamatrix eight years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government became our largest customer by accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have worked with dozens of federal IT programs and with dozens of integrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly interested in information management and systems architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now concentrating on semantic technology </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Federal IT Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Net Centric Enterprise Services </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Technology </li></ul>
    4. 4. Federal IT Investment <ul><li>Your Federal Government is doing billions of dollars of R&D in the IT area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are hundreds of IT programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orion – NASA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trailblazer, Groundbreaker – Ft Meade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TTIC, US Visit – DHS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentinel, NDEX, RDEX – DOJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DLA IDE, GCSS, GCCS - DOD </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Federal IT Communities <ul><li>There are three distinct communities in the Federal IT space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looks a little like financial service firms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looks most like commercial enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All three have very different use cases and agendas </li></ul>
    6. 6. Intelligence <ul><li>Pre 9-11 systems were all secure silos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing was avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security was paramount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of custom code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair mix of structured and unstructured information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use case is “analysis” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Intelligence <ul><li>An Executive Order mandating information sharing across the intelligence community was issued right after 9-11. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sharing is now paramount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata management is key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical data models for each domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is being exposed as services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress is very slow because of security concerns </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Department of Defense <ul><li>Mission changed with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the arrival of Don Rumsfeld </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much nimbler warfighter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller missions, faster response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires better co-ordination between military branches and commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely client server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly structured information </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Department of Defense <ul><li>Move to SOA is well under way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data being exposed as services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registries and repositories proliferate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many domain data models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many, many efforts under way to achieve greater degrees of interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw spaghetti at the wall and see what sticks </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Civilian <ul><li>Mission changed with the arrival of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive order creates eGov initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen centric services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sense of urgency here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively small budgets </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. FEA and NCES Federal Enterprise Architecture And Net Centric Enterprise Services
    12. 12. Overarching Programs <ul><li>There are two long running, overarching IT initiatives whose goal is to re-engineer the federal government IT infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA, Federal Enterprise Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by OMB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCES, Net Centric Enterprise Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by DOD, DISA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom up </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. FEA <ul><li>This program began in 2002 as a result of an executive order from the White House that created the eGov initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To transform the Federal government to one that is citizen-centered, results-oriented, and market-based, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is developing the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), a business-based framework for government-wide improvement.” </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Architecture Principles FEAPMO <ul><li>Motherhood and Apple Pie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government focuses on citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government is a single, unified enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal agencies collaborate with other governments and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is a national asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal architecture is mission-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security, privacy and protecting information are core government needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal architecture simplifies government operations </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. FEA Reference Models
    16. 16. FEA Current State <ul><li>Even though there are budgetary enforcement procedures mandating agencies to begin implementation of the FEA, they are largely ignored </li></ul><ul><li>The root of the problem is that the architecture does not hang together and the prospective users know it </li></ul><ul><li>The DRM is not credible </li></ul>
    17. 17. Data Reference Model <ul><li>I spent two years working on the DRM, it is the most troublesome layer of the stack </li></ul><ul><li>The DRM provides a standard means by which data may be described, categorized, and shared. These are reflected within each of the DRM’s three standardization areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Description: Provides a means to uniformly describe data, thereby supporting its discovery and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Context: Facilitates discovery of data through an approach to the categorization of data according to taxonomies; additionally, enables the definition of authoritative data assets within a community of interest (COI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Sharing: Supports the access and exchange of data where access consists of ad-hoc requests (such as a query of a data asset), and exchange consists of fixed, re-occurring transactions between parties </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. NCES <ul><li>Net Centric Enterprise Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCES started at about the same time as FEA, but is an initiative out of DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency) the CTO office of DOD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCES does not pay much attention to FEA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global Information Grid – GIG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the physical networks and other hardware </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. NCES Mission <ul><li>NCES will enable the secure, agile, robust, dependable, interoperable data-sharing environment for DOD where warfighter, business, and intelligence users share knowledge on a global network. This, in turn, facilitates information superiority, accelerates decision-making, effective operations and net-centric transformation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enable successful conduct of warfare and other operations in the Information Age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make information available on a network that people can depend upon and trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populate the DOD networks with new, dynamic sources of information to defeat the enemy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sounds a lot like any commercial enterprise mission statement </li></ul>
    20. 20. NCES Mission <ul><li>NCES represents a different approach to building and fielding DOD Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market-based approach, recognizing that a user's information technology (IT) needs are dynamic and are rarely satisfied by systems built with a set of pre-determined user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users themselves are best able to define their requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NCES approach is DOD-wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It offers unprecedented access to information from global sources while leveraging existing IT investments </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. NCES Current State <ul><li>Service Oriented Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the infrastructure is in place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata catalogs/repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for converting relational to XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for creating and publishing services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schemas describing domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of service software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security software and hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. NCES Current Bottleneck <ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as the number of services proliferate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of silos proliferate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are more granular but still hard to use and manage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulled a lot of the funding from programs that are creating “services” </li></ul><ul><li>Funding a lot of pilot projects to solve interoperability </li></ul>
    23. 23. Domain Vocabularies <ul><li>Early efforts used XML Schema and ER diagrams to define the domain “data model” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Justice XSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Information Exchange Model – NIEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command and Control – C2IEDM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not extensible, not semantic </li></ul><ul><li>No connection between the businessperson and the data </li></ul>
    24. 24. Communities of Interest <ul><li>Communities of Interest form to create domain vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the terms in a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data dictionary, logical model, schema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What they mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they are related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Domain vocabulary is the interoperability master key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All data elements in all systems are mapped to terms in the domain vocabularies </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Use of Vocabularies <ul><li>Permit humans express their concepts in a machine readable language </li></ul><ul><li>Enable machines to perform the data translation and transformation required by data integration </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabularies are the essential underpins to sharing data or system interoperability that requires “dynamic links” among unknown, unlimited numbers of data sources </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to all semantic technologies, including semantic search </li></ul>
    26. 26. Semantics <ul><li>Most programs have moved to OWL for defining domain vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.opengroup.org/projects/soa-ontology/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://osera.gov/web/guest/projects/fea-rmo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and extensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally distributed, URI and URLs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best design-time metadata representation model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine readable at runtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions at the scale of the WWW </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Semantic Technology Standards OWL Ontology W3C Semantic Technology Standards
    28. 28. Solving Data Relationships (Related) <ul><li>Why Ontologies are so important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An ontology is an abstract representation of concepts and their relationships that enables deductive and inferential reasoning upon itself.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are uniquely capable of creating relationships, otherwise impossible to identify on a mass scale, that explicitly reason for all relationships. </li></ul></ul>Graph-Based Approach Term 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Term Semantic “cluster”
    29. 29. MBI’s SOA-Enabled DoDIIS Data Layer <ul><li>Use Ontology to semantically match elements across disparate sources </li></ul><ul><li>Build virtual layer </li></ul><ul><li>Service enable data layer </li></ul>
    30. 30. Government Leads the Way <ul><li>Semantic technology </li></ul><ul><li>The government last led the charge with relational database technology and IP networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DARPA funded the R&D for RDBMS for 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And then became the early adopter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DARPA created OWL (DAML+OIL) eight years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous projects funded to employ semantic technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just making it into operational systems </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>Bottom up architectural approach works better than top down </li></ul><ul><li>Communities will form and participate in the construction of the system especially the domain vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>The effort should and can include business people, technology people and data people </li></ul>
    32. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>For transactional systems, data is being represented by XML and exposed as services (WSDL) in an SOA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain vocabulary is being described in OWL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For analysis, data is being represented as RDF and queried using SPARQL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ontology is the integration layer </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Thank You Michael Lang [email_address]
    34. 34. Discovering and Binding Services Mapping Vocabularies A & B Vocabulary A Vocabulary B “ same as” or “ same class as” Mapping Vocabulary generate generate describe the RDF describe the RDF Describe the structure (elements & attributes) Describe the structure (elements & attributes) XSD XSD XML Messages (in RDF XML) XML Messages (in RDF XML) WSDL WSDL reference reference describe describe You can have one or more of these Web Services Web Services
    35. 35. Using Service Responses KNOWN FACTS RDF Content RDF Content RDF Content RDF Content from all Responses XML Messages (in RDF XML) Web Services extract extract extract combine combine combine
    36. 36. Vocabularies (OWL) Composed at design-time “ Semantic Interpreter” or “ Semantic Message Translator” Small wrapper around Jena submit produce QUERY (SPARQL) KNOWN FACTS NEXT SERVICE REQUEST MESSAGE Designed to obtain desired message for next service call Composed from previous messages in a SOA transaction plus assertions (facts) obtained from other sources
    37. 37. Single Vocabulary/Dictionary Composite(s) Fields Valid Entries Unit Identification Code Sequential Location Number Nationality:string(2) - enumeration value=&quot;AF&quot; - enumeration value=&quot;AL&quot; - enumeration value=&quot;AG&quot; - enumeration value=&quot;AQ&quot; - enumeration value=&quot;AN&quot; … Armed Service:string(1) - enumeration value=&quot;F&quot;/> - enumeration value=&quot;A&quot;/> - enumeration value=&quot;C&quot;/> - enumeration value=&quot;B&quot;/> - enumeration value=&quot;J&quot;/> … Sequential Location Number:integer - min value=&quot;0000&quot; - max value=&quot;999999&quot; - pattern value=&quot;[0-9]{4,6}&quot; Nationality Armed Service + Other Metadata
    38. 38. Enterprise Vocabulary/Dictionary USMTF Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries Link 16 Vocabulary VMF Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries Fields Composites Valid Entries Enterprise Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries B D A A T T T
    39. 39. Logical (Relationship) View <ul><li>Reference Model for naming conventions, data-typing conventions, and business component structure </li></ul><ul><li>Purely Conceptual -- Represents abstract view of data relationships within a vocabulary (cannot be queried from data) </li></ul><ul><li>Improves ability to manage change and support new virtual models more quickly </li></ul>
    40. 40. Info Exchanges/Use Cases USMTF Vocabulary Fields Composites Valid Entries Link 16 Vocabulary VMF Vocabulary Enterprise Vocabulary Sets Messages Web Services A B D A Fields Composites Valid Entries Fields Composites Valid Entries Fields Composites Valid Entries Community Specific Harmonized Standard Views Specific Information Exchanges (Messages/Virtual Models)

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