Technical architecture refers to the structured process of designing and building software architecture, with focus on interaction with software and hardware developers. Technical architecture is a part of software architecture, which focuses on how to deal with certain aspects of the software engineering process. It allows us to design better systems by: Meeting system requirements and objectives: Both functional and non-functional requirements can be prioritized as &quot;must have&quot;, &quot;should have&quot; or &quot;want&quot;, where &quot;must have&quot; identifies properties that the system must have in order to be acceptable. An architecture allows us to evaluate and make tradeoffs among requirements of differing priority. Though system qualities (also known as non-functional requirements) can be compromised later in the development process, many will not be met if not explicitly taken into account at the architectural level. Enabling flexible partitioning of the system: A good architecture enables flexible distribution of the system by allowing the system and its constituent applications to be partitioned among processors in many different ways without having to redesign the distributable component parts. This requires careful attention to the distribution potential of components early in the architectural design process. Reducing cost of maintenance and evolution: Architecture can help minimize the costs of maintaining and evolving a given system over its entire lifetime by anticipating the main kinds of changes that will occur in the system, ensuring that the system's overall design will facilitate such changes, and localizing as far as possible the effects of such changes on design documents, code, and other system work products. This can be achieved by the minimization and control of subsystem interdependencies. Increasing reuse and integration with legacy and third party software: An architecture may be designed to enable and facilitate the (re)use of certain existing components, frameworks, class libraries, legacy or third-party applications, etc..
CLASSROOM OPENER Top Ten Data Failure Stories 10. PhD Almost an F -- A PhD candidate lost his entire dissertation when a bad power supply suddenly zapped his computer and damaged the USB Flash drive that stored the document. Had the data not been recovered, the student would not have graduated. 9. Suffering from Art -- While rearranging her home office, a woman accidentally dropped a five pound piece of clay pottery on her laptop, directly onto the hard drive area that contained a book she'd been working on for five years and 150 year-old genealogy pictures that had not yet been printed. 8. Domestic Dilemma -- A husband deleted all of his child's baby pictures when he accidentally hit the wrong button on his computer. His wife hinted at divorce if he did not get the pictures back. 7. Bite Worse than Bark -- A customer left his memory stick lying out and his dog mistook it for a chew toy. 6. Don't Try this at Home -- A man attempting to recover data from his computer on his own found the job too challenging mid-way through and ended up sending Ontrack his completely disassembled drive -- with each of its parts in a separate baggie. 5. Out of Time -- A clockmaker suffered a system meltdown, losing the digital designs for all of its clocks. Ontrack literally beat the clock recovering all their data just in time for an important international tradeshow. 4. Drilling for Data -- During a multi-drive RAID recovery, engineers discovered one drive belonging in the set was missing. The customer found the missing drive in a dumpster, but in compliance with company policy for disposing of old drives, it had a hole drilled through it. 3. Safe at Home -- After one of their executives experienced a laptop crash, the Minnesota Twins professional baseball team called on Ontrack to rescue crucial scouting information about their latest prospects. The team now relies on Ontrack for all data recoveries within its scouting and coaching ranks. 2. Hardware Problems -- A frustrated writer attacked her computer with a hammer. When the engineers received the computer, the hammer imprint was clearly visible on the top cover. 1. La Cucaracha -- In hopes of rescuing valuable company information, a customer pulled an old laptop out of a warehouse where it had been sitting unused for 10 years. When engineers opened the computer, it contained hundreds of husks of dead and decaying cockroaches.
Enterprise architecture Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured Infrastructure architecture includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provide the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals Application architecture determines how applications integrate and relate to each other
A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be re-created, and the BI lost from that data can be tremendous Chief information officers should have enough confidence that they could walk around and randomly pull out cables to prove that the systems are safe. The CIO should also be secure enough to perform this test during peak business hours. If the thought of this test makes the CIO cringe then the organization's customers should also cringe. Fault tolerance - a computer system designed that in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service Failover - a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server, network, or database) is assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time. CLASSROOM EXERCISE Backup and Recovery Ask your students to answer the following questions: Do you have a backup strategy for your computer? How often do you backup? What do you backup? What type of format do you use for your backup? Where do you save the backup? How long do you save the backup? Now ask your students that if you stole their computer or spilled a hot cup of coffee on their computer right now how much information would they lose? Encourage your students to create a backup strategy.
Organizations should choose a backup and recovery strategy that is in line with its business goals. If the organization deals with large volumes of critical information, it will require daily backups, perhaps even hourly backups, to storage servers. If the organization deals with small amounts of noncritical information, then it might require only weekly backups to tapes, CDs, or DVDs. Deciding how often to back up information and what media to use is a critical business decision. If an organization decides to back up on a weekly basis, then it is taking the risk that, if a total system crash occurs, it could lose a week’s worth of work. If this risk is acceptable, then a weekly backup strategy will work. If this risk is unacceptable, then the organization needs to move to a daily backup strategy. Some organizations find the risk of losing a day’s worth of work too high and move to an hourly backup strategy.
Hurricanes, floods, fires, and many other types of natural disasters can have devastating effects on businesses One of the most common types of hardware failures occurs from rats, mice, and squirrels chewing on cords, cables, and devices Hot site - a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business Cold site - a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after a disaster
Explain to your students that the optimal recovery plan in terms of costs and time is where the two lines intersect
Passwords may still be the weakest link in the security chain. There is little doubt that security is a top priority for business managers, regardless of the size of their company. Among Fortune 500 companies, more than 80 percent of those surveyed described updating security procedures, tools, and services as a key business priority. That desire holds true for small, midsize, or large companies and for IT managers and corporate managers.
These are commonly known as the ilities Flexibility – a flexible system is designed to include the ability to handle multiple currencies and languages, even if the company is not yet operating abroad Scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands Capacity planning determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information Availability (an efficiency IT metric) addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners High availability refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time Performance measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
Events and services are the key elements of Web services
Can you name any open systems? Linux Mozilla Firefox
BUSINESS PLUG-IN 4 IT ARCHITECTURES CIS 429: Business Information Systems
ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Enterprise architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architect (EA) - a person who is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grounded in ____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluent in business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a patient diplomat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an important bridge between IT and the business </li></ul></ul>
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE: Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exact ________ of a system’s information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he ability to get a system up and running </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techniques used for backup and recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault _________: The ability to respond gracefully to an unexpected hardware or software failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failover: A backup operation that automatically switches to a standby if the primary system fails. </li></ul></ul>
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE: Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery best practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind the enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the quality of computer _________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up disaster recovery plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate staff _________ so that operators are aware of any IT-related problems </li></ul></ul>
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE: Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a disaster such as a fire or flood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot site—a separate fully-equipped facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold site—a separate facility without computer equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery cost _______ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time </li></ul></ul>
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE: Information Security <ul><li>A good information architecture includes a strong information security plan.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing user access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-to-date _________ software and patches </li></ul></ul>
INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Infrastructure architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hardware, software, and _________________ equipment that support the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility—can handle all types of business changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability—adapting to increasing demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability—functioning properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability—high degree of _________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance—________ at performing processes </li></ul></ul>
APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Application architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent techniques: </li></ul>
Web Services <ul><li>Web service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML , SOAP , WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events—Conditions that signal threats and opportunities, and alert those who can act on the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service--_________ software products that appeal to a broad audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of software and hardware on different machines from different vendors to share data. </li></ul></ul>
Open Systems <ul><li>Nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by standards and procedures that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow systems to seamlessly share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalize on enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate ___________ systems and promote competitive pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Office </li></ul></ul>